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(Authors collection) 






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OLD JAPAX is now so common an expression that one may easily forget 
how short a period of time, barely two score years, separates us from the 
era of two-sworded warriors, whose legends and popular beliefs are fast 
becoming forgotten, hidden or eradicated by the influence of Western 

Legends and customs are, however, happily recorded in an enduring 
manner in many of the articles of attire, or daily use, the exquisite 
workmanship of which endears them to collectors of Japanese Works of 
Art. Netsuke, Inro, Tsuba, Prints, etc., embody in their decoration a host 
of subjects, the elucidation of which forms one of the chief difficulties, 
and perhaps also one of the greatest attractions of Japanese collecting. 

The author has for a number of years given his attention to Japanese 
Objets d'art, illustrating folk-lore or historical episodes, carefully noting all 
the information he could gather respecting them. This work, undertaken as 
a labour of love and for private reference, w r as illustrated with sketches, 
stray leaves from books, and photographs from his own specimens. A 
special study of Japanese illustrated books helped to enlarge the scope of 
this note book, opening a fascinating field of research which seemed only 
to grow wider as the author's knowledge increased. 

Japanese friends and other collectors, who in many cases had them- 
selves followed a similar plan, finally impressed upon the author the 



desirability of publishing his bulky compilation. Although this suggestion 
was at first brushed aside, for the author was conscious of many deficiencies, 
it was finally decided to edit these notes iVun cuvieux, and to offer them 
to the Japonists, in the hope that they might prove useful. This is 
briefly the genesis of the present volume. 

The Western World from which Old Japan kept aloof for so many 
centuries, was almost taken by surprise, when in 1868, the drastic changes 
following the restoration of Meiji, led the Japanese to part with the bulk 
of their arms, armour, and smaller objects of attire, which were as rapidly 
secured by European and American curio hunters. For it must be 
admitted that at the very beginning collectors of Japanese works of art 
looked upon them more as curios, interesting for their quaint or 
humorous side, and for the perfection of their most minute details than 
from any other point of view. Collections were made, chiefly composed 
of pretty pieces, the style of which was in its mignavdise almost on 
a level with the attractive graces of European eighteenth century work ; 
and to the influence of this taste is probably due the weakness of 
the modern Japanese work with which the market is now flooded. 

It should be remembered that with the exception of paintings and 
prints, the chief objects of interest, Netsuke, Inro, and sword fittings, were 
articles of use, and that the owners when parting with them for a 
monetary consideration probably first discarded the pieces of later date, 
which were least prized because of their involved design and showy 
decoration in precious metals, although this very richness of material 
was a sure passport to the heart of the Western collector. To some extent 
this explains why the older pieces, broader in treatment, truer to Japanese 
taste in their simplicity, and above all, in the adaptation of the design to 
the nature of the object ornamented and the use to which it was to be 
put, were not for some time found in European collections. Now, however, 
a keener appreciation of the real beauties to be found in the older speci- 
mens of Japanese art prevails, and there is a marked tendency to collect 
archaic pieces, almost purely for the sake of their antiquity. 

The general survey of Japanese Art has been the aim of a large 



number of writers, and although the orginal sources are scarce, and too 
often inadequate, it is to be hoped that the various sections of this wide 
study will some day be fully dealt with in exhaustive monographs. 

Collectors and lovers of Japanese Ob jets d'art, even when they specialise 
in the selection of their treasures, even when they prefer the purely orna- 
mental designs, all confess to the attraction exerted upon them by the 
subjects depicted, the symbolism of the composition, the hidden meaning 
of some scene. Few collectors can however be found, who have not 
sometimes had cause to bewail their inability to understand the artist's 
intention, or to name the personages represented. The vastness of the 
field embraced is really the best excuse for our limited knowledge ; scenes 
from the everyday life of the people, Shintoist or Buddhistic symbolism, 
episodes from the life of Chinese poets, or Japanese warriors, battle scenes 
from the history of both Japan and China, heroes of romance, fairy-lore, 
or theatrical plays, mythical animals, jostling sages and magicians of 
Taoist fame, all contribute to form an almost inexhaustible store of sub- 
jects, treated by the artist or the craftsman with such powerful realism, 
or such suggestive simplicity as to command the interebt, admiration, or 
even envy of collectors and dilletanti all over the world. 

Although Japan owes to the introduction of Buddhism and the adoption 
of Chinese ideograms and culture the partial loss of its ancient language 
and history, and the prevalence of subjects of Chinese origin in its Art; 
yet it is also to Buddhism that its glyptic and pictorial Art owe their 
development, if not their very origin. The endless reproduction in carvings 
or paintings of the Buddha and his disciples, led the artists to turn their 
attention to the episodes of secular and military life ; from the chasing 
of sacred invocations and holy figures upon weapons and armour to which 
they long confined themselves, to the utilisation of floral ornament and 
decorative compositions of a non-religious character, there was but one 
step ; but the change was a slow one, which closely followed the develop- 
ment of the pictorial arts. 

With the advent of illustrated books, the subjects more especially suited 
to artistic treatment were committed to print by artists educated in 



ancient lore, who in many cases wrote the whole text of the books, at 
the same time illustrating the legends, traditions or moral lessons which 
they recorded. Often these works were merely intended as models for 
pupils to follow, and were devoted to the exposition of Chinese 
methods of painting, directions being given for the proper colouring of 
the copies. In most cases an explanatory text was added, sometimes 
consisting of but a few words, more often covering many pages, when the 
illustration becomes a mere accessory, as for instance in Elton Hokan (1688) 
of Hasegawa Toun. These illustrated books became from 1670 onwards, 
more and more numerous, and at the end of the eighteenth century we 
find that works entitled: "Models for Craftsmen," "Designs for Carvers, 
Laquerers, etc.," are fairly common. 

To Tachibana Morikuni, in the early years of the eighteenth century 
belongs the largest share of this literature ; almost every subject came 
within his ken, some fifty volumes of Chinese history and legend, a popular 
encyclopaedia for the education of children, volumes on trees, plants, animals, 
rocks, follow upon pages devoted to weapons, armour, domestic utensils, 
and popular customs, with a wealth of detail, an accuracy of drawing, 
an absence of repetition which fill one with wonder. Some of Morikuni's 
works are more than mere illustrated books : quoting as he often did his 
sources of information amongst earlier works, he has left a survey of 
Oriental bibliography of real value to the student. Perhaps the appreciation 
of Morikuni's work has been minimized by the interest evinced in the 
gigantic production of Hokusai, who did for the artisan of the late 
eighteenth century, and his followers, what Morikuni had done for the 
previous generation. 

The development of the Ukioye school of popular colour printing, whose 
productions, even though we see in them masterpieces of drawing, colour 
and technique, were despised by the contemporary educated classes, intro- 
duced further means for the propagation of legends and traditions, the 
glorification of the heroes and the dissemination of the playwright's 
imaginative efforts, besides the immortalisation of actors, geishas and 
professional beauties. 


If we wish to study the themes selected by the Japanese artist, or to 
find a faithful survey of old customs, it is to these books and prints that 
we must turn for our information. Much has been done of late years in 
Japan to prevent the total loss of the old traditions and to keep the 
details and meaning of the old customs from falling entirely into oblivion ; 
but the present generation, in its thirst for Western knowledge often over- 
shoots the mark, and studiously affects ignorance of the fashions of life, 
and of the beliefs of its predecessors. The European inquirer is repeatedly 
baffled in his quest by evasive answers, which either conceal a real 
ignorance, under the cloak of contempt for old ways, or are prompted 
by a suspicion that the inquirer credits his friends with an actual 
belief in exploded superstitions. The day may yet come, however, 
when the younger generation will regret this attitude, when folk-lore 
societies will find it as difficult as they do in Europe to gather and 
interpret the scattered remnants of the ancient ways. 

In Europe, books and written documents have survived revolutions and 
catastrophes, thanks to the larger editions printed and the care bestowed 
upon their keeping ; but in Japan, earthquakes and fire wrecking the 
flimsy buildings have destroyed many books, creating a proportionately 
greater havoc, as the editions from the wood blocks were necessarily 
limited. A greater evil still was in store, in the shape of curio dealers, 
European and Japanese themselves, who used prints as packing material 
and tore the books to pieces to make fly-flappers. 

Even when books reached Europe in a fair condition they were not 
safe from the vandalism of certain persons. Editions of early illustrated 
books, the like of which will never be found again, were ruthlessly cut 
up, the text thrown away, and the illustrations mounted on cartridge paper 
and presented to the public for sale. 

It will be readily understood that the task of the seeker after enlighten- 
ment is not altogether an easy one ; old books are scarce, in fact hardly 
available outside some of the great national libraries, and it is a matter 
of congratulation that besides the compilation of the Koji Ruiyen now in 
course of publication, enterprising Japanese publishers are now reprinting 



many works, amongst which for instance are the whole of Hokusai's 
the Zenken Kojitsu of Kikuchi Yosai, and the Wakan San Sai Dzue. But 
in many cases, as with the reprints of Utamaro, and of a number of 
prints, the old colouring and details of less importance have been treated 
with unwarrantable licence. 

Not only were the designs of Morikuni, or of Hokusai for instance, 
taken as mere guides, but the artists, carvers and chasers of the eighteenth 
century, who doubtless were themselves draughtsmen of no mean merit, 
often followed slavishly the lines of the illustration. The author has 
purposely selected for reproduction, a number of specimens which show 
how strong was this influence. The prototype of a Tsuba in the author's 
collection showing CHINNAN and the dragon, is found in Morikuni's Ehon 
Shukubai ; the same applies to the unique Tsuba in the Hawkshaw 
collection, representing also Chinnan, illustrated in the Arms and Armour 
of Japan (Japan Society), and another Chinnan also in the same collection 
is taken from the Shako Bukuro ; that of CHODORIO, evoking the KARASHISHI, 
can be found in Ehon Tsuhosht, from which are also taken KWAXYU with 
the brocade bag and the TOHAKUKWA in Mr. "\Y. L. Behrens' collection ; 
the modern Tsuba showing HIKO HOHODEMI, illustrated here, is from the 
same work. 

From the Yokioku Gwashi was undoubtedly copied an inro recently 
seen by the author, representing Cheng She "\Yang Ti seeking refuge 
under a pine tree, now in the collection of Mr. Oscar C. Raphael. 

THE FUJI IN A SAKE CUP is taken almost exactly from Hokusai's 
Thirty-six views of Fuji. 

Those collectors who felt particularly attracted towards the elucidation 
of the scenes illustrated, have as a rule spent much time in obtaining 
information from their Japanese acquaintances, and stored it in note books. 
Unfortunately, much of this knowledge is hidden away, owing to an 
insufficient exchange of ideas between collectors. There are quite a number 
of amateurs whose collections, however large, are but little known and who 
in turn know little of the treasures in the possession of others. 

However, all owe a debt of gratitude to the late Dr. William Ander- 



in f.Ir. O. C. Raphael's collection 


'1'nc^ibfiua ,*foriktini 1'otcit/Ki' Givashi, /, 9-10 


son, whose Catalogue of the Japanese and Chinese Paintings in the British 
Museum forms an inexhaustible mine of information, not only upon the 
schools of painting and their representatives in the collection, but also 
upon the subjects treated by the artists. 

The wealth of erudition displayed in this work, has made it for a 
score of years the key to Japanese art motives, indispensable to those 
insufficiently acquainted with the original literature, and the vade mecum 
of every collector. Later, Mr. M. B. Huish in Japan and its Art, gave 
the Japonists a compendium which, thanks to its large number of illus- 
trations and its chapters on legends, formed a welcome introduction to 
the study of subjects. Mention must also be made of the Dictionary of 
Japanese Myths at the end of the monumental Catalogue of the Tomkinson 
Collection, and of the pioneer work of Monsieur L. E. Bertin : Les Grandes 
Gnerres Civiles du Japan (1894) r ' rn i n illustrations of legends and historical 
subjects, which its author acquired during his sojourn in Japan, gathering 
from the lips of the Doguya the tales with which he relieves the chronicle 
of the mediaeval wars. 

These works are now scarce, and in each of them the study of legends 
has been regarded as of secondary importance to the main subject of 
the book. 

In the present work, on the contrary, there is no endeavour to deal 
with Art as such, but merely with the themes illustrated, and, although 
a few articles refer to subjects not strictly to be described as legends, 
the title "Legend in Japanese Art" has been selected for the sake of 

Purely Buddhistic or Shintoist subjects are not very common in small 
works of art, with the exception of shrines, etc., which in the case 
of the common divinities can be easily named, and in that of rarer 
types require the use of special Buddhist works ; rather a large space 
has been devoted to the Sennins, because of the large number of types 
met with, whilst the Rakans have been more rapidly dealt with, as some of 
them defy all attempt at identification. 

To facilitate research a special index has been compiled under the names 



of prominent features or attributes which should lighten the task of 
finding by name most of the subjects when once the characteristic 
feature of the specimen under investigation will have been recognised. 

The Japanese index under radicals will enable the names to be found 
under their respective numbers in the text from their writing in Chinese 
characters, by referring to the first character only. 

The Bibliography covers chiefly Japanese illustrated sources, a few 
European works only being mentioned, which are of particular interest 
from the standpoint of Legend, History, and Folk-lore. 

It was considered imperative lavishly to illustrate from actual specimens, 
carefully selected from amongst the best, the stories concisely told in this 
dictionary, and thus to supply pictorial information not hitherto available. 
Tsuba and netsnke have been given the preference, owing to their wider 
distribution, and because they lend themselves more readily to full size 

The number of subjects treated in small objects is so large that no 
collection can be found covering the whole field in an altogether satis- 
factory manner ; it is, in fact, questionable whether such a collection could 
now be made. A number of collectors however, have attempted to get 
together representative series of the legends and historical episodes, and 
of pieces illustrating the life of the people. Amongst su<*h must be 
mentioned the Franks collections of Netsnke now in the British Museum, 
which shows the results of a systematic search for subjects. But the 
private collections are by far the richest in illustrations of this type, and 
it is chiefly due to the kindness of private collectors that the author 
is able to present a comprehensive series of illustrations of the most 
interesting subjects now published for the first time. It is his pleasant 
duty to acknowledge the valuable help afforded him by all collectors to 
whom he applied for permission to select and photograph specimen from 
their cabinets. He is chiefly indebted to Mr. Walter L. Behrens, of 
Manchester, whose selection of Netsnke especially, contains an extra- 
ordinarily large number of rare subjects ; to Mr. H. Seymour Trower, 
one of the earliest Japanese collectors in England, who has paid special 



attention to subjects, and not only allowed the author to make a large 
selection of illustrations, but also lent him a copy of notes made 
during years of collecting by the late Mr. Gilbertson, who, it appears, had 
intended to crystallize his extensive knowledge of things Japanese into a 
work which unfortunately was never completed. 

To Mr. P. M. Saltarel, of Paris, the author owes some useful reprints 
of Japanese books, and the communication of the descriptive catalogue of 
a collection of some twelve thousand prints and pictures, including many 
pieces of peculiar interest, and a precis of the Ressen Den, by Mr. K. 
Kawada, use of which has been made in the present work. 

Thanks are also due to Herr Albert Brockhaus, who kindly sent some 
netsnke from Leipzig for reproduction, to Mr. Michael Tomkinson of 
Kidderminster, to Sir Trevor Lawrence, Mr. W. C. Alexander, Professor J. 
Norman Collie, F.R.S., Mr. Wilson Crewdson, M.A., Herr Gustav Jacoby, 
Mr. Matt Garbutt, A.M.I.C.E., from whose remarkable collection of sword 
furniture and prints a large number of illustrations were selected, to Mr. 
O. C. Raphael, Mr. G. H. Xaunton, Mr. Henry J. Reiss, Mr. C. P. Peak, 
Monsieur M. Bing of Paris, Mr. J. C. Hawkshaw, M.I.C.E., Professor W. 
Harding Smith, R.B.A., to the authorities of the British Museum, the 
Victoria and Albert Museum, to the Institution of Civil Engineers, to 
Mr. E. Deshayes, Conservateur du Musee d'Ennery, who allowed the author 
to select in the d'Ennery collection some interesting specimens, to the 
Conservateur du Musee Guimet, M. de Milloue, and to the Gardien 
chef, Mr. J. Dumont, who supplied several photographs, to Madame Gillot 
for some masks in the Gillot collection, to Messrs. Yamanaka, G. H. Lee 
and Tregaskis for permission to photograph some pieces from their ex- 
tensive stocks, to all of his Japanese friends who have helped him with 
numerous translations, amongst whom Messrs. Kato Yasutaro, Okada, Tomita, 
etc., and especially, the author must tender the expression of his deepest grati- 
tude to his friends Professor S. Tanaka and Mr. Kato Shozo ; the former not 
only helped him with a number of translations and with commentaries 
which his deep knowledge of history made peculiarly valuable, but further, 
read through the manuscript with the author before it went to press, and 



by this revision considerably improved its accuracy. Mr. Kato ungrudgingly 
gave the author much help, his lengthy acquaintance with the customs and 
the works of art of old Japan, coupled with an exhaustive knowledge of 
the popular literature, have been freely drawn upon by all his friends for 
a number of years, by none perhaps more so than the present writer. 
Mr. Kato kindly lent for reproduction a number of colour prints, part of 
his own collection, wrote most of the poems printed in the margins of 
this book, and generally speaking, contributed information which no mere 
thanks can adequately repay. The help of the printer, Mr. Jihei Nakagawa, 
of the Tokio Printing Company, of Reading, and the interest he took in 
this work must also be gratefully acknowledged. 

Readers who have themselves compiled note books may be able to add 
to these pages, or to correct them, and the author will always be 
glad to hear from them on such occasions, in fact lie hopes that his 
compilation may load others to make public the result of their researches, 
and the contents of their memoranda. There must be unique pieces 
scattered about, each telling a rare story, or illustrating a custom, the 
description of which would add to our knowledge of the Art and 
Ancient Lore of Dai Nippon, knowledge which can only become more 
extensive and more critical by means of freer intercourse between collectors, 
and a closer study of the old Japanese books. 

The design of cranes and pine embossed on the cover has been repro- 
duced by permission of Monsieur M. Bing, from a photograph of a Fukusa in 
the collection of the late M. S. Bing, sold after his decease in 1906. The 
figure on the back representing Toto Tenjin (Sugawara Michizane, q.v.), 
has been adapted from an old Japanese picture. 














4 2 3 


ABE NO YASUNA, from a print by Kuniyoshi in the Kisokaido 

series (Author's Collection) ....... Frontispiece 

GHOSTS : UBUME, UMIBOZU, Goblin Cat, from the Tokaido 
series of prints by Kuniyoshi (Kato Shozo Collection). 
IGA xo TSUBOXE, from the Wakan Hiakku Monogatari of 
Ikkaisai Yoshitoshi (Author's Collection) . . . .To face page 24 

HANGOXKO, from a Surimono by Kunisada (Matt Garbutt 

Collection) ,, 48 

KKIU, from a print in the Tokaido series of Hiroshige 
(Kato Shozo Collection) ....... ,, 60 

INGO KOGO, from a print by Hiroshige, in the series 
Baiishu Takasago, OXOYE HAIOI, Matsu no Yurai (by 
courtesy of Messrs. Yamanaka) ...... ,, 96 

CARUKAYA DOSHIN, from a print by Kuniyoshi (by courtesy 
of Messrs. Yamanaka) ........ ,, 120 

VIUNRIU KOSONSHO, from a print by Kuniyoshi in the Suikoden 
(Kato Shozo Collection) ........ ,, 148 

\BE xo NAKAMARO, from a print by Kuniyoshi, in the 
Hiakku nin Isshiu [no Uchf] (by courtesy of Messrs. 
Yamanaka) 182 

VICHIREX, from a print by Kuniyoshi (Wilson Crewdson's 
Collection) .......... 224 

HIUSHIXGURA, from a print by Kuniyoshi (Matt Garbutt 

Collection) 256 



RAIGO, from a print by Chohoro Kuniyoshi (Kato Shozo 

Collection) To face page 266 

SOGA MOXOGATARI, from a print by Kuniyoshi (Matt Garbutt 

Collection) .......... ,, 

SHUNKWAM, from a print by Kuniyoshi in the Ogura 

Magai Hiakku Xin Isshiu (Kato Shozo Collection) . ,, 

SHIMAMURA DAXJO, from a mushaye of Chohoro Kuniyoshi 

(Kato Shozo Collection) ....... ,, 

OTO TACHIBAXA HIME, from a print by Hiroshige, in 

the Toto Kuiseki Dzukushi \_Azuma no Mori no Kaji] 

(Kato Shozo Collection) ....... 

YORITOMO, from a print by Toyokuni II. (H. Seymour 

Trower Collection) ........ ,, 



OWING to exigences of space it has been found impossible to give in 
full the names of the owners of specimens reproduced in the plates ; Initials 
have been adopted as follows : 

A. Author's Collection. 

A.B. Albert Brockhaus Collection. 

B. Bing Collection. 
B.M. British Museum 









Chas. P. Peak Collection. 
Fred. H. Evans Collection. 
Gillot Collection. 
Geo. H. Xaunton Collection. 
Gustav Jacoby Collection. 
By courtesy of G. H. Lee, Esq. 





H. Seymour T rower Collec- 

H.J.R. Henry J. Reiss Collection. 
I.C.E. Institution of Civil Engineers. 
J.C.H. J. Clarke Hawkshaw Collec- 

J.N.C. J. Norman Collie Collection. 
K.B.I. Kongo Bugei Ippan. 
K.S. Kato Shozo Collection. 

Musee d'Ennery. 
Matt Garbutt Collection. 
Musee Guimet. 
Michael Tomkinson Collec- 

O.C.R. Oscar C. Raphael Collection. 
P.M.S. P. M. Saltarel Collection. 
T. By courtesy of James Tre- 

gaskis, Esq. 

T.L. Sir Trevor Lawrence Col- 
V.A.M. Victoria and Albert Museum, 

South Kensington. 

W.C. Wilson Crewdson Collection. 

W.C.A. W. C. Alexander Collection. 

W.H.S. W. Harding Smith Collection. 

W.L.B. Walter L. Behrens Collect- 


Y. By courtesy of Messrs. Yama- 



IN the following pages an attempt has been made at grouping together in 
alphabetical sequence the principal emblems met with in the Japanese art, and 
interesting either for their own symbolical value, or as attributes of certain 
personages. In many cases, especially in glyptic art, no criterion exists for the 
identification of a figure beyond the expression of the face, and the emblems, or 
implements associated with the individual depicted. The clothing of the subject 
in general affords but little guidance, many artists disregarded entirely the 
traditional customs of the personages which they carved in wood, in ivory, or 
wrought in metals, to adopt some fanciful style, much in the same way as 
European artists have clothed Christ and his Apostles in mediaeval armour, or 
wrapped in roman Toga the limbs of some modern statesmen. One work how- 
ever, the Zenken Kojitsu gives a faithful presentment of the worthies of bygone 
ages, as far at any rate as their garments are concerned, for the otherwise 
consciencious artist Yosai, often paid little regard to the anatomical structure of 
his heroes. 

A word may be said also regarding the curious associations of animals 
and plants, to which some symbolism originally attached, but which 
apparently have been repeated very much like the copies of Chinese pictures, 
out of respect for tradition only. Amongst others will be noted the Quail 
and Millet, Peacock and Peony, Shishi and Peony, Swallow and Willow, 
Tiger and Bamboo, Plum Blossom and Moon, Chidori and Waves, Deer 
and Maple, Boar and Lespedeza, most of which are of frequent occurrence. 
The Snake is also often shown coiled around a Tortoise sometimes with 



a jewel (Tamo), reminiscent of the Snake and Egg Myth and then 
associated with Bishamon. 

Another group of emblems, in which the association is more strict, 
is that of the " messengers " with their respective Deities : for instance, 
the Deer is the "messenger" of the God of Kasuga Shrine; the Crow, 
that of the God of Kumano ; the Dove is consecrated to Hachiman, the 
Monkey to the Sanno Shrines of Ohonamochi, the Fox to Inari, and the 
White Serpent to Benten. Horary or Zodiacal characters, in the form 
of animals, are also found associated, the "night" hour with the "day" 
hour being the usual combination. 

It is almost impossible to make such a list as follows an exhaustive 
one, but an attempt has been made to form a compendium of the 
information contained in this work, and it is hoped that it has been 
sufficiently extended to be of some practical use. 

ALGU/E (see KOBU). The ficus vesiculosus, used in the New Year's 
Eve Festival, and sent with gifts. 


ANCHOR (IKARI). See TAKARAMONO. Emblem of Security, safety. 

,, one of the attributes of IGUCHI \o JIRO KANEMITSU, or SENDO 

ANCHOR or GRAPNEL, thrown by a warrior. See IGA xo KAMI, 

ARM, cut, with or without oni. See WATANABE. 
ARROW, shot through a stone. RIKO ; shot in a pot, TOWOKO ; JOSAKEI. 
,, shot through armour : YOSHIIYE. 
in river. See TAMAYORI HIME. 
,, and letter (or bird). See HONMA MAGOSHIRO. 
striking a boat. See TAMETOMO. 
striking fan. See NASU NO YOICHI. 

ARROWS cut by sword-play, chiefly NITTA YOSHISADA ; OYAMADA TAKAIYE. 



ARMOUR, thrown in the waves. YOSHIIYE. 
breaking. See SHIKORO BIKI. 

ASTERS, Willow and Wine Cup. TOYEMMEI. 

DAG of precious things, Takaramono. See HOTEI, DAIKOKU. 

BAG of the winds. See FUJIN (Futen). 

BAG of fireflies, Man reading under a . SOXKO (Shaen). 

BALES, of rice. DAIKOKU. Usually with rats, sometimes with cocks (q.v.). 

BAMBOO. The bamboo (Take or Chiku *ft) is emblematic of virtue, 
fidelity, constancy, perhaps as an allusion to the other Chinese character. 
fp (Sets//, CHIEH) which means a Bamboo node, and also the virtues 
alluded to. In the O-Ei era, the bamboo was added to the branches of 
young pine used in the Kadomatsu on New Year's Eve. 

BAMBOO SHOOTS (Take no ko). See Moso. 


BAMBOO and SPARROWS in winter (Take-ni-Suzume), Emblem of 
gentleness, and friendship. 

BAMBOO and TIGER. See Tiger. 

BAND across the Forehead, JINGO. 

BASKET. See MOJO (female Sennin). KASENKO, and several less known 

BAT (Kawahori or Komorii). Good fortune, prosperity, ornamentally 
treated as a subject for netsuke, sometimes with a coin held between the 
legs and wings and claws. Lucky emblem. 

BEAR. See KINTOKI ; KUMAGAI NAOZANE. Story of the ungrateful 
hunter, HACHISUKE JIMMU TENNO (Kojiki). 

BEARD, being painted black. SAITO BETTO SANEMORI.* 
long and black . KWANYU. 

BEES, swarming in a house, sign of prosperity. 

BEES (or Wasps), escaping from a man's mouth. SHIKKU GAN JIN. KASENYO. 

(} SAITO SANEMORI ^f $! f *$t is also called Nagaido Betto Sanemori because, although born in 
Echizen, he spent most of his life \vest, in Xagai (Musashi). He was a retainer of Yoshitomo, and the episode 
of the painted black beard relates to his death (see YOSHINAKA). The armour he wore then was called .Vi's/tifei no 
Shitatare, Brocade dress, and had been granted him by Munemori at his own request before he started back for 
Echizen after the Taikenmon fight in the Hogen war. 



BELL, rubbed by a priest (Suzu Aral}. Perseverance and yearning 
after improvement. 

BELL (Grelot.) Moguyo, attribute of Buddhist priests. See DANKA. 
BELLS (jingling) on a handle. UZUME, SAMBASO. 
CHARMS; see also HSIANG YEN, under JITTOKU. 

BLOWING liquid or clouds, etc. RANHA, RINREISO OSHI, TEKKAI. 

BOAR and FLOWERS, or Lespedeza, Hana Garuta combination. 



BOAT, with fan on mast. See NASU NO YOICHI MUNETAKA. See ANTOKU. 

BOAT, and man fishing. KENSHI. 

BOAT, in the sky. RASHIBO, Sennin. 

BOW, in the water. See YOSHITSUNE. 

,, with the string in the mouth ; Sasaki and also Atsumori on 
the Uji River. 

BOW 7 , striking a spring out of the rock. YORIYOSHI. 
writing on the rock. JINGO. 

poked into a tree trunk. KAJIWARA KAGETOKI and YORITOMO. 
eight-and-a-half feet long. See TAMETOMO. 

BOW and ARROW, most warriors. See YOYUKI, YOSHIIYE, TAWARA 
BOWL (begging), with flowers. FUKUHIAKU ; CHEN Tu. 

,, ,, with fountain ascending. NAKASAINA SONJA. 

with dragon. HANDAKA SONJA. CHINNAN. As a 

Buddhistic emblem it is called Teppatsu. 




BOX, with goblins escaping. See TONGUE CUT SPARROW. 

BOX, with mice. See ABE NO SEIMEI. 


BRIDGE, BRIDGE POST, Chinese writing on a. SHIBA SHOJO. 



BRUSH (writing). See KIKUJIDO (Jino), KOBODAISHI, and all the poets. 
,, inkstone and leaf. TANABATA. 

(Fly) or HOSSO. Nearly all the RAKAXS (ARHATS), but 
also DARUMA. 



CANDLES (three on the head). USHINOTOKI MAIRI. See CHARMS. 

leaping a waterfall : perseverance. See DRAGON. 



CATS. See that article, and add the Cat with two tails killed by 
Inu Mura Daikaku ^ ^"J" J^ fa in the novel, Hakkenden. 

CAULDRON, with heads. See MIKENJAKU. 

CAVE, of Fuji, with Goddess. See NITTAN xo SHIRO. 
with spider ; WATANABE. 
and prisoner ; MORINAGA. 


foreigners from the KIKO Isf )} country who " go everywhere in flying 
charriots, the two wheels of which are like paddles." They are figured 
in the Todo Kimmo Zue, holding banners. Sky charriot with deers, see GOMO. 

CHARCOAL (Sumt), symbol of prosperity, of changelessness. See also 
CHA No Yu. 




CHESTNUT, dried, form part of the emblems used on New Year's Eve 
Festival ; they represent Success by punning upon their name Kachiguri, 
Kachi meaning Victory. 

CHESTNUT, MORTAR and WASP. See story of the Monkey and the Crab. 
,, tooth-marked. See Go DAIGO. 

CHOPSTICKS, must be laid on the right of the user : placing them 
on the left is an insult, as they are placed thus for prisoners only. 
Made of Enoki wood, they prevent toothache. 

CHRYSANTHEMUM (Kiku), the sixteen petals variety is the Imperial 
badge. The flower is emblematic of Purity. See KIKUJIDO. See Fox. 

CIRCLE, of pilgrims, holding a rope which goes round the whole 
group, a priest in the centre beating a gong this is called Hiakkti man ben 
"one million prayers," the rope is "forwarded" like a rosary, whilst the 
pilgrims pray. 

CIRCLE, of children, the Emperor on a throne, with two officers carrying 
tablets ; KAKUSHIGI |$ -^ / JH testing the knowledge of his offspring. 

CLOAK. See KAKUREMINO (in the sacred treasures). 
Feather . See HAGOROMO ; TENNIN 

,, STRAW COAT, Mino. See OTA DOKWAN ; also met with in 

many illustrations of peasants and warriors, Moso, KOJIMO. 

,, monkey on . See SONGOKU. 

CLOVES (CnoJi), in the Takaramono, Sweetness and Health. 

HIANG Yu If| Jft, of Tsu, had a cock made of iron, weighing eight hundred 
pounds, and he had eight thousand officers capable of lifting it. 

COMETS, are portents of calamity, preceding war, famines, or earth- 


CRANE, Emblem of longevity, attribute of SEIOBO, JUROJIN, FUKURO- 

~ Circle of people in various costumes ; at one end, outside the circle, a man with a soroban seems to 
count them ; at the other end, also outside, other individual. Subject shown on a Kozuka in Mr. Dehren's 
Collection, figured in Arms and Armour of Japan (J.S.), but no explanation of which could be found. 
t 'H A. -ft See ode of Seishonagon in the Hiakku nin Isshiu (Dickins 6j). 






CONCH SHELL, emblem of the Yamabushi. See BENKEI. 


CORAL (Sangoju), emblem of rarity ; one of the objects of the Taka- 

COWRY SHELLS, in the Takaramono ; emblem of wealth. 

CROCODILE. HAX WAN KUNG expelled one from the river of Chao 
Chao, circa 800 A.D., by means of a magic spell and an order to go 
within three, five, or seven days. 

CROWS, croaking, is an omen of misfortune. 

,, two in the sky, man in boat. See Soso (T'sAo T'SAO). 

CYMBALS, used by temple dancers called Shasho. 

DEER, or Stag, emblem of longevity. JUROJIX, TOBOSAKU, MAPLE, 

tDEER, killed by warrior. TSUXEMOTO. 
,, boy hiding in a deer skin. EXSHI. 



,, Two, above tree, with man hidden in tree. YORITOMO. 
DOOR, under arm. HANK WAI. 

,, breaking. ASAHIXA SABURO (in Wada Kassen). 
TAIO SEXXIX (with musical instrument), CHOSOYU. KIKUCHI JAKWA, CHOSHIX Jix. 
RIHAKU, T\ISHIN o FUJIN. RASHINJIN KOJINRAN, who every evening returned 
home to his wife five thousand miles away from Court on dragon. KIGA, 

DRAGON AND DEER in sky, appearing to HOKIOSHA. 
DRAGON, in Clouds, across FUJI ; emblem of success in life. 

in river, awaiting the fall of a man who hangs from a 



tree, on a cliff, by means of a rope, which a small animal is gnawing 
through. On the cliff, robbers, or a tiger are watching him, illustration 
of a Buddhist parable about the perils of life ; parallel to the common 
expression, "between the devil and the deep sea." 

DRAGON", killing, with a large axe $jlj Bf 
Staff changed into . WONINRAN. 

DRAGON FLY (Akidzii), Emblem of Japan (Akidzushima) and Victory. 
Also, when in connection with a Gadfly, allusion to the story of a 
Dragon fly having killed a horse fly which presumptuously had alighted 
upon the arm of Yuriaku Tenno (Kojiki CLVI.}. 

DROWNING (Man himself), with stone in his dress. MUKO ; with 
Anchor, TOMOMORI ; with two warriors, NORITSUNE. 


DUCKS, two in sky. OGEI. 

,, (Mandarin), emblem of conjugal fidelity. 
,, under a Sennin's arm. See O ETSU SHO. 



ELEPHANT. Emblem of wisdom. See FUGEN, also DAIBU ennemi 
of Buddha. Commonly met on Tsuba, by Yasuchika, in commemoration 
of the white elephant sent from Siam to Japan during the Kioho era. 

ELEPHANT, carried away by a robber. See KOKUSEXXYA. 
,, and boy. TAISHUX. 


FANS. Finding a fan in the roadway is an omen of impending good 
fortune, meaning that the finder will soon become a man of importance, 
or be ennobled. 

A fan attached to a branch of Bamboo carried on the shoulder was 
emblematic of the owner's madness, and peculiar to women. See Bakin's 

The fan is a common attribute. The Sennin GOMO has a feather fan. 



FERN LEAVES (Urajiro or Moromoki), are symbolic of exuberant pos- 
terity ; they are used in the New Year's Eve ceremony. 
FIGURE, in a man's breath. TEKKAI. 

,, in a monkey's breath. SONGOKU. 

,, out of a man's heart. Sometimes mean a dream (RosEi), 

sometimes the story of BAISHI SENNIN, a man of Danchu, who, after 
studying Taoism for twenty years, found on his travels a small oak tree 
growing out of an acorn. He had it planted, and the tree grew 
rapidly to a great height. Baishi lived on a rock with a tame tiger, and 
was able to divide his body into a number of persons, each endowed with 
some special branch of learning; he died at the age of ninety-four. 

FIR, or PINE needles are symbolic of longevity. See Jo and UBA. 
FIRE (Sennin on Pyre). YOKO. 

(Beacons). See T'AKI. 


FLAMES, emblem of wisdom and purity. See FUDO Mio O. 
,, at the end of a writing brush. The Sennin, KITEKI ifp f$j 

dreamt once that some flowers were growing out of his fude. In later years 
he became famous for his caligraphy. 


FUJIWARA KANEAKI. Noble of the period of Go Daigo Tenno, 
depicted playing the flute under a tree, whilst a wolf-headed 
man listens. 

CHORAN SAI. Once played the flute at night, and a demon, 
dressed in Chinese costume, came and danced in the road in 
front of his house. 
FOX. See under that word. 



FRIENDSHIP, fast friendship, was sealed in China by the act called 
NIKUTAX ^j ^0, consisting of taking off one's dress so as to expose one 
side of the breast, this was also a mode of apologising for an offence. 
In Japan, Samurai vowed eternal friendship by touching swords; this was 
called KINCHO ^ JJ. 

FROG. See that word. See also KARU, TOKUBEE. 

FUNERALS are a bad omen when they overtake the interested party, but 
a good one when met coming from the opposite direction. 

FUNGUS, Mushroom and Fungi, are emblematic of longevity; they are 
frequently represented, and sometimes masquerade as phalli. 


Man playing Go whilst being bled ; Kwanyu (figured in Yehon Yaso, 
Ujikawa, of Kitao Kosuisai). 


GOHEI, representing the offering of clothes which it was customary to 
make to the Gods in ancient times, are used in the New Year's Eve Festival. 
They are characteristic of Uzurne, Shinto priests and wizards (ABE NO SEIMEI 

GOOSE, the wild goose Jfj|, YEN of the Chinese was emblematic of the 
male principle and also of matrimony. 

GOOSE, shot above clouds. See YOYUKI. 
,, with paper attached. See SOBU. 

SHORIKEN. Emblem of longevity. 

GOURD (the hundred). See HIDEYOSHI. 
shaped Pot. KOKO. 

HAGOROMO (q.v.), the feather coat of the Tennin. See also KYOCHI. 

HALBERT. Particular emblem of KWANYU and of BISHAMON, KUMASAKA 
CHOHAN ; used as a weapon by court ladies. 

HAMMER OF DAIKOKU, emblem of diligence, it is called Tsuchi, and 
is one of the Takaramono treasures. 



HARE (USAGI). See that word. 

with one string. See SONTO SEXNIN. 

breaking with an Axe. HAKUGA, after the death of his friend. 
,, on the waters as a boat. See CHIXXAX. 

of invisibility : Kakuregasa, one of the Takaramono treasures, the 
leaning of which is obscure. 

HAT, in the shape of an upturned basket, KOMUSO ; also actors; a more 
onical form, also hiding the head, was worn by the ambulating song 
oilers, Yomiuri. 

HEAD, in a cauldron. MIKEXJAKU. 

,, of a woman, on saddle. See Yu Ki. 
HORNS, all Onis. See also SHIXXO (SHEXG NUXG). 

SENXIX with one . IKKAKU. 

Hoof stone. See BATEISEKI. 

,, and STAG. Allusion to the Chinese Eunuch CHAO KAO who 
ice decided that a horse could be called a stag, and vice-versa, and 
afted a decree to that effect, emblematic of a fool, a foolish thing, 
ieign of She Hwang Ti, 210 B.C.). 

HORSE, on a Go table. See OGURI HAXGWAN. 

playing Go with his master. Story of the Chinese HANZAN. 
Eight Horses. See BOKU O (MUM-WANG). 
Hundred Horses, common subject for artistic work. 
,, Stopped by a woman. See KUGUTSUME KAXEKO. 
,, Stopped by a man. Ko U. 
,, Hobby-, ridden by children or TEKKAI'S soul. 



HOWO, or PHCENIX or HOHO (q.v.), emblematic of Imperial authority. 
See BAIFUKU and ROGIOKU (female sennin). 

IDOLS, Burning. See TANKWA. 

IRIS, emblem of Victory. 

JEWEL. Precious Jewel, or Tama (q.v.), or Hojiu no Tama, symbolic 
representation of the everlasting; carried by the sacred Bull, by the SHICHI 
part of the Takaramono. In the form of a crystal ball, carried by Jizo 


KADOMATSU (GATE PIXE TREE), made originally of pine branches 
plucked from a young tree, to which the Bamboo was added in the 
O-Ei era, and later the branches of Plum tree ; it is placed on New Year's 
Eve in front of every door, and has the symbolic significance of all its 
components, viz. : Endurance, strength, and longevity from the Pine ; virtue 
and fidelity from the Bamboo ; whilst the plum branches are often replaced 
by the sacred plant of Shinto, the Sakaki. See IKKIU ; SAIGIO. 


KARASHISHI, and peonies, emblem of regal power. 



KOBAN, buried, or in a mortar. See HAXA SAKA Jui. 

KOBAN NI HAKO, or Koban in Chest, emblem of plenty ; one o 
the treasures of the Takaramono. 

KOMBU, or KOBU, seaweed, symbolic of pleasure and joy, and usec 
with the Jimbasso, on New Year's Eve, in allusion to Yorokobu, "to rejoice." 


KOTO, SHAMISEN AND KOKIU, the three musical instruments called 
San Kioku. See AKOYA. 

KOTO BUKI. The character Jiu ||, meaning long life, and which 
is found decoratively inscribed on works of art. 




See the treasures under the word TAKARAMOXO. 


LESPEDEZA (sort of clover). Allusion to a legend that the flower 
was once a young lady with whom a stag fell in love. It forms a part 
of the offerings on ijth night of the eigth, or harvest, moon. 


LILIES, water. See LOTUS. The emblem of purity, with its beautiful 
flower above the water remaining unsullied by the mud in which grow 
its roots ; consecrated to the dead. 


LIZARD, water. See NEWT under CHARMS. Its ashes were supposed 
to be a love philtre when taken internally, or scattered upon the head of 
the hard-hearted maid. 

LOBSTER, owing to its body being bent double, is emblematic of 
honourable old age. It is part of the decorations used in the New Year's 
Eve Festival. 

LONGEVITY, is symbolised by the PIXE, and the BAMBOO, owing to 
their evergreen foliage ; by the CRANE, the DEER, or STAG, the STORK taking 
sometimes the place of the Crane ; the TORTOISE, especially the MIXOGAME, 
with a tail of weeds ; the GOURD ; the PEACH ; and the LOBSTER. Some 
of the emblems are of Chinese origin. The SHO CHIKU BAI is composed 
of the Pine and the Bamboo, to which the Plum is added for beauty. 
See also KADOMATSU. 

Longevity is further personified in art by the representation together, 
in groups or singly, of the celebrated personages SEIOBO and TOBOSAKU (with 
the Peach), JOFUKU and WASOBIOYE (with the Crane), MIURA xo OSUKE, 
URASHIMA TARO (with the Tortoise and box), Lu WEN, and the two old 
pine trees of Takasago with their genii, Jo and UBA, sweeping the pine 
needles with besom and rake. Finally, it is indicated by the character Jiu 
Sp often repeated in many forms. See MANZAI. 

LOTUS FLOWER. Emblematic of purity, wisdom and Buddhahood. 



SEITAKA DOJI, KWANNOX. It is an attribute of the Buddhas or Dosatsus ; 
the white lotus is emblematic of death. 

MAGATAMA (q.v.), claw-shaped stone jewels, single or strung up. 
They form part of the sacred Japanese regalia. See IZANAMI. 

MAKIMONO, or roll book, is emblematic of wisdom ; it is the attribute 
of JUROJIX, and one of the treasures of the Takaramono. A makimono 
is attached to the umbrella of OSHO, and is also the usual attribute of 
the two Rakans : KARI SOXJA and DAKAHARITA SOXJA. 


MANTIS. The praying mantis is emblematic of courage. 

It is often associated with the wheel, as in the proverb: "Even the sharp 
mandibles of the fighting mantis are set at nought by the wheel of fate" 
(dragon wheel). See Ehon Kojidan VI., 16. 

MAPLE and DEER, emblematic of autumn ; also with Tori in back- 
ground, allusion to the deers of Nara. 

MAPLE LEAVES (Iro), when sent to a man by his lady-love, conveyed 
to him in poetical fashion the news of his being jilted, the meaning being 
that her love (Iro) also changes like the colour of the maple leaves in autumn. 

A favourite pastime consisted in preparing tea over a fire of maple leaves; 
this is often illustrated , see KORE.MOCHI. 

MAT, on the waves. See CHOSHIKWA, and OTO TACHIBAXA HIME. 


MIRROR (q.v.). See HIDARI JIXGORI ; MATSUYAMA. Emblematic of 
truth and of a woman's soul. Placed under the pillow of a sick child, 
or under his bed, it will hasten his recovery ; the same is also said of a 
sword or a calcined bone. At two o'clock in the morning a mirror 
predicts the future. A woman once tried the experiment, and seeing her 
image in the shape of a beggar, she became quite parsimonious ; but her 
economy was of no avail she died a beggar all the same. 

MISOGI, a bamboo split at the top, and with a prayer stuck in. It 
was placed near a stream, on the last day of the sixth month, as an 




crescent of the moon begins to show plainly on the third day of each 
lunar month ; this is considered a lucky emblem, and as a curve of perfect 
shape it gives its name to the Mikatsuki mamiye, perfect eyebrows of ladies. 

MOON, man reading by moonlight on snow. RIUTO. 

MUGWORT (flower) is the attribute of KASEXKO, who is clothed in 
its leaves. (The coat of leaves is the generic attribute of the Rishis.) 

MULBERRY TREE, is supposed to be a protection against lightning, 
perhaps because of its diminutive height. Its wood was used for bows 
because of its resiliency. In the Xo Hokaso, Rishogun a warrior armed 
with such a bow, Kuwa no Yumi, sends an arrow through a rock. 


NAILS (finger). When white spots occur on the finger nails they 
foreshadow gifts corresponding with them in number. 

NAILS, driven in a tree. See CHARMS, USHI TOKI MAIRI. 
,, driven in a stone. BENKEI. 

NANTEEN Plant and Berries are emblematic of better fortune. 

NET. Takes sometimes the place of the rope of FUDO Mio O, with 
the same significance. Nets were thrown over litters carrying prisoners. 

NET. Man fished in a net. JISSHUDO. 


OIL, spilled from a lamp between the middle of January and the middle 
of February means destruction by fire during the summer. There is a 
counter-charm of easy application : It consists in pouring water upon the 
head of the guilty party. 

OIL, pouring from a bottle, through a ring, into another bottle. 
Allusion to the lesson given to the archer, CHIN NO KOSHUKU, by an oil- 
merchant, to whom the warrior had asked whether he knew how to shoot, 
and who, by way of reply, poured some oil as described above, the hidden 
meaning being : Every man to his trade (Ehon Tsuhoshi). 






YEAR FESTIVAL. Oni eating wafer (oni ni sembei) emblematic of an easy task. 

ORANGES (DAIDAIJ, bitter . Allusion to the Chinese, meaning : For 
generations unto generations. Men playing Go in the orange, see under GAMES. 

ORIMONO, roll of brocade, emblematic of splendour, is one of the 
treasures of the Takaramono. 

OWL, the jj| is emblematic of filial ingratitude, it is credited with 
eating its dam when the opportunity arises. 

OX, BULL, or BUFFALO. Lying clown is emblematic of TEXJIX. 

,, ,, with peonies, and gilt horns. See SHOHAKU ; 


OX, with torches attached to the horns, as a ruse of war, YOSHIXAKA; 
being felled by a warrior. MORITOSHI. 

OX, warrior hiding under an ox skin. See KIDOMARU and Usui 

OX. Emblematic of the Zen Sect of Buddhism. 

PAPER. See GOHEI. Cut paper called Xusa was used as offerings 
to the Gods instead of the original staff covered with brocade (Nishiki) 
used in old prayers. See MISOGI. 

PAWLONNIA. Emblematic of rectitude ; with seven blossoms, Imperial 
badge reserved to the Emperor; with five blossoms, emblem used by the 
Imperial family. 

PEACH, emblem of Longevity. See SEIOBO, TOBOSAKU, KYOSEXHEI, 

PEACOCK. Mount of KOKUZO (the Boddhisattva padma Akhasagarba) ; 
also of Sarasvati (BENTEN). 

PEAS (black), or MAME, emblematic of strength and health. 

dried (SHIRO-MAME), are thrown about the floor on New Year's 
Eve by the YAKU OTOSHI to cast out devils. See Oxi. 



PEONIES. Emblem of regal power, associated with the Karashishi 
and the Shakkyo dance. See also SHOHAKU. 

SAIJOSEN. Associated with the Pawlonia it is called Howo NI KIRI. 


Emblem of strength, endurance, longevity, because it is believed that its 
sap turns into amber after a thousand years; the "Sea Pine" is a fossilised 
wood, almost translucent, pieces of which were much prized as netsuke. 

PINE, red and black, emblematic of happy marriage. 
,, See PINE OF TAKASAGO and Jo and UBA 
PINE TREE, growing out of a man's stomach. TEIKO ~T HO was a 

minor official, who once dreamt that a pine tree was growing out of his 
stomach ; eighteen years later he was promoted from the Sosho class to 
the title of Sanko \ $, and then he understood that his dream was a 
true prophecy, because the character Ko consists of eighteen ~f~ yV and 
Prince Q, and means also pine. 

PLUM TREE (flowering). UME. See LONGEVITY, Siio-CniKU-BAi, 
SUGAWARA MICHIZANE, BENKEI, and YosHiTSUNE. A Chinese lady under a 
plum tree may be an allusion to the story of Chao shi hsiung, who in 
the pine groves of Mount Lo-fu saw a maiden in the distance. He went 
to meet her, and noticed a strong perfume of plum flowers, though no 
plum tree was near. He fell asleep while talking, and on waking up found 
himself under a flowering plum tree. 

Plum tree and the Otoguisu (Nightingale), allusion to a poem of 
Hakurakuten ; a Daimio wanted a branch of a plum tree, then in flower, 
but the owner of the tree, a woman, declined to break it by her reply, in 
the form of a verse meaning : " If the branch is broken, where will the 
Otoguisu find a resting place on its return ? " (Shaho Bukuro, /.). 

PLUM BLOSSOMS, in quiver (Ebira). KAGESUYE, whose popular name 
is Ebira Genda. 

PLUM BLOSSOMS, in hair. The Sennin Sonkei Jft $fc composing a 
poem, which means : " If I sit on a pine root I shall live one thousand 



years ; If I place a sprig of plum in my hair, the snow of February will 
fall on my sleeves." 

PORTRAIT of a lady being painted ; See OSHOKUX. 


PUMPKIN, carried by MEISOGEX. 


,, flying in . RESSHI. 
and Sunshine. See FOXES' WEDDIXG. 

RAKE. See Jo and UBA. 


REFLECTION, double reflection of a Sennin's face in a river : OFUSHI 
3E M "F" whose real name was Hotei. He was a man of Joyo, who 
supported his family by his knowledge of medicine. He learnt magic 
from the Sennin Shori $|f $f|, and afterwards lived without ever eating 
anything. One day, along a river, people noticed his reflection in the 
water, in the shape of two bodies, and on their expressing astonishment 
thereat, Ofushi showed them that he had ten shadows. The matter was 
reported to Shinshu jf|L ^, of So (Sung), who had him imprisoned, but 
he escaped by miraculous means and disappeared for ever. 

RICE. When children dropped rice on their clothes they were told 
that they would be transformed into cows.* 

RICE POUNDING, the poor Buddhist priest, Daikan Zengi (in tattered 
garments). ORO Sennin. 

RICE STEMS, throwing from clouds. TANBO, female Sennin. 

ROCK, emblematic of stability. See FUDO. 


ROCK. Cleaving with a sword. UYEMOX xo KAMI NOBUYORI. 
transpierced by an arrow. RIKO. 

ROSARY, the black and strong smelling seeds of the >f/, Hiian 

Compare the other belief about dropping food, quoted in Andrew Lang's Custom and Myth. 



tree were used as beads for rosaries as it was thought that their odour 
frightened away evil spirits ; See CIRCLE. 


SCEPTRE, worn (rubbing on sleeve). MOKI. 

SCROLL (see Makimono). See BENKEI (KAN.HNCHO). 

SEALS, were to be affixed an odd number of times, otherwise the 
document was unlucky, and if it were a bill or note of hand for instance, 
it was commonly believed that it would eventually be dishonoured should 
there be an even number of seals on it. 

SEAWEED. See New Year's Festival. SEAWF.KD GATHERING ; see 

SHARKS. See ASAHINA SABURO (in Menken Kojitsii). 

SHELL (conch). War trumpet. Emblem of the YAMABUSHI. See 
BENKEI. Horafuki, "Blowing the conch" is still proverbial, meaning to 
boast and make more noise than work. 

SHELL (cowry). Emblem of wealth in Takaramono. 
(Haliotis), listened to by mermaids. 



SHOE, Sennin with one . RANSAIKWA ; also DARUMA. 
Duck changed into a shoe. See OKYO. 
Woman changed into a shoe. See HIEN YUAN Tsi. 
See story of CHORIO and KOSEKIKO. 
SNAKE, white. See BENTEN. 



SNAKE, Two-headed, killed by Sze ma Kwang. 

UWABAMI (q.v.), large snake, killed by Egara no Heida (Wada 

family) during the rule of Hojo Yoshitoki. 

SNEEZING, has ominous meanings : if once, the affected person is 
praised somewhere ; if twice, reviled ; if three times, it is a sure proof 
that he has " Kaze wo Totta" (caught the wind), i.e., a "cold." 



SPARROWS, are emblematic of gentleness. 

,, walking like ducks, with one foot in front of the other ; 

emblematic of a very rare occurrence. 



SPIDERS, are emblematic of craft, generally magical craft, as all spiders 
become oni after dark. See BAKKMONO. 

STAFF. Emblematic of most Sennins and Rakans, and of the three 
Gods, JTROJIN", FUKUROKUJIU, HOTKI. There is often a makimono attached 
to the staff. The staffs of old men were made in China, of a knotty 
wood called ^J Chii. See WONINRAN ; SHINRAN SHONIN. 

STAFF, with three or more rings : Shakujo, emblem of the BOSATSU. 
See Jizo. 

STAG, or DEER. Emblem of Longevity (q.v.), companion of Jurojin. 

STAG and MAPLE are symbolical of Autumn. 

STAR (shooting), is the soul of a person who lias just died. 


STONES. See under that word. 

STORK, interchanges with the crane as emblem of long life. See 

STRING. If the string used in binding the hair breaks, it is an evil 
omen, and foretells the loss in a short while of a friend or a husband, 
according to sex. String used for binding parcels of gifts must be of 
many colours. 

SWORD, Sennin on . See SHORIKEN. 
,, biting . MORINAGA. 

,, breaking to pieces. Mio NO YA (IVAGEKIYO). Ri-A. 

Two-edged, Ken, priest sword, praying-for-rain sword ; See 

Ama Kurikara, attribute of wizards and rain priests. 

TABLE, man reclining on . TAIKOBO, ROSEI. 




TIGER, killed by a blow of the fist. BUSHO, one of the heroes of 
the Suikoden. 

TIGER, killed with a spear. See KATO KIYOMASA. SHINKI ^ ^f. 

,, used as a seat by a Sennin, from whose heart issue two men, 
going in opposite directions, one walking on a road, the other going to 
heaven,* BAISHIN $ ^ f[|| X- (In the work jj|f HJ J|| ^ lye zu boku shu.) 



,, (Tora). Sign of the Zodiac. 
,, and DRAGON. See DRAGON. 
,, being painted. See MATAHEI. 
TILES, on the head. See KAKUDAITSU. 

THUNDER and LIGHTNING issuing from picture. See CHOSOYU, 


TOAD, is credited with magic powers. See FROG, GAMA SENNIN, 


TORTOISE. Emblem of Longevity. See URASHIMA TARO, ROKO, GAMA, 

ATSUCHI and the Dragon, SOGA brother's revenge, KOGA SABURO, Story of 
the lost Cash, Seaweed Gathering. 

TREE, fabulous; see SEIOBO, HORAI, MOON, MOON-CHILD; the ^{^ 
Nih was said to be a thousand feet high, it flowered only once in a 
thousand years, and its fruit took another nine thousand years to reach 
maturity. The Tree or Wood 7JC Ki (Chin. Muh) is one of the five 
elements of the Jikkan in Far-Eastern lore. The Magnolia is especially 
interesting because such a tree, called ^j|, grew on the tomb of Confucius ; 




the Buddhists of China set also great value upon the horse chestnut 
fJ>, which they identify with the Saul. 

whipping. KIUSHOKI. 

UDONGE, is a fabulous flower, blooming once in a thousand years; 
its name appears to be familiarly given to a plant which grows on ceilings 
in the damp atmosphere, and the advent of which is considered to be an 
omen of impending success. It is suggested that it is merely a nest of 
insects or a fungus. The Wakan Sanstn' Zue calls it a fig tree (Basho, Ichijiku}. 

man reclining by. See Li TAI I'EII, TAIKOBO. 
,, Chinese boy breaking . See SIIIBA OXKO. 

woman jumping in . See OTO TACUIBANA HIME. 

,, Ghosts issuing out of -. See BKNKKI arid HEIKK, TAIRA NO 


WAVES, Sennin on--, on sword. SIIORIKKN. 

,, Bell on--. See Bell of MEIDIRA. 

Buddha's statue on . See JIKAKU DAISHI. 



WHEEL, flaming. See HELL. 

WHEEL and mantis. See MANTIS. 


YUZURI. The leaf or Yuzuri ha is used emblematically in the New 
Year's Eve decorations, meaning that the father will not die before his 
son is a grown-up man, as the leaf of the Yuzuri does not fall before 
another replaces it. 



i. ABE NO YASUNA 35C TcM* ^ Father of Abe no Seimei, and to whom 
is sometimes attributed as a wife a white fox which had taken the shape of a 
beautiful woman to bewitch him. This story is told to the effect that once as 
he was walking in the gardens of the temple of Inari, reciting his poems, a 
party of nobles passed by in pursuit of a fox, which they were hunting to kill 
for his liver, then used as a medicine. The fox ran into the gardens, stopping 
near ABE who caught the animal, and hid it in the ample folds of his kimono 
before its pursuers could enter the temple grounds, thus saving its life. A year 
later ABE fell in love with, and married a beautiful girl KUZUNOHA, who gave 
birth to a boy, and soon after died of some fever. Three days after her death 
she appeared to him in a dream, enjoining him not to grieve, as she was only 
the fox he had saved. One version of the story says that Kuzunoha, lived three 
years with Abe, at the end of which she left him, and before departing, wrote 
on the panels of the room : 


Tazune kite miyo, 

Izumi naru 

Shinoda no mori no 

Urami Kuzu no ha. 

that is : L-* 

If you are in love, come and seek in the forest of Shinoda, in Izumi, and 
you will find a Kuzu leaf (Kuzu no ha). 

The Kuzu plant, Pueraria Thunbergiana, was used by weavers. 




2. ABE NO NAKAMARO T fo f$ J& & was the son of NAKATSUKASA 
TAYU FUNAMORI. He is one of the celebrated poets, sometimes included amongst 
the thirty-six poets (q.v.), and ancestor of Abe no Yasuna. 

Abe no Nakamaro was sent to China when 16 years old, in the second 
year of Ruki (A.D. 716) to discover the secret of the Chinese calendar. Suspected 
by the Emperor, he was invited to a dinner on the top story of a high pagoda, 
and made drunk, after which, while he was asleep, the Chinese removed the stairs 
and left him to die of hunger. Legend has it that he bit his finger until the 

^ blood ran, and with it wrote on his sleeve : 


^ Awo una bara (Ama no hara), 

/I? furi sake mireba, 

Y 1 > v Kasuga nara, 

J if 
7 \ Mikasa no yama ni, 

u u rS Ideshi tsuki kamo : 

^L. " When I see the heavenly plain open, I think myself at Kasuga, contemplating 

the moon, rising above the three summits of Mikasa . . Ah ! 

After his escape, he set out for Japan, but^being shipwrecked, he went to 

Annam, and again to China, where he entered the civil service of the Emperor, 

and died (770). 

3. ABE NO SADATO * fg 1 j| ft The opponent of Kiyowara Takenori 
at the battle of Toriumi (See Takenori). He is supposed to have been partly 
of Aino blood, and was famous for his huge stature. At thirty-four years of age, 
he was nine feet high, and his girth exceeded the combined lengths of seven 
arrows. His younger brother was ABE NO MUNETO who, when defeated during 
the nine years war (Zenku nen no Eki), was brought captive to Kioto, by 
Yoriyoshi (q.v.). Prior to his execution a Kuge, came to him with a branch of 
the flowering plum tree, and asked him what he called it. Abe no Sadato's 

f> -^ reply in the form of a poem has been preserved : 

* ^1 Waga kuni no, 

-j_ j.j^, Ume no hana towa, 

7 3 Mitsuredomo, 

Jn %- 

Oho miya bito wa, 
Nani to yuran. 

< S- 

u p 

Q ~ 


" In our country, where I saw it often, we call it " [/me," but for the true 
name, we look to a courtier to tell us." 

Court Astrologer, son of Abe no Yasuna, occasionally shown with his fox mother 
Kuzunoha, who holds a writing brush in her mouth. He cured a grave illness of 
the Emperor TOBA, proving that he was bewitched by no other than his own 
favorite concubine TAMAMO NO MATE, in whom Seimei detected a nine tailed fox 
(Kiubi no Kitsune) (See Tamamo no Maye). His name is sometimes given as 
Abe no Yasunari. 

Once, having heard that a bird disrespectfully dropped something upon the 
head of a courtier of the rank of Kurando, he explained the incident as an omen 
that this noble would be murdered. The Kurando spent a night in religious 
practices, and great was his surprise in the morning, to see a man come to beg 
his forgiveness, as he had intended to murder him. 

On another occasion, the despotic ruler Michinaga, was prevented by his 
favorite dogs, from advancing along a certain road ; Abe stated that some 
miscreant must have been at that time "praying at the hour of the Ox" (Us/ii no 
toki mairi) as an incantation against Michinaga's life. He had the place where 
the dogs had stopped dug up, and found concealed in a pot, a scroll with 
Michinaga's name written in red, in a manner which he said, was known only to 
a man named Doma Hoshi. Whereupon, he made a magical paper stork which 
immediately flew straight to Doma Hoshi's house, with such startling effect that 
the suspected man confessed his guilt, and as a result forfeited his life. Abe 
no Seimei is also shown in a wizard's competition, conjuring white mice from 
an empty box. 

5. ACARA (See FUDO). 


7. ADACHIGAHARA * H >T Jj. The Goblin of Adachigahara was 
an old cannibal woman. She is always represented with, a kitchen knife, and 
sometimes preparing to kill a child. In the popular play she is said to have 
been of high rank, and attached to the court of a prince who suffered from a 


strange disease. The only remedy then known consisted of the blood of a 
child born during a certain month, and the woman killed children to cure her 
master. When the cure was successful she confessed her guilt, but was pardoned. 
She lived in Oshu (Mutsu). Amongst other legends it is said that one winter 
evening, a pilgrim came to the door of her hut and asked permission to spend 
the night in her kitchen. The woman refused at first, but finally acceded to 
his entreaties, and allowed him in. After a few minutes she went out, forbidding 
him to look in a certain room, but the pilgrim was too inquisitive to obey, and 
whilst the woman was away, he opened the door and found the room full of 
human bones and bespattered with the blood of the goblin's victims. Taking 
his hat and staff he flew away, the old woman who was then just returning, in 
her true shape as a goblin, running after him (Ozaki). 

8. ADZUMAYA KUMI. One of the personages of the GENJI MONOGATARI, 
who elopes on the river Uji, with her lover Nio GIOBU Kio. 

9. AGATA. Divinity worshipped at Uji, and who is believed to cure 
venereal diseases. 

10. AGNI DEVA. Fire divinity, One of the Twelve Deva Kings (Jiu ni 
Ten) q.v. : K \VATEN ^ ^. 

11. AGONAOSHI JIZO f| fR| j& |j| or Jizo who has no jaw. Divinity 
worshipped at a temple in Old as a jaw healer, because in one of his previous 
lives he tore away his lower jaw. Prayers are addressed to him to cure toothache, 
another remedy consisting in using Yanagi chopsticks (q.v.) (Hearn). 

12. AIKIO ^ ^ or SEGON or KWANZEON BOSATSU, one of the sons of 
Benten, shown with a bow and arrow, transformation of Avalokitesvara. 

13. AIKU ^ JffiJ The concubine of SATO TADANOBU (q.v.). 

14. AIR CASTLE (Shin Kiro) f^ ^ ig The Castle of Riujin the Dragon 
King of the Sea, appearing in the clouds (See Story of Bimbo). 

Mirage caused by the breath of a clam rising above the waters, and 
accordingly represented, either as a group of small buildings inside the partly 
open shell of a clam, or as a castle rising in the clam's breath. Sometimes called 




AMATERASU (li:i..K.) 


the Clam's dream. The mirage is called Shin Kiro, and as an allusion, the 
personages in Hokusai's fairy tale A Shin Kio have huge shells instead of 

15 AISEN MIYO O H ^ HJ3 3 Transformation of ACHALA the In- 
satiable or the Indomitable. God of love, although represented with a fierce 
expression, three eyes, a halo, and six arms. 

1 6. AKAHITO (YAMABE NO) ^ A [Ul ill One of the celebrated poets, 
sometimes classed amongst the six, lived in the eighth century, and has been 
deified as God of Poetry. 

17. AKAMBE ~f # :/ -< 4 A child's game sometimes performed 
with a mask of Okame or some other No character, corresponds with " Do 
you see any green in my eye?" (Compare Bekkako). 

1 8. AKECHI $J |? (See ODA NOBUNAGA). 

19. AKOYA PP[ ~t^f JH. A famous courtesan of Gojyo, near Kyoto, who 
having been the mistress of the Heike captain KAGEKIYO, (q.v.) was suspected of 
having given him refuge, when he had to flee for his life, after Yoritomo's army 
had defeated the Taira clan at the battle of Dan no Ura (1185). Torture failing 
to bring any information from Akoya, one of the Magistrates, HATAKEYAMA 
SHIGETADA, had her brought into court one day in her best attire, and after 
reproving her for her obstinacy, commanded her to play on some musical instru- 
ments : a Koto and a Samisen, much to the indignation of his colleague IWANAGA. 
The girl improvised a short poem containing a play on the words Kage and 
Kiyoki, and by her masterful performance convinced him of her innocence, 
because, as he remarked " fine music can only be played with a pure heart." 

20. AKUBO ^ ^ i (AKUBOZU) "No" character representing a wicked 
priest, he wears a coarse beard, and carries a halbert. 

31. AKU HACHIRO ^ A IB Celebrated warrior, who defended the 
castle of Takasagu, fortified by Hata Kokuzaemon, against the attacks of KURD 
IYEMITSU. He threw upon the besiegers a rock, so large that fifty ordinary men 
could not lift it, and so crushed to death many warriors, then uprooting a tree, 



the trunk of which was nine feet long, he executed a sortie single handed againsl 
the enemy. 

22. AKUMA ^ |H (TooRi AKUMA), One of the many Ghosts or Goblins 
with sword in hand, a huge head and flaming eyes. Akuma, or Ma an 
synonymous and mean evil spirit. One day, a nobleman drinking sake or 
the verandah of his house saw the Toori Akuma floating towards him ir 
the sky, with a naked sword in its hand. Frightened by the hideous 
apparition he hid himself under a tatami (mat), and peeping, saw the goblin 
enter the next house. Hearing a terrible uproar he went to enquire, and 
found that his neighbour, thinking to kill the Toori, had slain his wife, his 
children and his servants. 

23. AKUSEN fl f (Wu TS'UEN), One of the Taoists Rishis of the Chinese, 
shown as a wild looking hairy man, clad in the usual leaf dress and eating fii 
cones. He is said to have lived 300 years, gathering simples in the mountains. 
Once he offered pine cones to the Emperor who refused to partake of this food, 
but those who accepted the Sennin's diet attained everlasting life. He used 
to wear his hair very long, and could run as fast as the swiftest horse. 

(/H ^'J HP JH] RYO. Name of one of the Dragons, and sometimes engraved 
on swords, or wrapped around scabbards as in the Amagoi ken of the 
celebrated Kobodaishi (q.v.). Amario, meaning rain Dragon, and Kurikara 
rio : Dragon entwining a sword. 

25. AMANGAKO (Utatesa : Sadness), one of the demons. See Koshin. 

26. AMA NO GAWA ^Jl|, The Heavenly River, the Via lactea, also 
called Tenga, or Ginga, the Silvery river. See the Stories of Wu Un Jin, Chan 
K'ien, and of Kengiu and Shokudjo (The Spinning Maiden) and the Bridge of 
Birds (TANABATA). 

27. AMA NO KAGU YAMA ^ f| \\). The mountain in Yamato where 
the angel hung up her clothes in the story of Hagoromo (q.v.). 

28. AMARIO M II, Rain Dragon. 



29. AMATERASU jHMM.itift- The " Heavenly Shiner." The Sun 
Goddess and legendary ancestor or rather ancestral divinity of the reigning 
dynasty of Japan, born of the left eye of IZANAGI. Suffering from the insults 
of her brother SUSANO O, she retired into a cave, casting darkness over the 
world and closed the opening of the cave with a rock. OMOHI KANE NO KAMI 
then had a mirror eight feet in diameter forged by AMA-TSU-MAURA, and also 
a string of five hundred jewels, which were suspended in front of the cave as 
peace offerings. Then AME-NO UZUME-NO MIKOTO, arrayed in a somewhat 
immodest garment of tree branches, began a frantic dance outside the cave till 
the eight hundred myriad deities burst into a huge roar of laughter. Amaterasu, 
slightly opening the door, asked what was the meaning of this rejoicing, 
Uzume replying : We are glad because there is a deity more illustrious than 
your Augustness. Meanwhile the mirror was pushed nearer to the Goddess, 
who beholding her own image came out of the cave, and whilst AME-NO 
KO-YA-NE closed back the cave, TAJI KARA drew across her back the rope of 
rice straw to prevent her returning to the cave. 

To the Sun Goddess were reserved certain parts of the sea shore, on which 
fishing was strictly prohibited. In the VHIth century, a samurai retainer of 
Yamabuki Shogen of Tamba, fled to Tsu, after his master had been murdured by 
some traitor. He took with him his master's daughter whom he married, and 
changed his own name to Heiji. Poverty however beset the couple, and the man 
violated the prohibition mentioned above. He was found drawing his nets from 
the sea, and buried alive on the sea shore. His grave is still shown at Akogi-ga- 
Ura, and the name of the place has been bestowed upon a popular dramatized 
version of the story. 

Amaterasu O Mi Kami is also called Tenshoko Daijin ; Shimmei, and 

Students of comparative folk-lore may see a curious parallel between the 
retirement of the Sun Goddess in the cave and the Greek myth in which 
Zeus conceals Dionysios Dithyreites from his consort Here in a deep cave. It 
is also interesting to note that Japanese mythology recognizes a Sun Goddess 
and a Moon God (Susano-6), in contradiction to the Greek and Roman 
myths, but in agreement with the Egyptian, Aryan, and Norse legends. 



30. AME NO MINAKA NUSHI 3 fP r\> . According to the Kojiki, the 
God standing in the centre of the world before the creation, the Nihongi name 
him Kuni Toko Tachi no Mikoto. He is the ancestor of the creative couple 
(Izanagi and Izanami), who followed sixteen generations later. 

31. AME NO TAJIKARA WO NO KAMI 5 ^ -ft f jji$. The strong 
God who rolled back the door of the cave after Amaterasu had been decoyed 
out of it by Uzume's dance. 

32. AMIDA flSj gg P (Endless life), the Buddha Amithabha, who with 
Kwannon, presides over the paradise of the West. Chief Buddha of the MONTO 
(SHIN) Sect. 

33. AMOSHA VAJRA ^ g? ^ ill [pif JH ^] (See Fuku Kongo). 

34. ANAN (ANANDA) ^ fr$, also called TAMON, a cousin and the 
youngest of the disciples of Gautama the Buddha, believed to have been endowed 
with a wonderful memory and who remembered the whole of the Buddha's 

35. ANCHIN TC J- A Yamabushi, wandering priest of the Shugendo sect, 
victim of Kiyohime (q.v.). 

36. ANKISEI T tj} ^ of Roya-Fukyo was a well known drug seller 
whom the people of sea shore called Senzaiko (Prince Thousand Years). He was 
kept speaking for three nights with the Emperor Shiko of the Shin dynasty, who 
offered him untold wealth in gold and brocade, but the sage went away and left 
all the presents at a place named Fukyotei, with some jewelled red shoes, and a 
few books. 

37. ANTOKU TENNO T f| ^ Jl. Grandson of TAIRA KIYOMORI. This 
child Emperor was overthrown when five years old by the Minamoto clan, and 
replaced on the throne by his brother Go TOBA. He was carried away by his 
grandmother Nn NO AMA to the temple of Itsukushima, where the priests gave 
him a fan with a red disc, which was supposed to be the soul of the Emperor 
TAKAKURA (A.D. 1169-1180). Later in 1185, this fan was nailed to the mast of the 



Taira ship at the battle of DAN-NO-URA, where Nii no Ama, and Antoku jumped 
into the sea and were drowned. (Compare the story of Luh Siu Fu, who, 
defeated by Kublai Khan, jumped into the waves with the boy Emperor, last 
representative of the Sung dynasty of China.) See YOSHITSUNE and NASU 
YOICHI NO MUNETAKA. He was thereafter popularly believed to have been 
deified, and worshipped under the name Suitengu. 

38. ANDO ZAEMON SHOSHU & $j ffi Ig 5f, One of the 

retainers of Hojo Takatoki, the last of the Hojo family of regents of Kamakura 
(1312-1333); and uncle of Nitta Yoshisada's wife (q.v.). 


39. According to the generally received opinion, the mystic animals are shown, 
the male with the mouth open, to represent the letter A, initial of the Sanskrit 
alphabet, the female with the mouth shut, representing the last letter N of the 
sacred alphabet. This however does not agree with the carved wooden Shishis 
guardians of the Temples Yasa ka and Yakushiji, figures of which are given in 
the Nikon Kogio Shi Taisho Zu, and in the Kokkwa (177). These figures dating 
from the thirteenth century present the reverse combination of features. 

The mystic animals are also embodiments of the Yin and Yang doctrine of 
Chinese philosophy ; besides the Chinese Lion or Karashishi (q.v.), the monster 
most often represented as a Temple guardian is the Korean dog : Kama Inu, 
with two horns, and sometimes the Tama on its head, but lacking the curly 
mane and tail of the Karashishi, which are replaced by straighter and less 
ornamental appendages. Descriptions will be found in their alphabetic order 
of the various Dragons, Kirins, Karashishi, the Howo bird, Tanuki, the Fox 
Kitsune, the Tiger Tora, Namazu, Baku, Takujiu, Kappa, Nuye, Kamaitachi, 

To this list must be added the Suisai (See Kirin). 

The Kecho, gigantic bird killed by Hiroari (q.v.) ; the Hakutaku, figured by 
Yanagawa Shigenobu, appears identical with the Takujiu (q.v.), apparently 
through a mistake. 



HIYAKUDORI, the two-headed bird, with a body like a bird of paradise, and 
two long tail feathers, represents in popular imagination the emblem of faithful 
love, embodying the spirits of Kompachi and Komurasaki. 

From the Chinese have also been taken the two-headed pig, or sow, with the 
second head in lieu of tail ; the two-headed snake, one of which was killed by 
Sze ma Kwang, and of which a strange specimen exists in a Netsuke, in the 
collection of Mr. W. L. Behrens : the two heads have taken the appearance of 
witches heads with the regular Hannya mask, and the scaly body of the creature 
is wrapped around the trunk of a man. It has been suggested that this curious 
piece may refer to the story of Nukwa (Jokwa) or to that of Ippen Sh5nin (q.v.), 
but without certainty. 

Cobras with multiple heads, so common in Indian Art may have inspired the 
story of the eight-headed snake or dragon killed by Susanoo no Mikoto. A snake 
several hundred feet long is sometimes depicted, as in the Houncho Nen Dai Ki 
Dzi rising amongst warriors whom he swallows, with their horses and armour, it 
is called the Tani, and in the book quoted is depicted with its spirit : a warrior 
issuing from a burial ground. It is the ghost of Tamichi (367 A.D.) who was 
killed in Yezo by a poisoned arrow. 

Amongst Monkeys, SONGOKU, the companion of Sanzo Hoshi comes first, with 
the boar CHOHAKKEI, a four-headed monkey is described by Chinese writers as an 
omen of forthcoming flood. 

Fishes of mythical character appear to have been credited with medicinal 
properties. Anderson mentions the dog-headed fish, which cries like a child, as a 
sure cure against madness ; and the fish with one head and ten bodies, whose flesh 
is a preventative of boils. 

Many animals were endowed with magical properties, such as the snake, frog 
and slug (see JIRAIYA), the dog of Hanasake jiji, the acolytes of Sanzo Hoshi, some 
cats, the invisible Kamaitachi, the Mukade or centipede (see Tawara Toda), the 
newt used as a charm, some are believed to exist in the Moon (Hare), in the Sun 
(Three-legged Crow), in the Milky way (Tiger of a thousand years). 

Nearly all the mythical animals are familiars of Sennins, and as such will be 
found under Emblems. 



Semi-human creatures may also find place under the heading of Mythical 
Animals, while the anthropological freaks described in all seriousness in the 
Wakan Sansai Dzu Ye, and illustrated in Hokusai's Mangwa have been placed 
under Foreigners (mythical) because they are described by the Chinese as people 
from foreign lands. 

Descriptions will be found further of the Gario, the Ningyo, Mujima, Tennin, 
Tengu, the latter perhaps derived from the mythical inhabitants of Futan, which 
are pictured with wings, beak and feathers on a human body (depicted under 
the name Umin, by Hokusai). 

40. APES ]; / <jf|. The three mystic Apes (SAMBIKI SARU) are the 
attendants of Saruta Hito no Mikoto or Koshin, the God of the Roads, 
they are : 

MIZARU, with a hand over his eyes, who sees no evil. 
KIKAZARU, covering his ears, who listens to no evil. 
IWAZARU, his hand on his mouth, who speaks no evil. 

41. ARHATS (See Rakans). The sixteen disciples of Buddha. 

4.2. ARAKI (MURASHIGE) ^ TJC, A Samurai whom ODA NOBUNAGA wished 
to kill. Nobunaga hit upon a scheme which consisted in summoning Araki 
to his audience, placing himself in such a position that the samurai's neck 
came in line with the sliding panels separating the audience chamber from 
the daimio's room, and having the shoji slammed together as the man knelt, 
so as to decapitate him. Araki, however, suspecting the trap, laid his iron 
fan in the groove, jamming the shutters, and saving himself. Another story 
says that Nobunaga ordered him to eat many rice cakes (manju) which he 
had threaded on his sword. 

43. ARIWARA NO NARIHIRA # M ^ , One of the six celebrated 
Poets (See NARIHIRA). 

44. ASAHINA SABURO $ Jt ^ H IB, Strong warrior of the Xllth 
Century, son of TOMOE GOZEN. His prowess and feats of strength are often 
found illustrated, amongst others his descent to Hades where he browbeat the old 
hag of the three roads SODZUKA NO BABA ; and after defeating the Onis in a trial 



of strength by neck pulling (Kubi-hiki) is entertained as a guest by the King of 
Hades YEMMA O. He subjugates the Oni of Kikai ga Shima, swims with a shark 
under each arm whilst on a cruise in Chinese waters with the Shogun Sanetomo, 
uproots a tree at the battle of Hikkane (1180) and uses the huge trunk as a 
war club. 

The younger of the Soga brothers, Juro Sukenari, had for mistress the 
woman Tora of Oiso. One evening when he was feasting at her house with 
Hatakeyama Shigetada and Asahina Saburo, Tora handed the cup to her lover 
first, instead of Hatakeyama, who was the highest personage in the room. 
Hatakeyama became incensed at this lack of courtesy, and sought to be revenged. 
The elder brother, Goro, who was a few doors away, had a sudden idea that Juro 
was in danger, and went to his assistance. As he opened the door, Asahina 
Saburo tried to drag him in forcibly, but he stood his ground, and left in the 
hands of Saburo his Kusazuri (shoulder plate of the armour). 

Being entertained at Okuno by a hunting party of Yoritomo's retainers, 
Asahina demonstrated his strength by lifting a rock seven feet long and throwing 
it from the edge of the cliff into the sea. Through an anachronism, it has been 
wrongly stated in some books that a youth of sixteen (Sanada Yoichi) was 
passing below at the time, and Asahina (who had a grudge against him) sought 
to crush him with the stone, but the youth received the mass in his hands and 
forthwith threw it back upwards to Asahina. In the true version the incident 
occurs between Matana no Goro and Sanada Yoichi. Asahina Saburo is also 
depicted amongst dwarfs, or breaking a door during the Wada feud. 

45. ASAMA g fg] or KO NO HANA fc %> SAKUYA HIME, The Goddess 
of Fuji, also called SENGEN. 

46. ASAZUMA FUNE ^ lH $, A woman standing in a boat, dressed 
like Shizuka with flowing robes and long hair hanging down her back. She 
was the mistress of the fourth Tokugawa Shogun lyetsuna, who preferred her 
company, in endless boating parties, to the cares of government. A poem 
referring to this preference brought its author, Hanabusa Icho, the penalty of exile. 

47. ASHIKAGA / ^Ij, Family of Shoguns descendants of the Minamoto, 
who were in power from 1336 to 1573. 


TASL'KI (.(.) 
ATSUMORI (-!/. 7.) 

I1AKU ("'./.) 




48. ASHI ODORI /, jj|j, A toy, representing a buffoon's antics, a man 
lying on his back with his feet in the air, each foot carrying a Shishi mask. 

49. ASHINAGA (CHOKYAKU) P Jt long legged men generally shown 
with TENAGA or long arms. These mythical personages are said to live on the 
sea shore in north China near Hung Sheung Tree. They live upon fish which 
the Tenaga catches with his long arms, being the while perched on the back of 
the long-legged Ashinaga who wades into the sea. They are often met with in 
various attitudes jointly or separately. 

50. ASHUKU Pnj (fjjj, One of the GO-CHI-NYORAI, the five Gods of Wisdom 
and Contemplation. 

51. ATAGO (HOMUSUBI) J| ^, Deity protective against fire. 

52. ATAKA (Gate of) $ ^, Place where BENKEI (q.v.) foiled SAYEMON 
TOGASHI and helped YOSHITSUNE to make good his escape from his half 
brother and enemy YORITOMO. (Kan Jin Cho episode.) 

53. ATSUMORI (TAIRA) |fc ^ [^], also named MUKAN NO TAYU $ f 
^ ^ ATSUMORI, son of FUJI NO TSUBONE, and adopted son of TAIRA TADAMORI. 
He had been left in 1184 when sixteen years old to defend the town of Ichi no 
Tani, then beseiged KUMAGAI NAOZANE, a general of Yoshitsune's army. The 
defeat of the Taira was so complete that nearly all had escaped to their boats, 
and Atsumori was on his way to join them, playing the flute the while, when 
Kumagai entered by the western gate and heard him. He was on the point of 
killing the youth when he noticed the beauty of his face and was reminded of 
his own son. Atsumori would have escaped with his life but for the companions 
of Kumagai who taunted him for sparing a Taira. The Minamoto general killed 
Atsumori and sent his head and flute to Yoshitsune. Soon after he became a 
monk. Atsumori is said to have left a widow, who became a nun and is credited 
with the invention of the folding fan, by the refreshing use of which she cured 
the Abbot of a temple, of a malignant fever. This invention is however 
attributed also to a fan maker of 670 A.D. (See FANS.) It is worth noting that 
Atsumori's teeth were blackened, a custom which then applied to young nobles 


of both sexes. (See also Kumagai Naozane.) A fanciful version of the story 
of Atsumori forms the subject of the popular play Ichi no Tani Futaba Gunki. 

54. AUSHASHIMA ^ H (Burning Head) or Ushijima, a divinity shown 
with an Axe or a Dorge in its left hand, and with its left leg raised (Buddhistic). 

of Hojo Tokiyori famous for his wit, and particularly for the loss of ten small 
coins in the Nameri gawa. (See Lost Cash.) 

56. BADGER (TANUKI) >, the Racoon faced Dog (Nyctereutes Procyonides 
or Viverrinus) is one of the animals credited with magical or supernatural 
powers. As a Goblin it is a peculiarly mischievous creature taking all sorts of 
disguises to waylay, deceive or annoy wayfarers. Standing by the road side on 
its hind legs it distends its belly (or rather Scrotum) and striking it with its fore- 
paws uses it as a drum Tanuki no hara tsnzumi ; wrapped in a kimono, it 
begs like an itinerant monk, waylays folks at night across paddy fields, causes 
fishermen to draw up their nets empty and only laughs at their misfortune. 
When in priestly disguise it is called TANUKI Bozu. It is often met with 
represented wrapped in lotus leaves and with a lotus flower doing duty as a 
hat, carrying in one paw a bill for sake ; also, with distended scrotum, Hachi 
jo jiki (8 mats wide) Kintama as a Kimono, or as a means of smothering a 
hunter. Amongst classical Tanuki stories, see the lucky tea kettle (BUMBUKU 
CHAGAMA) and the revenge of the Hare (Story of KACHI-KACHI YAMA). 

The Shogun IEYASU has been irreverently nicknamed " The Old Badger" 

A trinity of pot bellied personages sometimes met with, shows Tanuki in 
company with the FUGU fish and the fat, hilarious God of Luck, HOTEL 

57. BAG OF HOTEI ^ff ^ (See TAKARAMONO), the bag of precious things. 

58. BAG OF PATIENCE *& & gf. An invisible bag, in which a man 
who suffers a wrong is supposed to hide his mortification. Used as a model for 
Netsuke, with the word Patience ^ ^ written on it, and the owner tying 
it up. 



59. BAGEN J5 7C- (See GAMA SENNIN.) 

60. BAKEMONO fa $}. Generic name for GHOSTLY GOBLINS, Bakemonos 
are shown without feet, and with long straight hair, BAKEMONO TOFU is the 
goblin seller of bean cake who goes about after midnight and with whom it is 
fatal to hold conversation. 

The BAKEMONO TORO is a lantern shown at the temple of Futaara in Nikko, 
to which it was presented in 1292, by Kanuma Gonsaburo. It used to take 
human shape and attack the passers-by, until a plucky warrior instead of flying 
away struck at the Bakemono with his sword, inflicting a deep cut to the top 
of the lantern. 

GUMBARI NIUDO, is the New Year's eve ghoul. 

HITOTSUME Kozo, with one eye only, a large hat on his head, carries a ball 
of fire in a sieve. 

KAKUREZATO, a blind old man, with a knotted staff, whose business it is to 
carry bad people to Hades. 

KAZANE NO ENKON Jf| 0) $5 ^|- The ghost of Kazane, depicted as a 
female with large round face, touzled hair and sometimes biting the blade of a 
curved knife. She was a jealous wife who was murdered with a scythe by her 
husband, Yorimon, and then thrown in a river. Her husband married again 
after his crime, and the ghost of the murdered woman haunted him and his new 
wife night and day, until the monk Yuten Shonin (q.v.) prayed for the disappear- 
ance of the ghost. In Hokusai's Mangwa, she is represented with one eye shut 
(symbolical of the moon) and the other open (symbolical of the sun). His 
pictorial treatment of the legend is, however, different in his illustrations to the 
Skin Kazane Gedatsu Monogatari of Bakin (1807) a general description of which 
has been given by the Goncourts. 

OKiKU^f;&;C7)$*|lf. The Well Ghost, popularly called Bancho Sarayashiki 
(Plate-house of Bancho) from the name of the street in Tokyo, though is supposed 
to have originated at Banshu in Harima. It forms the subject of a play, Aoyama 
Tessan (Shuzen) was a Hatamoto, and the possessor of ten pieces of precious plate 
received from the Dutch, the keeping of which was entrusted to a maid, O Kiku, 
who steadfastly refused to accept Aoyama's love. In course of time the desperate 



soldier hid one of the plates, and suddenly ordered O Kiku to produce the whole. 
A hundred times she wearily counted them, but could only find nine. Aoyama 
then suggested that if she became his mistress he would overlook her supposed 
carelessness. She refused and he killed her, throwing her body into an old well. 

Since then her ghost visited the place, counting one two three nine! 

finishing with a heartrending wail, until Mitsakuni Shonin exorcised the well. 
In Mitford's version, the woman is said to have actually broken a plate, and 
being imprisoned by Aoyama, she managed to escape and threw herself in the 
well. The ghost issuing from the well faces the picture of Kazane in Hokusai's 
Mangwa (Vol. X). 

MIKOSHI NIUDO, bald headed, pulls its tongue and lolling it about, looks 
over screens. 

MITSUME Kozo or MITSU ME NYUDO, short necked with a long hairy face 
embellished with three eyes, one of which is in the centre of the forehead. 
Sometimes depicted as the ghost of the Palace of SOMA, frightening a court lady. 

TOORI AKUMA, hideous flying goblin. 

ROKUROKUBI with a long neck is occasionally shown as a female with three 
arms, often the male and female are depicted together. 

UBUME, the old woman of the under world, who comes with a child in her 
arms and beseeches the passer-by to hold the infant a while and then goes away. 
The weight of the child increases by degrees, taxing the strength of the good- 
natured individual, and finally drops to the ground in the shape of a huge 
boulder. This adventure is related of Urabe Suyetake, retainer of Raiko. 

As a parallel to the Ubume, note the myth of the old woman of 
Miiggelsberger in Altmark near the Teufelsee. She is seen in the form of a 
beautiful fair girl combing her hair who wishes to be set free from the 
enchantment which binds her to an underground castle : the only way to 
do so is for a man to carry her on his back round the church three times 
without looking backwards albeit strange sights and hideous beasts surround 
the rescuer, and the woman will grow heavier as the task proceeds until the 
man drops. 

"VAMA UBA, the mountain nurse is another female goblin, occasionally 

1 6 


GHOST (-/..) 

MITSUMli KO7.O (.-/./,'.) 

GHOST (II--.L.K.) 


KAZA.Mi (O.C.K.) 

OKIKU (//..S.7-.) HADC.EK ('.HOST (;/'./..) 




described as having a mouth under her hair, the locks of which transform them- 
selves into serpents, or catch small children, upon whom the Yama Uba feeds. 
Yama Uba (q.v.) mother of Kintoki, however, differed from these. 

YUKI ONNA, the woman of the snow, seen in YABUMURA. (See Yuki-Onna). 

TANUKI Bozu, the Badger disguised as a monk, KITSUNE Bi the Fox fire 
(Will-o'-the-wisp) are other goblin manifestations. More will be found under 
FOXES (KITSUNE). All spiders after dark become goblings, namely : Hiratakumo, 
the flat spider, Jikumo, the earth spider, Tenaga Kumo, the long legged, and 
Tot ate Kumo, the trap -door spider. 

THE NUKE KUBI is a human head that leaves its body after dark. (See 
Hearn's Ghostly Japan and also his chapter on Ghosts in The Romance of the 
Milky Way (1905). 

UMI Bozu, the Sea priest, is a huge ghost, rising from the sea ; usually 
shown frightening Kumanaya Tokuzo. 

See also : Adachigahara, Abe no Seimei, Akuma, Cat of Nabeshima, 
Kama Itachi, Raiko, Shutendoji, Watanabe, Tamamo no Maye, and Kappa. 

61. BAKOKU ^ ||s (SENNIN) lived in the cave Enka, in the Konron 
(Kwen-lun), where he served the great sage CHOYO-SOSHI 1|t |||f jjj jljjjj while 
his wife SONSENKO ^ fill ^ stayed at home to compound some drugs. One day, 
he heard some music, and looking up, saw his wife in the clouds, with two pages 
with halberts and flags. He wrote a line on the nearest gate and went away. 
He is depicted as a sage watching his wife riding in the clouds, surrounded with 
handsome attendants. 

62. BAKU jf||, also called SHIROKINA KAMI, from a Chinese character 
which used to be hung in houses against pestilence, and is still painted on pillows 
to promote slumber. A mythical animal who feeds on the bad dreams of men, 
and is invoked by the words : Devour, o Baku \ (Baku Kurae). It has a hairy 
head with a long proboscis like an elephant's trunk, two tusks, a spiny backbone, 
a spotted hide and an ox tail, and it is said that one was once met, which spoke 
like a man. [Hearn, Kotto.] It is presumably inspired by the appearance of 
the tapir. There appears to be some confusion in Hearn's paper, as he gives 
the alternative name Hakutaku which usually applies to a different creature. 



63. BANYU GAWA J| A Jl|- River which was formerly called SAGAMI 
GAWA, though it takes its source in Kai. It owes its new name to the following 
incident : INAGA SABURO SHIGENARI, retainer of the Shogun YORITOMO, once 
celebrated the opening of a new bridge upon this river, in the presence of the 
Shogun. Suddenly, a dark cloud arose off the water, accompanied by a storm 
and the apparition of evil spirits. Yoritomo's horse took fright and jumped into 
the river, where it died at once. This event took place in the twelth month of 
the ninth year of Kenkyu, and to this incident is also attributed Yoritomo's 
death a short time later. 

64. BASEISHI J| $c One of the Sennins. 

65. BASHIKO Jjji ffi j||. A Sennin, the legendary Chinese physician MA 
SHE WANG, said to have lived from 2697 to 2597, B.C., at the time of Hwang Ti, 
and to have been specially skilled in the treatment of horses. He is represented 
performing acupuncture on the throat of a sick dragon, or carried into the clouds 
on the back of his grateful patient, whom he had cured by this operation and 
a draught of liquorice. 

66. BATTLES : DAN NO URA (1186). (See Minamoto, Taira, Yoshitsune.) 

UJIGAWA (1184). (See Ichirai, Sasaki Takatsuna.) 
ICHINOTAKI. (See Yoshitsune, Tadanori, Atsumori.) 
ISHIBASHIYAMA. (See Yoritomo, and Sanada Yoichi.) 
YASHIMA. (See Yoshitsune.) 

67. BATEISEKI fijj $$ ~fc, or Horse-hoof stone, is a jet black mineral like 
obsidian in appearance but capable of being cut and polished and made into 
small objects. Its name is due to the legendary story of it having been formed 
when the mare of SASAKI TAKATSUNA, plunged into the waters of the lake Dogo 
in search of her drowned foal, striking the bottom with her hoofs. 

68. BEAUTIES OF NATURE. The three beauties of nature are the Moon 
the mountains, the Flowers in the rain and the Snow on the country. 

69. BEGGARS. Amongst picturesque beggars, the most common 
is Komuso, the disgraced Rdnin, playing the flageolet with a tall 
basket resting on his shoulders hiding his head, two holes being left 


BAIFUKU (ll-:l..K.) 
BENTEN (.)/.<;.) 

BEKKAKO ('f ) 
BAIFUKU (.-/.) 

BI.IN1) MUSICIAN (il.l-;.) 

KOMUSO (O.i'.K.) 


for the eyes, he is depicted almost in every ferry boat, with the Saru 
Mawashi or monkey showman. But in reality the begging monks are 
probably the most numerous, the Sennichi Bozu begs for a thousand 
days, gathering money to help sick people, the Namatsu Bosu begs for some 
temple, and calls attention by striking together two pieces of wood, the 
Takuhatsu (Begging friar), hails from some buddhist temple, with staff, bronze 
bell and rosary, to prove his bona fides. The pilgrims to the temple of Kompira, 
called Kompira Mairi share with the pilgrims of the Nichiren sect to the temple 
of Seishoko (Kato Kiyomasa) a similar occupation, the latter accompany their 
tramping with the clanging of hand drums and the invocation, Namu mio ho 
renge kio. In fact, most pilgrims beg and are called Junrei. The Saimon Katari, 
plays the role of a story teller and beggar, and uses a conch shell as distinctive 
musical instrument. Gozenno are blind women carrying Samisen. Kadotsukc are 
musical beggars in Tokyo. 

70. BEIFUKU or BAIFUKU (MEI FUH) $ H- One of the Sennins, shown 
riding on a Ho\vo bird (Phcenix). He was a Chinese governor of Nan Ch'ang 
(Nansho-no-Jo), who, disgusted with the corruption then prevailing, resigned his 
post in 14 B.C. and retired to mount Hiko, in Yunnan, where he penetrated the 
secrets of the genii, and having drunk of the elixir of everlasting life, returned to 
his native Show Ch'un. After a short while, some genii and a Lu-an bird (Peacock 
or Phcenix) swooped down from the skies and carried him away to the Taoists 

71. BEKKAKO ^ ^> $* "2 ^ Derisive gesture consisting in pulling 
downwards the lower eyelids, with or without accompaniment of putting out 
one's tongue, and often both eyelids are pulled down by the index fingers, while 
the thumbs are placed in the corners of the mouth. The meaning is the same as 
in France or in England (" No, you won't or " See my eye "). It is commonly 
found on representations of boys hiding some object, as for instance, a mask in 
the AKAMBE Game. 

72. BELL OF DOJOJI $j[ Jfc % SEE KIYOHIME (Wrapping of the Bell). 

73. BELL OF MIIDERA H ^ ^- This bell was hung according to 



legend, over twenty centuries ago, in the Temple of GION SOJA which the 
Buddha himself had built. It got into the possesion of RIUJIN, the Dragon 
King, whose daughter OTOHIME later presented it to TAWARA TODA (q.v.). The 
latter gave it to the temple of MIIDERA in the famous Monastery founded in 
600 A.D, by the 38th Emperor of Japan TENCHI TENNO. It was subsequently 
stolen by BENKEI (q.v.). This bell is five and a half feet high, and its dull 
surface is accounted for by a legend. In the old days it used to shine like a 
mirror, but once, a Kyoto beauty beholding the bell, climbed upon it, and 
wishing aloud that she might have such a fine mirror, began playing her fingers 
around the reflection of her face, the metal shrank from her touch, leaving a 
dull corroded surface in place of the fine polish. 

The bell is sometimes shown carried over the waves by oni, or represented 
alone, but more often carried on his back by Benkei, although the burden was 
nearly half a ton in weight. 

74. BENKEI (MUSASHIBO) |$ J| [j H J^], also called SENNINKIRI. Hero of 
the twelfth century, whose history has become wrapped in legend. The son of a 
priest of Kumano, in Kii, he was of so boisterous a nature as to receive the nick- 
name of ONIWAKA (young demon) ; as such, he is depicted fighting with the 
Yamabushis, or capturing a huge fish in a waterfall. When seventeen years of 
age, he started in his career as a wandering priest (Yamabushi), and is often 
represented in that dress with the skull partly shaven, and supporting a small 
hexagonal cap, or blowing in the conch shell, which forms one of the attributes 
of that sect, or even inside a huge conch shell, drinking Sake to his heart's 
content. He grew to a height of eight feet and was as strong as one hundred 
men ; a stone is still shown in the gardens of the temple of Yoshino in which he 
is said to have driven two big iron nails. Later in his life, he posted himself at 
one end of the Gojo bridge in Kyoto, and there challenged all comers, reaping a 
fine harvest of nine hundred and ninety nine choice swords. In vol. XII. of the 
Mangwa, he is depicted attacking the wife of a fencing master with his spear, 
but the woman (Osono) caught the weapon under her arm, and held it fast, and 
escaped with her life. One day to complete his collection, he challenged 
YOSHITSUNE, who, though smaller in size easily beat him, thanks to his very 









thorough training as a swordsman under the tuition of a Tengu Sojobo. Benkei 
then became the most faithful follower of his victor, with whose story his own 
becomes linked till the end. The fight on the Gojo Bridge is often met with 
especially on Tsuba, and is sometimes tersely suggested by the simple design of a 
pecular bridge post. One of the most celebrated of Benkei's own exploits is the 
carrying away of the bell of Miidera (see above), which he wanted to take to 
Hiyeisan, and which he actually took away on his shoulder with the beam still 
attached, and his paper lantern acting as a balance weight. As soon as Benkei 
reached Hiyeizan, he began to strike the bell with the other Yamabushis, but the 
faintest of sounds could only be obtained, like a dismal wail, till under the 
repeated blows it grew louder and louder, distinctly uttering " Miidera ye Yuko" 
("I want to return to Miidera . . . ! "). Benkei, in a rage shouldered the bell again, 
dropped it on the edge of the mountain, and giving it a running kick, sent it 
back all the way down to the very door of the Miidera monastery. A less 
romantic version says that he made such noise with the bell for a whole night 
that the Abbot beseeched him to return it, and he did so, on condition of his 
being given as much Miso soup as he could swallow : a boiler five feet wide ! 

When Yoshitsune was compelled to escape from his half-brother Yoritomo, 
by flying from place to place, he determined to seek refuge in the castle of 
HIDEHIRA the Daimio of Oshu, whence he proceeded with Benkei and two others, 
in the disguise of Yamabushis. They found their way stopped in Kaga, by a 
barrier which had been erected at ATAKA (San no Kuchi), and which was guarded 
by a troop of Yoritomo's men under the command of SAYEMON TOGASHI, who 
refused to allow them to pass through. Benkei remonstrated with the only result 
that Sayemon threatened to behead the whole party. Feining resignation to this 
fate Benkei and his companions began praying to prepare for death, thus 
impressing Sayemon, who afraid to blunder, asked whether they had not 
some proof of their bona fides. Benkei seized the opportunity by drawing from 
his sleeve a roll, which he began to read, taking care not to let Sayemon look 
too closely at it. The document purported to be a letter from the Abbot of 
HOKOJI commanding them to collect monies for the reconstruction of the Todai 
temple of Nara ; Sayemon who according to the Shako Bukuro, was aware of 
their identity, appeared to be satisfied, when one of his party whispered to him 



pointing out Yoshitsune. Benkei, equal to the occasion, swiftly turned, and 
reviling Yoshitsune for what he styled irreverent demeanour, gave him a stiff 
beating and apologized to Sayemon for the disgraceful conduct of that young 
monk, thus succeeding in getting through the gate. This is known as the 
Kan Jin Cho (subscription list) episode. At some previous time, when Yoritomo 
had sent Tosabo Shoshun to murder Yoshitsune by stealth, Benkei discovered 
him and brought him to the presence of his master. 

He is also shown attaching, by order of Yoshitsune, a notice to the plum 
tree of Amagasaki, which had been the subject of a poem of the Emperor 
Nintoku's. Benkei is often represented with seven weapons, swords, bow and 
arrow, axe, kanabo, etc. Benkei died erect, pierced by numberless arrows, 
on the bridge of the fortress of Takadachi, in Oshu, at the battle of Koromo 
Gawa, where Yoshitsume was defeated by Fujiwara Yasuhira in 1189. But 
legend says that only a dummy was on the bridge, and that he escaped with 
his master. 

~% J$. ]C> The only female member of the SniCHi-FuKU-JiN or Gods of Good 
Fortune, she is the Goddess of learning and speech, the transformation of 
SARASVATI, and her attributes are the Dragon and HAKUJA, the white serpent 
sometimes shown with the appearance of the former : as an old man with white 
eyebrows and a crown. She is also the Goddess of Love, and is particularly 
worshipped at Enoshima, (in connection with this temple, see the Story of Hojo 
Tokimasa) and in the islands of Chikubushima, Miyajima (Itsukushima). 

Benten has fifteen sons : the fifteen youths (Jingo Dojii) Aikio, Hanki, 
Hikken, Guiba, Inyaku, Jusha, Keisho, Konsai, Kwantai, Sanyo, Sensha, 
Shusen, Shomo, Tochiu, and Zensai (q.v.) 

Benten is variously depicted with eight hands, vajra hilted sword and 
chakra, rope, axe, bow and arrow, as the Happi Benten, and the Kongo mio 
Benzaiten, or merely as Dai Benzai ten with the sword and Tama. Her 
worship replaced that of Itsukushima (daughter of Susano-o), subsequently to 
the introduction of the Shingon sect by Kobodaishi. (See Anderson and 
Butsu Dzo Dzui.) 



Benten is also called Kotokuten (Kung Te) or Goddess of meritorious works 
and Ako mio-on-ten, Goddess of the marvellous voice. 

A popular story quoted by Puini (II sette genii della felicita) says that 
Bunsho, daughter of Shimmiyosu Daimiojin prayed to Benten to grant her 
male heirs. One day she gave birth to 500 eggs, and afraid least some monster 
might issue from the eggs, she had them placed in a basket and put in the 
Rinzugawa near by. A fisherman lower down rescued them from the stream, 
and set them in warm sand to hatch ; great was his astonishment a few days 
later, at finding instead of chicks, a crowd of boys. The poor man asked the 
advice of the head man, who advised him to seek help from the charitable lady 
Bunsho, and thus the boys were returned to their progenitor, educated as 
befitted their station, and their mother was deified. 

76. BEN WA ~j\ ^Q. Chinese sage, shown on one side of a river, with a 
jade stone, whilst on the other, a Prince looks at him. He brought the stone 
to the King, who would not believe it was jade, owing to its size, and sentenced 
him as an impostor, but Benwa stood his ground, and after repeated audiences, 
convinced the Prince of the purity of the gem. 

77. BIDORI. (See the Tongue cut Sparrow.) 

78. BIMBO j^ 2>,. Bimbo was a poor farmer of Hakuzan in Echizen, 
whose worldly possessions after twenty years of unremitting toil, were barely 
three-quarter of an acre of land, and who, having no son, wished to adopt a boy, 
One day, as he was leaving the field, a storm broke out, and lightning fell at 
his very feet, dazzling him. After many invocations to the Gods, he was starting 
for home, when he noticed a rosy little boy lying on the ground, whom he picked 
up and 'took to his wife. They called the baby RAITARO : The first born of the 
Thunder God, a Gift from RAJJIN. Prosperity followed, and Bimbo changed his 
name to KANEMOCHI. When Raitaro was eighteen years old, he took the shape 
of a dragon and flew away towards a castle shaped group of clouds, far away 
above the hills. When Kanemochi and his wife were buried, their gravestone 
was hewn in the shape of a dragon. (Griffis). 

79. BIMBOGAMI J| ; P The God of poverty, attended by the poverty 

2 3 


insect (Death-watch : Anobium notatum) or BIMBO MUSHI, the ticking of which 
betrays the presence of the God. He is black and is the shadow of the white 
God of riches FUKU NO KAMI. Charms are of very little avail against his 
presence, but one consists in placing a copper rin in one of those bamboo tubes 
used as fire bellows (Hifikidake), and after reciting a magical sentence, throwing 
the lot out of doors. See the story of ENJOBO. (Hearn). 

80. BINGA CHO H Hm J|, " Angels," (See GARIO). 


82. BINSON PH Jf|. The Chinese paragon of filial virtue MIN SUN who is 
also named in Japanese SHIKEN. He had a step-mother with two sons of her own, 
who treated him badly, left him half starving, and clothed in rags. Once when 
he drove his father's wagon, he was so weak that he could not keep the reins in his 
hands, and his father discovered the ill use he had to stand. He then proposed to 
divorce his wife, but MIN SUN intervened saying that it would be better for him 
to die of cold and hunger than to let his step-mother and two half-brothers be 
driven away. It is said that the wretched woman reformed her ways. 

83. BINZURU H[ Hf JH (JIKAKU DAISHI). One of the sixteen Arhats 
(Pindola) who broke his vow of chastity by remarking on the beauty of a female, 
and is accordingly excluded from the circle, and his statues left outside the 
chancel. Buddha gave him the power of healing, and people go and rub the 
part of his statue corresponding to the part of their own body which is in need 
of cure. He is said to have been a retainer of the King Udayama, and is often 
confused with Ikkaku Sennin and with Kume no Sennin. 

Binzuru's name is also given as Hatsuratasha in the Butsu dzo dzui and 
various legends relating to him make of this fallen Arhat the Wandering Jew 
of Buddhism. Indeed its story has been discussed under that title in Nature 
(1895), and later in Notes and Queries by Mr. Minakata Kumagusu (1899- 

84. BISHAMON TEN ?4t ^ H ^C (TAMONKEN), the equivalent of KUVERA 
the Hindoo God of riches, is also the God of wealth in the Chinese Pantheon. 
He is one of the Shichi Fuku-jin, and also belongs to the Jiu-ni-O (Twelve Deva 



(Cotlccttons of Sltitzo I'Ctito and the Author) 



Kings), and is shown in full armour, with a fierce expression, carrying in his right 
hand a small pagoda shaped shrine, and in the left a lance. The latter attribute 
is responsible for his erroneous description amongst the Gods of war. 

Identical with Vaisramana, the Maharajah of the west he is one of the Shi 
Tenno, and he saved the life of Shotoku Taishi, in the latter's holy war against 
the enemy of Buddhism Moriya. According to tradition, Shotoku Taishi had in 
his helmet figures of the four Maharajah's, and Bishamon appeared to him in 
battle as a venerable old man. 

85. BLIND MEN, earn their living as Shampooers, money lenders and 
musicians. When addicted to the first occupation they are called Amma San, 
and they form an unending theme for funny carvings or other artistic presentment, 
either single with a huge sponge, or in pairs with all their working paraphernalia, 
their whistles and sticks, or at work on a patient, and often in humorous groups. 

Blind men feeling an elephant is a common subject, and there is a story that 
once an Indian elephant having been brought to Japan, a party of blind people 
went to feel it, and could not agree in their opinions of the nature of the 
monster, finding it like a dagger, a snake, the trunk of a tree, as they touched the 
tusks, the trunk or the legs of the animal. And a moral is deduced therefrom, 
not to judge of anything on the impression caused by parts only, instead of the 
whole. The patron of the blind is KAGEKIYO, and their headman holds an official 
diploma and the title Kengyo. 

86. BOEI ^ ^ (SENNIN), ascended to heaven in a cloud, in the fourth 
year of Shogen, in the reign of Sen of the Kan dynasty. His brothers KI-I and 
SHIKWA then resigned their respective governorships of Suikwa and Bui, and 
went to the eastern mounts where he instructed them, (sitting on a cloud). 

87. BOKKO ?fC (SENNIN), controlled the inhabitants of fairyland and 
superintended the magic of the world. He is represented standing on a terrace 
from which on the day of Tei-U, he looked over Tenko. 

88. BOKU-O ^ f| 3 (See MUHWANG). Fifth sovereign of the fifth 
dynasty of CHOW in China, reigned from 1001 till 947 B.C., and his history is 
shrouded in legend. Two episodes are most often chronicled ; one his journey to 

2 5 


visit Sei Wang Mu (Seiobo) in the Kwen-lun mountains when but seventeen years 
old, the other his expedition against the tribes of Southern China, in a war 
chariot driven by Tsao-Fu, and the eight horses of which carried him "wherever 
wheel-ruts ran or hoofs had trodden." These eight horses are also fairly often 
met with in Japanese art. 

89. BOMO 7$ H! or MAO-MENG of Kanyo, one of the Sennins, shown 
standing on the head of a dragon, was a servant and pupil of Kikoku Sensei. 
He went to mount Ko, and was carried to heaven by a dragon on the day of 
Koshi, the gth month, the 3oth year of the beginning of the Shin dynasty. 

go. BOKUSH1 |{| -f- of So, noticed in his sleep that a man from mount 
Sayu was reciting books, and heaping clothes upon him. Once he watched and 
when the stranger came he asked him whether he was the spirit of the mountain, 
and if so to teach him the secret of immortality. The stranger consented and 
gave him a sacred book. 

He is depicted rising from his bed to greet the spirit. 

91. BRIDGES See :- 

Banyu Gawa, Gensuke (Matsue Bridge), 

Ichirai Hoshi, Kakudaitsu 

Seta Bridge, and Tawara Toda, Rohan 

Benkei (Gojo Bridge), Tanabata. 

In Chinese romance, the LAN K'lAO jj^ ^ or INDIGO BRIDGE on CH'ANG 
NGAN is famous and emblematic of faithful love, because, once Wei Sheng Kao, 
having been given an appointment under the bridge by a woman, was overtaken 
by a sudden flood, but let himself be drowned clasping a pillar rather than 
abandon his tryst, and the Sennin P'ei Hang under the Tang dynasty, fell in love 
with a girl who lived near that bridge, and of whose name he had once dreamt. 
The Sennin had however, to spend a month in search of a jade mortar and pestle 
for the girl's mother, before the wedding could take place. 

92. BUGAKU |8| =H| or SAREGAKU, a warrior dance, anterior to the No. 
Amongst other books see Bugaku-no-Zu (1840) by Takashima Chiharu. 

93. BUJUTSU (CHO-) $1 ft (See Yojo). 


BISIIAMON (<;.//..V.) 


BISHAMO.N (ir.C.,/.) 

BOMO (If.L.K.) 

BUWO ('./..y;.) 

BUSHISHI (//'./.. K.) 



94. BUNGORO ;> jS. 115 (DAIGOZAN-). The son of BUZAYEMON, born at 
Murakami in 1788, weighing then 3% kilogs, he grew to two feet high by the 
time he was nine months old, and as a monstrosity was daily paraded in the 
procession of wrestlers before the beginning of their matches (or Dohyo-iri). It 
is sometimes quoted as an illustration of a large but weak thing, like the big 
trunk of the Aralia Edulis aimed at in the Japanese proverb " Udo no Tai-boku." 

95. BUNKI MANDARA ^ H J| P JH- When CHUJO-HIME 4 1 $f #15 
daughter of Toyonari Fujiwara became a nun, in 763, at the monastry of 
Tayema Dera she prayed ardently that the Boddhisatvas might appear to her 
in the flesh. At last they granted her prayer, and in a night one of them weaved 
before her, with lotus fibres, a picture of Paradise, fifteen feet square, in a room 
nine feet wide. 

96. BUMBUKU CHAGAMA jg ' |. The Lucky Tea Kettle. 

This is one of the Badger stories and relates to an old tea kettle, the property 
of a priest of the temple of Morinji in the town of Tatebayashi near Tokyo. 
One day as the priest was putting the kettle on the fire, he suddenly saw four legs 
appear at the bottom, the spout change into the neck and head of a badger, 
and a long bushy tail shoot out at the back. The kettle also became covered with 
hair, and assuming the shape of a badger, started running round the temple. 
After a difficult chase it was secured, and placed in a box, where it resumed its 
normal shape. The priest sold it for twenty vin to a tinker who, waking up in 
the night saw the kettle walking about the room. On the advice of a friend he 
started as a showman to exhibit this accomplished kettle, and after making a 
fortune, took it back to the temple, where it was laid amongst the treasures. 

97. BUNSHO 3t Jit- The Chinese Sennin WEN-SIAO, generally shown w r ith 
his wife SHINRETSU (Ts'Ai LWAN), daughter of the paragon of filial virtue Wu 
Meng ; both of them riding tigers which carried them to heaven. 

98. BUSHISHI j jj^ i- The Sennin Wu-Sm-TszE, generally shown 
ascending to heaven on an open scroll, as he was wont to ride on a magic blue 
scroll wherever he pleased. 



99. BUTTERFLY DANCE. A woman's dance performed with butterfly 
wings attaced to the shoulders. Its invention is often attributed with that of 
several other dances to the Chinese P'AN FEI, " in whose footsteps grew the 

100. BUWO ^ 3E (Wu WANG). Founder of the SHU (Cnow) ^ dynasty, 
who in the semi-legendary period (1069 B.C.), led the revolt against SHO (SHANG). 
At the battle of Bokuya the opponent general Hoso, cut him down with a spear, 
but was put to flight by a golden dragon with eight claws. Hoso was captured 
by Sangisei and Nankinwatsu, but Buwo granted him his life on account of his 
bravery. When however he saw the troops of Sho defeated, Hoso beheaded 

101. CARP $$[ (Koi). Often represented leaping a waterfall, in allusion to 
a Chinese story of a sturgeon of the Hang- Ho, which having swam up the river, 
crossed the rapids of Lung Men (Dragon Gate), on the third day of the third 
month, and itself became a dragon. 

The carp is an attribute of Kinko, Ebisu, Kensu. 

102. CASH. Copper cash strung together are often seen as netsuke. 
When fifteen, they represent the customary offering to the Gods of fifteen new 
coins, made at the time of every new issue from the mint. 

Sixteen are emblematic of the sixteenth day of the sixth month, when from 
from old times sixteen cakes were eaten as a charm against pestilence ; poor 
people who could not afford sixteen cakes, had sixteen cash worth, and in memory 
of the introduction of the Kago Tsuho (Chinese copper cash) in 1244 by Go Saga 
Tenno, the day is called Go Kajo. 


104. CATS 3f. Japanese cats are like Manx cats, with stumps instead of 
tails, and a long tailed one is accordingly credited with supernatual powers (See 
the story of O TOYO, the goblin Cat of Nabeshima). Cats of three colors are 
called Mike-Neko, and are considered lucky, especially by sailors, who believe 
them capable of keeping the Bake (Honorable ghosts) away. If a cat is left 



with a dead body, the corpse will get up and dance. At the time of Buddha's 
death (Nehon no Shako) all the animals wept with the exception of the Cat. 

One meets sometimes with representations of two cats, one male and one 
female (0-han Chio-e-mon-o-michiuki) representing the story of two lovers who 
eloped, and were transformed into cats. The Neko Bake was an old cannibal 
woman haunting the old houses of Okasaki on the Tokaido road. 

Maneki Neko is the Beckoning, bewitching kitten. 

A story of two cats is given in Mitford's tales. A man had a daughter who 
was continuously followed by an old torn cat, and thinking the torn might be 
somehow in love with his daughter and trying to cast a spell upon her, he decided 
to kill him. But at night, the cat came and told him that really it was an old 
rat living in the loft which was in love with the girl, and he dogged her footsteps 
to protect her. He further advised him to borrow a cat named Buchi belonging 
to some Ajikawa man, so that with its help they might kill the rat. The old man 
followed the cat's advice, and during the same night was awakened by a great 
noise, to find that the rat was nearly too strong for the two cats. He thereupon, 
cut its throat. The two cats however, soon died of their wounds, and were buried 
in the temple. 

NABESHIMA NO NEKO f$ H $f. One of the Daimios of Hizen 
had a favourite named O TOYO, who one night was killed by a large 
cat, the brute burying her thereafter in the gardens, and assuming her shape, to 
harass the prince, whose life ebbed away day by day. His councilors decided 
that a guard of a hundred men should every night watch his sleep, but this 
proved ineffective, as they were driven to sleep irresistibly towards the ninth hour. 
It was then decided to get the priest Ruiten of Miyo-In to recite prayers, with 
a view to curing the prince. One night, this priest noticed a soldier praying to 
Buddha, and on enquiry, found that he was praying to the same end as himself, 
because being of too small a rank, he could not be allowed to watch in the 
Daimio's room. Ruiten arranged that this very loyal Ito Soda should watch 
that same night. At the usual time, all the retainers succombed to that strange 
slumber except Ito, who, as he felt sleep overcoming him, placed on the mats a 
square of oiled paper, and dug his ko-katana in his thigh, turning it in the wound 



as sleep grew upon him. O Toyo's double, came and expressed her surprise at 
this loyal spirit, but thanks to his watchfulness she was unable to harass the 
prince, either then or during the following nights. She then desisted from 
coming into the room again, and thereafter the men did not feel this over- 
powering sleep. Ito expressed his opinion that this was proof of the apparent 
O Toyo's witchcraft, and induced Isahaya Buzen, the Daimio's chief councillor, 
to set an armed watch around the castle whilst he went to attack the witch in 
her own room ; when after fighting him for some time with a halberd, she took 
the form of a huge cat with two tails, and escaped, to be later caught amongst 
the mountains. 

105. CATFISH jH;. (See NAMAZU), EARTHQUAKE FISH, Jishin uwo. 

106. CHA NO YU ^ 0) H|. Reduced to a bare definition, the Cha no yu, 
tea ceremony, consists in the meeting of several guests in a room of simple con- 
struction, to partake each of a sip of a cup of tea specially prepared by their 
host, in a solemn manner, according to certain intricate rules. 

The tea plant was imported from China in the VHIth and IXth centuries by 
Dengyo Daishi and Kobodaishi, but its cultivation, though encouraged by Saga 
Tenno, did not flourish until the XHIth century, when Yeisai attempted to convert 
the Shogun Sanetomo to its use in place of the intoxicating liquors to which 
this ruler was addicted. Shortly after, a Buddhist monk brought from China a 
complete set of utensils then used in preparing the ordinary tea infusion, and 
these impliments became the property of the famous Ashikaga Takauji. By that 
time the plantations of tea trees made in Seburiyama by Yeisai (Senko) and his 
friend Myo-ye in Uji, had prospered, and when tea drinking became fashionable 
amongst the leading classes, Shuko, priest of Shomiyoji, was entrusted by 
Yoshimasa with the drafting of a code of rules to be observed in the preparation 
of tea. It was Shuko who introduced the method of grinding the tea to a 
powder, a practice which is followed to this day, and has received the name of 
Ma cha (powder tea). 

Kitanuki Dochin and Takeno Showo followed Shuko as tea experts (Chajin), 
and their pupil SEN NO RIKIU became attached in that capacity to Oda Nobunaga, 
and later to Toyotomi Hideyoshi. 



Rikiu codified the rules of the Cha no yu to a greater nicety of detail than 
his predecessors, and, perhaps owing to the depleted state of the country after 
long internal wars, perhaps also from purely sesthetic motives connected with 
the highly religious associations of the Cha no yu, he decreed that the utensils 
were to be without intrinsic value, and the Cha no yu rooms, then called Sukiya, 
small (four-and-a-half mats), simple and decorated in the plainest possible style. 

The priests of the Zen-Shu sect had from the beginning been the apostles of 
the Cha no yu they became in time besides Chajin, art critics, to whom were 
submitted pictures, pottery, carvings, by those desirous to obtain expert opinion : 
to this state of afiairs the learned Keeper of the Musee d'Ennery, Mr. E. Deshayes 
attributes the taste of Japanese for plain pottery in a lecture delivered at the 
Musee Guimet, in January, 1898. 

It is chronicled that the simplicity which had at first been a natural con- 
dition of the Cha no ym became later affected and that a sentimental value was 
attached to tea bowls, bamboo whisks, kettles, etc., altogether beyond sane 
limits. It is questionable however whether the craze reached its apex before 
the sale held in 1899 at Tokyo and quoted by Brinkley, when a bamboo flower 
vase reached over five hundred yen, and a Kakemono on which the two characters, 
Hei-Shin, had been written by a literati of the Tang dynasty, nearly touched 
sixteen hundred yen. . . . An example worthily followed by western amateurs 
in their quest for archaic Japanese works of art. 

The rules of Cha no yu, however, altered in the course of time until there are 
at present several schools of Chajin, whose elaborate performances differ by 
details of more or less importance. Two kinds of tea are drunk : the Usu cha or 
weak tea, and the Koi cha or thick tea, said to resemble weak spinach. 

The general programme of the ceremony is as follows : (i) The host 
prepares the room ; (2) The guests, on arrival, assemble in a Pavilion in a garden ; 
(3) The guests are called by means of a wooden gong, they wash their hands, and 
enter the special room (Cha shitsu) through a very small and low opening ; (4) The 
guests congratulate the host, and partake of a light repast ; (5) The guests 
retire to the garden ; (6) They re-enter the room ; (7) The host brings forth 
from his kitchen (Mizu-ya) the various implements which are duly admired one 
by one in rotation and their artistic value commented upon ; (8) The host 

3 1 


places in a tea bowl a spoonful of ground Uji tea, pours water over it, whisks 
the mixture to a frothy mass, and hands it to the chief guest who raises the bowl 
to the level of his forehead, lowers it, drinks, lowers it again, brings it to the 
level at which he received it from the host, wipes it, passes it to the next guest. 
The bowl makes a complete turn on itself during the several motions indicated 
above. When the host receives it back, he drains it, apologizes for the poorness 
of the brew, and after wiping the bowl passes it round again for examination, 
and his guests leave with due ceremony. 

In summer a portable furnace is used to prepare the boiling water, in winter 
the fire-place in the floor of the room is made use of. The Tamagawa River 
famous for the passage of Narihira is associated with a Cha no yu garden called 
Tamagawa Cha Niwa in memory of a chajin Rosha who lived near that river. 

A more detailed account of the Cha no yu can be found in the fifth volume 
of the Trans. Japan Society, by W. Harding Smith ; a historical sketch in the 
preface of Von Langegg Thee Geschichten, and a general article in " Things 

As the implements of the tea ceremony are of frequent occurence in art, 
our illustration has been prepared chiefly from the Nikon Fuzoku Shi, and 
the following list gives the names of the various utensils, for the convenience 
of collectors. 

r. CHA IRE, Tea caddy. 

2. CHA IRE FUKURO, Silk bag for same. 

3. FUTA OKI, Stand for kettle cover. 

4. CHA SEN, Tea whisk. 

5. HABOKI, Feather brush for ashes. 

6. KOGO, Incense box. 

7. GOTOKU, Kettle holder. 

8. HAI NO NABE, Ash box. 

9. CHA WAN, Tea bowl. 
10. IDO CHA WAN, id. 

n. FUKUSA, Silk wrapper. 

12. CHAKIN, Tea napkin. 

13. CHASAZI or CHAHI, Spoon shaped tea measure. 

3 2 





CHAJIN (/!/..) 


14. HISHAKU, Water dipper. 

15. HIBASHI, Fire tongues (used like chopsticks). 

1 6. KWAN, Split rings to lift the kettle. 

17. RAKU, Nane of ware (Cha wan). 

1 8. KAMA, Kettle. 

19. FURO, Stove used in summer. 

20. Mizu ZASHI, Fresh water jar. 

21. HAIJO, Tool used in arranging the ashes with a pattern on the surface. 

22. CHIZUKEI, Bamboo flower stand. 

22A. KAKE HANA IKE, Hanging flower basket. 

23. JIZAI, "Pot hook" to hang kettle above fire. 

24. KAMA SHIKI, Bamboo mat for kettle. 

25. SETTO, Cover for stove. 

26. KANKEI, Lamp stand. 

27. Ro, Fire-place iron frame, for winter use. 

28. SUMI TORI, Charcoal basket. 

29. SUKIA ANDO, Paper lantern. 

30. Mizu KOBOSHI, Slop basin. 

31. CHA Usu, Tea mill. 

A common enough type of netsuke represents the Tea gatherer, a bonny 
little woman in gay clothes, carrying a basket of green leaves in her hands, 
another common subject is a gibe at the Chajin, who is represented asleep on his 
tea mill. 

It is reported of Itakura Shigemune that when he was called upon to try a 
case in which he thought the personal appearance of the parties might prejudice 
his mind, he sat behind a screen grinding tea whilst the litigants gave their 

According to tradition, leyasu desired to be rid of Kato Kiyomasa and 
ordered one of his retainers to invite him to a Cha no yu, in which the tea was 
mixed with poison, the retainer duly died, but some say that Kato Kiyomasa 
escaped death. 

It is told of Rikiu, that once his servant having swept the garden path 
quite clean prior to a Cha no yu, the Chajin went out, and silently shook a tree, 



the leaves of which scattering on the path reestablished its natural appearance. 
He was allowed to make a tea ceremony for himself before his execution. 

107. CHAN CHU ityt $$i [M Ml A Chinese legend. Chan chu is the sacred 
frog HiA-Mo symbol of the rainy moon, in earthly life she was CH'ANG-NGO, wife 
of the archer How-I. When the moon was a prisoner in the clouds, and the ten 
suns had nearly wrecked the world, How-I struck them with his arrows, and 
delivered the moon ; in gratitude, Seiobo, gave him a jade cup containing the 
dew of Immortality, but Ch'ang Ngo stole it and flew to the moon, where she was 
at once transformed into a frog. 

108. CHANG-K'IEN. ?Jt ^. Chang K'ien was a minister of the Chinese 
Emperor Wu-Ti of the Han dynasty about 130 B.C. He is celebrated for his 
numerous journeys and embassies, and especially for his travels in Western China 
up to the sources of the Yellow River, this journey being the subject of the 
following legend : 

Chang K'ien travelled for seven days and nights up the Yellow River dis- 
covering vine trees, and meeting all the animals of Chinese Mythology: the huge 
tortoises, the tiger, seven feet long and a thousand years old, quite white and 
bearing on its forehead the character 3E (King), the blue storks sacred attendants 
of Seiobo, the Kwei or cassia tree of immortality, ten thousand feet high, the 
flaming fruits of which are more powerful than the peaches of Seiobo, conferring 
everlasting life to whoever eats them ; he saw the hare which lives in the moon, 
and the old man who binds lover's feet ; finally on the seventh night he noticed 
that there were no stars reflected in the waters. The following morning, near the 
sources he saw a woman dressed in silver cloth on which were embroidered figures 
of stars, and who was weaving the net of the Zodiac. He enquired what was her 
name and what was that place, but she only showed him her radiant shuttle, telling 
him to refer the matter to the astrologer on his return. This worthy, Gen Kum 
Pei ;|j ^P, told him that no doubt he had been as far as the star Chih Nil, 
the spinning maiden who, on the seventh night of the seventh month is allowed 
to cross over the milky way, to meet her lover, K'ien Niii, passing over a bridge 
of magpies, (some others say of red maple leaves), and that in fact referring to 
his observations, he had at that very same date noted a shooting star passing 



near Chih Nil. He had therefore travelled the whole length of the Yellow 
River as far as the milky way, which continues it into heaven, as decreed by 
Nil Kwa. 

The Chinese and Japanese Repository says that he brought to China the 
Spinach, and that he went south of the Equator, never to return ; but his 
oar was carried back by a spirit, who dropped it from heaven, and stated 
that the remainder of his ship would soon follow. In allusion to his 
journeys, the inscription, "The sea is full of propitious stars," is still written 
over the doors of boat cabins. 

no. CHAO YUN (See CHOUN). 

in. CHARMS (Mamori fuda) ^ %\j, are carried by people, in a small bag 
the shape of which is used as a model for netsuke, and which are called Mamori 
Bukuro, or Kinchaku. 

The Exorcism of Devils (Oni Yarai) is described later on, the return of the 
Oni after being cast out is prevented by driving in the top joint of the door frame 
a wooden skewer, passing through a holly leaf, and into the split head of which 
is fixed the head of a dried fish (Iwashi). 

Hinode (Sunrise), grass if allowed to grow on a roof, ensures the house 
against fire. 

The Kusudama is a charm formed of oranges, white and red flowers, and 
chrysanthemum leaves, used on the boys' festival or Tango no Sekku : The various 
components of the charm are bound together by strings of five colors. 

Amongst love charms, the ashes of the newt are specially valued, and the 
animal itself on being asked whether there was any other love philtre, made with 
his toe a ring, meaning : only this : Money ! 

The Ten Teri Bozu are rude figures of a man and some children cut out of 
paper, which are fastened to the doors of houses, or to a species of belladonna to 
obtain fine weather. 

Clay statuettes of Hotei are bought by the people on the first horse day of the 
second month at the temple of Inari at Miyako ; if kept in good order, on a 
raised throne near the kitchen oven for seven years, this is considered a token of 



good luck, the images are then buried in the garden of the temple, and a new 
series started. 

Ants being unwelcome visitors, the ant charm (Ari yoke) trades upon their 
thrifty instinct, and consists only of a strip of paper with the notice Ichi nin maye, 
jiu roku mon, (each passer by to pay sixteen mon}. 

A Poem of Michizane was held in great esteem in Kiushu as a protection 
against the Kappa (q.v.). 

Small Zori (straw sandals) are hung in front of doors to prevent children 
from catching infantile diseases. 

Gohei and Shimenawa, identical with those used in Shinto temples, form 
part of the working paraphernalia of the Corean Sorceress. Sorcery is 
monopolised there by females. 

Strips of paper or thin wooden laths with inscriptions, or impressions of 
sacred woodcuts, are used as general charms. They are obtained from temples, 
and are placed above the door, year after year. 

Burglars and thieves are easily caught if one burns moxas on their foot- 
prints. Their visits are avoided by pasting in the house a print of the Dog of 
Mitsumine, or by placing a kitchen knife (hocho) under an inverted wash basin, 
. made of brass, and called Kanadarai, on the bottom of which is placed a Zori 
(straw sandal). 

Unfortunately, there is a counter charm intended to bring sleep upon the 
inmates, and which consists in the would-be thief performing in the garden a 
simple but indescribable operation. The burning of moxas is said to make sore 
the feet of the author of the foot-prints and prevent him from fleeing afar. It is 
also recommended to apply moxas to the getas (clogs) of any guest who remains 
too long in the house, bores being apparently common the world over ; a broom 
is set upside down at the same time, and the unwelcome visitor will then leave. 

DOG AND BABY. Figures of a dog and child, placed in a room in the raised 
Tokonoma, are believed to be a charm against most evils. 

USHI TOKI MAIRI Q $f fa 9 , " Praying at the hour of the Ox " is a 
mode of incantation or envoutement to obtain from the Gods the speedy death of 
an enemy or a faithless lover. The woman bent upon this purpose, goes at two 
o'clock in the morning to the local shrine, armed with a hammer, some nails, and 


CARP (A ) 



CHINNAN (.l/.r.) 


sometimes a straw doll, representing the doomed person. She drives the nails in 
a tree and prays for the demise of her enemy, repeating the invocations several 
nights in succession. Usually the woman lets her hair down her back, carries on 
her head an iron tripod with three lighted candles, and wears very high clogs. 
See Bimbogami, Nanakusa. 

112. CHENG (SHE WANG Ti) jgr rj Jl ^]. Said to be the son of the 
Chinese Minister Lu Pu WEI, and of the wife of the Emperor CHWAN SIANG WANG 
whom he succeeded in 247 B.C. He is responsible for the construction of the great 
wall, and the destruction in 213 B.C. of all the literary records, with the exception 
of a few on medicine, Feng Shuy, and of those which, according to legend, were 
taken to Japan by JOFUKU (Su She), though there appears to be a difference of 
six years between the two events. He was highly superstituous, and having been 
told that his empire would be overthrown by Hu, he spent most of his forces in 
keeping at bay the northern tribes of barbarians (Hu), little dreaming that the 
prophecy would be fulfilled by his own son, Hu Hai. 

A favorite representation shows him under a pine tree, sometimes as a boy, 
(he mounted the throne when thirteen years old), in allusion to the legend that 
one day a storm breaking whilst he was walking he ran for shelter under a 
gnarled tree, which at once shot forth twigs and leaves to provide adequate 
shelter for the august head. 


114. CHENG TU ^ {jlj, called the begging bowl priest, was a Chinese 
priest whose magic powers were doubted by a magistrate. In answer he boiled 
some water in his alms bowl, and from the seething water he caused flowers to 

115. CHESTNUTS. See Emblems. Story of the Monkey and the Crab. 
(Tooth- marked), See Go-Daigo. 

116. CHIHAKU|H&. SeeYojo. 


118. CHINGI ffi, f!|, (leading an ox with his wife) of Gogun, learned 



Taoism in Shokuchu, and acquired great merit in curing the sick. His virtue was 
recognised, and Roshi called him to heaven. He ascended to the sky with his 
wife KEISHI JF -f in broad daylight, during a frost, after which the spectators 
below could not see him, or his wife, any more, but the bull which was hitched 
to their waggon remained in their field marking the place of their ascent. 

119. CHINHAKU ^ |$, who was also called UN-SENSEI (Mr. Cloud), rode 
on a donkey, and travelled to Kwaen for pleasure. 

120. CHINNAN ^ >fj|). The Chinese Sennin CH'EN NAN, also called 
SUIKYO and NANBOKU, shown evoking a Dragon from a gourd or bowl, or 
sailing on a large hat. Like many other Rishis, he is an old man of beggarly 
appearance and he was wont to travel several hundred Li daily with his 
hair flowing behind him. 

Legend has it that he lived 1,350 years, mostly on dog's flesh, making baskets, 
and hiding in the dust, besides transmuting metals, and concocting magic pills. 
Once passing through a village in Sogo, he found the people praying for rain, 
whereupon he thrust his stick into a pool of dried mud in which he detected the 
presence of a dragon, and compelled the latter to open the cataracts of heaven 
upon the parched land. He is often called the Dragon Sennin, and his hat plays 
the role of a boat as well as his umbrella, because he once used it to cross a river 
as there was nobody to ferry him. 

121. CHIUYU ffi ft, the Chinese CHUNG YEO or TSZE Lu, one of the filial 
paragons who used to carry ice blocks on his back for the sustenance of his 
parents in his young age. He lived from 543 to 480 B.C., and was one of the 
disciples of Confucius. According to legend, the Thunder God was his father, 
and he was a very martial character. 

122. CHISHI (KEISHI), the family name of the Chinese priest deified as 
HOTEI (q.v.). 

123. CHIOSU. During the war between the Minamoto and Taira, one of 
the retainers of the lord of Chiosu, having been sent on an expedition, encountered 
a party of the enemy and barely escaped with his life, his armour being cut to 



pieces. On his return he was presented by his lord with his own set of armour 
as a mark of appreciation. This story is sometimes found in prints. 

124. CHIUAI ffl lik. Jfc JE- One of the Emperors, the pusillanimous 
husband of JINGO KOGO (q.v.). Kwannon sent him two dreams, ordering him 
to subdue Corea, but as he disdained them, sent him a fever, of which he died. 

125. CHISHO-DAISHI |? gg ~X frfi. Posthumous name of ENSHIN [H ^r. 

126. CHIYO ^p ftl (KAGA NO). Poetess who once found her water bucket 
floating in her well, and the well rope entwined by the tendrils of a convolvulus. 
Rather than disturb the dainty plant, Chiyo went out and begged water from her 
neighbours, saying : 

Asagao ni, 

Tsurube torarete, 
Morai midzu. 

"My well bucket being taken from me by the convolvulus (Asagao) gift 
water ? " 

In allusion to this story, flower arrangements of Asagao are usually made 
with a water bucket. 

127. CHOCHU 5J^ tf. Sennin shown with a long hair brush ; he wore an 
iron cap from which he took his surname TETSUKAN-DOJIN. 

128. CHODORIO UJ| it gt The Sennin CHANG TAO LING. He was nine 
feet two inches high, with features correspondingly large. A fine beard, green 
triangular eyes, and arms so long that the tip of his fingers covered his knees when 
he stood upright, complete the picture given of him in Taoist books. He was 
born in A.D. 34 at a place named Tien muh San, and was the eighth descendant 
of Cho Shibo (Chorio, q.v.). The Ehon Shuku Bai says that when only seven 
years old he had mastered the Do Toki Kio of Lao Tsze and that he soon became 
proficient in the magic arts. Ocho 3E H. became his pupil, and they went, in 
the first month of Juntei, to Mount Kakumei, where Chodorio, under the name 
Shinjin, received further instructions at the hands of various Sennins. Later they 
both repaired to Mount Seijo, where they met six large devils, the chief of which 
at once set to exterminate Ocho, who threatened him with his magic. The 



demon, Rokudaijin, thereupon called some of his followers, whom he transformed 
into eight large tigers. Shinjin created a magic Kamshishi, which put the tigers 
to flight, but other demons came in the form of eight large dragons. Shinjin 
then produced a Kinchiso (bird with golden wings) which sprang on the dragons 
and bit their eyes out. The chief dragon lay at Chodorio's feet, and he threw 
upon the monster a block of rock weighing ten thousand Kin, upon which he 
placed two long fibres ; mice came out of the ground and pulled on both ends of 
these fibres. The pressure thus produced upon the dragon caused it to crave 
Chodorio's forgiveness, which was granted. Shinjin received the title Sei itsu 
Shinjin, and Lao Ts/.e himself honoured him with a magic book. After spending 
some years on the Lung Hit mountains, Chodorio compounded an elixir, and at 
the ripe age of 123 became one of the Immortals. His son Chang Heng followed 
in his steps, and according to Mayers his descendants were invested with the 
hereditary title " Preceptor of Heaven," the spirit of Chodorio passing by 
transmigration from the dying representative to some young member of the 
family, in the same way as with the Dalai Lama. 

Chodorio is depicted as a martial figure, sometimes standing on a cloud. 
Our illustration depicts the fight with Rokudaijin from a Tsuba, the treatment 
of which almost reproduces Tachibana Morikuni's composition in Ehon Shukit 

129. CHOGEN JH $fj or SHI'XJO. Old priest who reconstructed the Todaiji 
temple after its destruction by lire in 1180, the work lasting ten years, and temple 
being consecrated by the Emperor Go Toba in 1195. Following the example of 
one of the Emperors who had received voluntary contributions for the building of 
a temple, Shunjo went mounted on mule and armed with an imperial rescript, 
begging for alms v\ herewith to prosecute the work. He is represented on his 
mule and carrying the order in his hand. 

130. CHOHI H. ff. See TENAGA, or Long arms. 

131. CHOHI J| ffi. (CHANG FEI). A famous Chinese, who after being a 
butcher and a wine seller, became a sworn brother in arms of KWANYU and 
GENTOKU, with whom he led the wars of the Three Kingdoms in 184. One of 
his exploits is commonly represented and called the Story of the Undefended 



City. Finding himself in the presence of a large body of Tsao-Tsao's troops, he 
sent his army away leaving only three or four men, one of whom sat above the 
main gate playing the harpischord, whilst another swept the road in front. His 
troops effected a flanking movement, and joining some of his allies he attacked 
Tsao-Tsao on the rear and defeated him. Chohi was murdered by Fan Kiang 
in 220. He is characterised by his stature, flowing hair, fan-like beard, and 
a straight double-edged spear. See Kwanyu, Gentoku (Riubi). 

132. CHOJI H. lEf. Mythical beings in human shape and with long ears. 
These strange creatures are mentioned in the Xllth Century romance Huon de 
Bordeaux (Ed. Geo. Paris, p. 73) " dans la terre des Comains, ce sont des 

gens qui ne connaissent pas le ble et couchent en plein air, 

se couvrant de leurs oreilles." 

133. CHOKIAKU j| P. See ASHINAGA (long legs). 

134. CHOKITSU J|. "p^. Taoist worthy who was blind of both eyes, he 
declared himself 120 years old. He is shown groping with a cane. (See KIGA). 

135. CHOKO (CHANG HIAO) <JH and CHOREI $| jjj (CHANG Li) 
were two brothers who looked after their mother in her old age. Once the first 
one was bringing home a cabbage when he was set upon by robbers, and as he 
could not give them anything they decided to kill him, but agreed to stay the 
deed until he had delivered the cabbage to his mother. His young brother 
happened to be hard by and came to offer his own life in exchange for his 
brother's, and the robbers set them both free. 

136. CHOKWARO 51 ^ or TSUGEN $& . The Chinese Sennin CHANG 
KWOH ; one of the eight chief Rishis of the Taoists, said to have lived at the end 
of the seventh century. He died during the reign of Wu Hii but came to life 
again after a few days. Ming Hwang, in 723, sent three messengers to invite 
him to court, the first two fell with disease on their way, but the third brought 
with him the Sennin, who delighted the Emperor. He refused the hand 
of a princess and declined the honour of having his portrait placed in 
the Hall of Ancestors and finally refused the offer of a high priestly office at 
court, preferring his wandering life in the company of his magic mule. 



This wonderful animal could carry him for thousands of miles at a time, 
and required no fodder, the Sennin keeping it in a gourd when not 
otherwise in use, and simply spraying water from his mouth upon the dried 
up and shrivelled form to get it ready for a fresh trip. Chokwaro is always 
shown with his gourd, and the mule, or, as a pun, the Koma (horse) pawn 
of the game of chess. Often the mule is shown alone, in netsuke, escaping from 
the gourd, or wrapped in cobwebs inside the gourd. In the first case it is not as 
might be thought emblematic of Chokwaro, but of the proverb Hyotan kara 
Koma (Detta) meaning : horse out of a gourd (coming) is a very unexpected 
occurrence [compare Dragon] which may however have originated with the 
legend of Chokwaro. 

137. CHOKIUKA $| Jl If (CHANG Kiu Ko). Toaist sage who lived in 
the Keireki period, under the So dynasty. It is said that he wore thin unlined 
clothes, even in the depth of winter. Once he was invited to court, and 
exhibited his magic powers to the Emperor En, by cutting pieces of his own 
clothes, which became transformed into butterflies, but resumed their original 
nature and position when he clapped his hands. This original version has been 
modified to the effect that he remonstrated with the Emperor, because the latter's 
clothes were too thin, and that his magic operation was performed upon the 
monarch's robes. 

138. CHORIO H j, The Chinese CHANG LIANG, one of the Three Heroes 
of China, said to have been a governor of the province of Han, and despoiled by 
the Emperor of Tsing, whom he tried to defeat, failing, however, at the battle of 
Hsiai Hai, after which he led a wandering life until he joined Liu Pang, in 
208 B.C. He is usually depicted under a bridge, picking up a shoe, and 
threatening a dragon with his drawn sword. According to a Taoist legend, he 
was one day crossing the bridge of the river I, when there passed mounted on 
a mule, an old and poor looking man whose sandal had dropped from his foot 
to the bank of the river. According to one version the old man commanded 
Chorio to pick up the shoe, which he did, moved to pity for the old man, though 
feeling very much the indignity. 

A more often accepted story is that he picked up the shoe of his own free 


CHORIO (.l/.G.) 




will and gave it back to the passer-by. This individual was no other than 
HWANG SHI KUNG, the Yellow Stone Elder, KOSEKIKO (q.v.), and he asked 
Chang Liang to meet him five days later, at a certain place, as he intended 
to give him a slight reward. Chang Liang arrived after Kosekiko, and the 
elder postponed the gift, doing so again the second time, until at last on the 
third appointment he was satisfied that Chorio had respectfully preceded him by 
a sufficiently long interval. He then gave him a roll of manuscript, and 
told him that the man who read that book would become the preceptor of 
the King. 

This book is said to have passed from China to Kiichi Hogen, and to 
have been studied by Yoshitsune, and later Kusunoki Masashige. 

He also told him that thirteen years later Chorio would meet him at Kuh 
Cheng, in the form of a yellow stone, as in fact did happen. The shoe incident 
is often presented in art, one of its variants showing Chorio astride a Dragon in 
the river and handing the shoe to Kosekiko. Chang Liang was one of the first 
adherents of Liu Pang in his revolt against the Ts'in, which led to the 
foundation of the Han dynasty. He became one of its ministers, but retired 
from public life in order to pursue a magical career with CHIH SUNG TSZE. 
This supernatural being who had visited Seiobo was, however, unable to help 
Chorio in his search for the elixir of eternal life, and as the latter had nearly 
given up the use of ordinary food, his demise followed speedily in 198 B.C. 

Chorio was taught the value of patience on another occasion by seeing an 
old woman grinding down a big iron rod to make a needle. 

Chorio is said to have once called at the camp of Kanshin, describing 
himself as a country friend. On meeting the hero he told him that for many 
years his family had treasured three swords, but that he had decided to sell them 
to people worthy to possess them. The Emperor's sword (Tenshi ken) he had 
sold to Haiko (Gentoku), the Saisho no ken or Prime Minister's sword he had sold 
to Shoga, and he held before him the Genju no ken or General-in-Chief's sword. 
Kanshin examined the blade and asked him whether he was not Cho Shibo 
(as Chorio was then called), and upon his affirmative answer asked him how he 
could join the Prince of Han (Kan no Koso). Chorio then instructed him 
and departed (Shaho Bukuroi). 



139. CHOSANSHU $| H -jr, or KUMPO, had a body like a tortoise, big 
bones, round eyes, large ears, a beard like horse hair, and he was seven feet high. 
He plaited his hair in a cue, wore in all seasons a fur coat and a hat, and carried 
a short dagger in his hand. 

140. CHOSHI (KiANG SHE). See KIOSHI, one of the twenty-four paragons 
of filial virtue. 

141. CHOSHIKWA $| jg Tffl (CHIH Ho), lived in the reign of Shukuso of 
To, and could drink up to three to (nearly twelve gallons) of wine without losing 
his head or feeling tired. He could sleep in the snow, and the water could not 
wet him. His bosom friend was GWANSHINKEI, and once after banqueting 
together, Choshikwa spread the mat on a pond and sat on it drinking 
alone, a crane flying from the sky alighted upon his head. He is depicted 

142. CHOSHINJIN i|j| J|L X was a wizard of mount Seijo in the time 
of the Emperor Bun of Zui. He became governor of the Shokugun, a district 
in which a certain river was infested by a mischievous dragon, which sometimes 
stopped the flow of the water and killed people on the banks. He had the 
dragon challenged with trumpets and gongs and leapt into the river, soon 
coming back with the monster's head in his left hand and a dagger in the 

143. CHOSOYU $1 flf" $$ (CHANG SANG-YU) was a Chinese painter of 
the sixth century. Once he painted a dragon, and as he put the last touch 
of his brush, a black cloud arose from his paper accompanied by thunder 
and lightning, and the dragon escaped from the room. Professor Giles gives a 
variant according to which the two dragons were painted, without eyes, on 
a wall of the Temple of Joy ^ ^ ^p at Nankin. Later a disciple of Chosoyu 
painted the eyes, the dragons flew away and the wall was shattered to pieces. 
The same story is told of various painters ; see Godoshi. 

144. CHOUN iH| @. The celebrated CHAD YUN, one of the adherents of 
Riubi (Liu Pei or Gentoku) whose son, A Tow, he rescued and carried away on 
his saddle at the battle of Ch'ang Fan Kiao, when Riubi was defeated by, and 


CHOHI (ir.r.K.) 


C1IOK1UKA (T.I..] 




had to fly from, the troops of his opponent Tsao Tsao (208 A.D.). Choun is 
represented as a handsome warrior of powerful stature, on horseback, and some- 
times jumping a river, with the boy hidden in the bosom of his cloak. 

145. CHUGORO J& jfL IB- A lad living in the Koishikawa quarter of 
Yedo, met a beautiful girl, standing near the bridge Naka no Hashi and fell in 
love with her. After several meetings, she gave him an appointment to visit her 
home under the river. The boy thinking himself in the same vein of luck as 
Urashima Taro, accepted, and one night went to meet the girl. They descended 
to the brink of the river, when she changed into a gigantic frog, and killed the 
boy to suck his blood. 

146. CHUJO HIME *$ ffi jg. See BUNKI MANDARA. 

147. CHUNG KO LAO. Sennin holding a musical instrument made of 
bamboo and sometimes described as another presentment of Chokwaro (q.v.). 


149. COCK ON DRUM. This is a very common subject in art treatment 
as an allusion to a Chinese story. In the legendary times, a large drum was 
kept on the main gate of the palace to assemble the troops. Under the rule of 
the famous Emperor Yao, peace being general, the drum fell into disuse, and 
became a roosting place for fowls, whilst the people themselves used to come and 
beat it to call the attention of the officials when they had to seek redress for 
some grievance. Kotoku Tenno, on the fifth day of the eighth month of 645, 
introduced this custom in Japan, and decreed that a KANKO (drum) should be 
provided, with also a box to receive the petitions of the people. The Shoguns 
of Kamakura followed his example. The drum is usually ornamented with the 
Mitsu-tomoye design of three comma shaped figures, the points of which are 
elongated to form a complete circle, and which is held to be symbolical of luck 
and good fortune. This design is also found on the drums of the Thunder God 
RAIJIN and sometimes on the hammer of DAIKOKU (q.v.), and the " two comma " 
with the Hakke (divination sign) are found on the national Corean flag. 

COCK-CROW. Once the Chinese hero Prince Tan Chu, son of Yao, being a 
prisoner in the town of Kan Kok Kan, the doors of which were closed from 



sunset till the cock-crow, attempted to escape in the night with his retainer 
Keimei. They would never have succeeded in their design but for the skilful 
imitation of the cock-crow which Keimei gave as they neared the gate of the 
town. The guards suddenly woke and opened the door to the fugitives without 
any questions. The story is also given under the name of Moshogun, and is 
attributed to several warriors. 

COCK FIGHTING was practised at the time of Yuriaku Tenno (465 A.D.) as 
appears from the Story of Sakytsuya in the Nihongi, and such rights are some- 
times represented ; in fact, the beautiful appearance of the animal, especially the 
Japanese bird with its long tail feathers is a common theme for artistic treatment. 
DAIKOKU'S son (Koto Shiro Nushi no Mikoto), however, appears not to be an 
admirer of chickens, and his hatred results in a scarcity of poultry at Mionoseki. 
See Ebisu. For some unexplained reason Cocks are nearly always associated 
with Dutchmen by Netsuke carvers. 

150. CONFUCIUS JL & ^P- See KOSHI ; Three Sake tasters. He is 
sometimes depicted standing by a well with three buckets, one of which is 
emptying itself. This is an allusion to his visit to the tomb of the Emperor 
Hwang Kung ; he explained to his disciples that the three buckets were 
emblematic of moderation : filled up to the level of their trunnions, they retained 
the water, but if the water level was above the pivots they toppled over and 
emptied themselves. 

CONFUCIUS, TEN DISCIPLES are worshipped, in a position immediately 
inferior to the four Assessors ; they are given in the work of Bumpo Sanjin, the 
Five hundred worthies }j ]Jb ^ jjff Bumpo Kangwa (1803), as 


The best speakers : SAIGA and SHIKO. 

The administrators : SENYU and KIRO. 

Those with literary talents : SHIYU and SHIKA. 

151. CROW J^. A three-legged crow is a good omen, it is called YATA 
GARASU, and was one of the messengers of the Gods. Its origin is traceable to 
the Chinese myth of the three-legged crow which lives in the sun and is 
responsible for the sun spots, besides being endowed with numberless mythical 


COCK ON DRUM (/'./..) 
DA1KO1UJ (C..H.L.) 

DAIKOKU (.I/. 7'.) 
CONFUCIUS (..!/.) 



powers and significances. Crows are often depicted in silhouette partly 
covering the disc of the Sun. 

The croaking of an ordinary crow is held to be unlucky, and this is quite in 
agreement with European tradition. 

Two crows passing in the sky caused the Chinese Emperor Tsao-Tsao (Soso) 
to stand in his boat and compose a poem, and he is often thus depicted. 

152. CUCKOO %$ , also f || and fc " 1~, and the moon. 
The Cuckoo bird is called Hototoguisu, from its note, and it has been the subject 
of several poems and allusions, amongst others, the following story. A court 
noble hearing a Cuckoo whilst presenting Yorimasa with the sword, Shishi no 
(King of wild boars), sent by Narihito Tenno, made the verse* : 

" How does the Cuckoo rise above the clouds ? " 
The occult meaning of which is : 

"Like the Cuckoo, so high to soar, how is it so?" 


to which allusion to his own fame, Yorimasa replied by another verse"]", also 
capable of two interpretations : 

"The waning moon does not set at command," 

" I only bent my Bow and the Arrow sped." 

This last meaning being an allusion to Yorimasa's prowess in shooting the Nuye, 
cause of the Emperor Konoye's illness in 1153. (See Yorimasa.) 

Another poem dating from the twelfth century, says : " When I gaze towards 
the place where the Cuckoo once sang, nothing remains but the moon in the 
early morn : " 


Nakitsuru kata wo, 

Tada ariake no, 
Tsuki zo nokoreru. 

* Hototoguisu naoba kumoi ni agurukana. t Yumihari tsuki no, irunimakasete. 



153. CUTTLE FISH (TAKO). The Octopus is an article of diet of the poorer 
classes, and its strange appearance is often met with in art so treated as to 
make its features suggest some impish, almost human, face. It is sometimes 
shown as an incense burner, with the long arms and tentacles forming the 
base, or it is entwined around the legs of Ashinaga, walking about the 
mainland, eating sweet potatoes and frightening paysans, or retaliating upon 
the fisherman who cuts it into pieces ; or the dried-up head only is shown, as 
a representation of the piece of cuttle fish which used to be sent with 
presents. Its large head does duty for the elongated brain pan of Fukuro- 
kujiu. His many-sided talents are put to full use by his master, Riujin, the 
Dragon king of the waters, to whom he acts as Physician-in-waiting, and 
occasionally as " Maitre de Chapelle." We find O TAKO in attendance, 
extricating the hook of HOHODEMI (q.v.) from the throat of the Funa fish, or 
prescribing for his royal master (see Story of the Monkey and the Jelly fish). 
In another legend, he brings back to Japan the sacred image, now in the 
Taku Yakushi temple of Meguro, which Jikaku Daishi (q.v.) had been compelled 
to throw into the waves. Covering with its tentacles a bell, or an upturned 
vase, it suggests the story of Kiyohime. See also Go DAIGO. 

154. DAIGO TENNO 1H Hjjj ;?C j|l. In 930 a thunderstorm broke over the 
palace of Seirioden, killing the Dainagon Fujiwara Kiotsura, Taira Mareyo and 
several others, Daigo Tenno took refuge in the Jonaiden palace. In the fire which 
succeeded the storm the sacred Mirror was found to have removed itself from the 
palace and deposited itself in a tree, where a court lady discovered it. See 

155. DAI JIN ^C ^ or TOCHIU %$ %&. One of the Fifteen sons of Benten, 
shown with sheaves of rice. It is indentified with MONJU BOSATSU, (q.v.) the 
attributes of which are however different. 

156. DAIJINGU Jt 0$ H The Shinto Goddess Amaterasu O Mikami 

(q.v.). ,,-' 

157. DAIKOKU ;fc H&, or DAIKOKU TEN. One of the SHICHI FUKU JIN, 
Seven household Gods, or Gods of Luck. His Shinto name is OHO KUNI NUSHI 



(Mall Gnrl'titt collection} 


No KAMI, or Deity master of the great land. He is particularly worshipped at 
Kitzuki, the streets of which he is said to honour by riding through, on the 
bronze horse, on Miniye, the festival of the Body escaping. He represents also 
the Buddhist God MAHAKARA, the black God (Daikokujin), so named because of 
the colour of its image after being rubbed with oil. According to legend, he was 
revealed to KOBODAISHI, who introduced the attributes with which he is repre- 
sented : his Hammer bears the sign of the Jewel (Tamo) of pyriform outline and 
with three rings across, embodying the spirit of the JIN (Yin) and Yo (Yang), or male 
and female principles, in token of the God being a creative divinity; this hammer 
is also shown with the Tomoye, figure of the two commas or the Mitsu tomoye of 
three commas (see Cock on Drum), and a stroke of this lucky attribute confers 
luck and wealth to its recipient. (Fairy tale of the Lucky Mallet.) The Rat is 
his second attribute : finally Daikoku is dressed in Chinese guise as a prosperous 
individual, with a peculiarly shaped cap or hat, and usually shown standing on 
bales of rice (some say one of rice the other of tea), and with a bag of precious 
things on his shoulder. A common variant shows him seated on his bales, or 
showing his treasures to a child, or holding the red sun against his breast with 
one hand, and grasping his mallet with the other. A common group is that of 
Daikoku and his son EBISU, either as serious minded individuals, as for instance 
in the figures in the somewhat rough style called " a coups de serpe " (Nata tsu 
kuri] sold in pairs at the Kammiyama temple in Ise, or irreverently as revellers, 
sometimes masquerading as drunken Dutchmen. 

His familiar, the rat, has been held to have an emblematic and moral meaning 
in connection with the wealth hidden in Daikoku's bag, and which like all other 
riches requires constant care and watch to prevent it from dwindling away under 
the tooth of the parasite. This rat is often pictured, either in the bale with just its 
head protruding, or on it, or playing with the hammer ; sometimes a swarm of 
rats is shown, and the rodent plays the main role in the following story : The 
Buddhist idols wished to be rid of Daikoku, to whom the Japanese were still 
daily offering prayers and incense after their introduction. YEMMA O, the regent 
of Hades, agreed to send his most cunning Oni, SHIRO ,to get Daikoku out of the 
way. The Oni, guided by a sparrow, went to Daikoku's castle, which he found 
void of its owner. Finally he hit upon a large storehouse in which he saw the 



God seated. Daikoku called his chief rat and ordered him to find who was near. 
The rat saw the Oni, and running into the garden brought back a branch of holly 

with which he drove the Oni away right to the door of Yemma O, beating him 

the whole way. This is said to be the origin of the New Year's Eve charm (q.v.) 

consisting in a holly leaf and a skewer, or simply a sprig of holly wedged in the 
lintel of the door of a house, to prevent the return of the Oni after the Oni Yarai 
proceedings. The bag of Daikoku, like that of Hotei, contains the Takaramono 
or precious things (q.v.), and sometimes Hotei is shown seated in the bag which 
Daikoku is pulling along. 

The rat is also said to be Daikoku's emblem, because his festival is held on 
the day of the rat, the Katsushi of the Cycle, and on the Kinoye days one hundred 
black beans are offered to Daikoku. 

ROKU DAIKOKU (The Six Daikoku) are given in the Banbutsu Hinakata as : 
Makura Daikoku, ordinary form with hammer on lotus leaf, 
Ojikara Daikoku, youthful, with sword in the right hand and vajra 

in the left, 
Bika Daikoku as a priest, with shaven pate, hammer in the right 

hand, vajra hilted sword in the left, 
Yasha Daikoku, youth, with the wheel of the law (Rimbo or Chakra) 

in his right hand, 

Shinda Daikoku, a boy seated, holding a crystal in his left hand, 
Mahakara Daikoku, seated female with a small bale of rice on her 


As a modification of the Hindoo God of War MAVISHI TEN, he is also shown 
with MARISHITEN and BISHAMONTEN, as the San Senjin, or Three Gods of War, in 
the form of a man with three heads and six arms riding on a boar. This form is 
also known as SANMEN DAIKOKU, or three-faced Daikoku, and is called San Tenjin 
Daikoku in the Shaho Bukuro. 

158. DAI MOKUREN ^ g f jg. One of the disciples of Buddha who, 
seeing the soul of his mother in the Hell of Hungry Spirits (Gakido), sent her 
some choice food which became transformed into flames and blazing embers as 
she lifted it to her lips. 



He asked the Buddha for an explanation of this occurrence, and was told 
that in her previous life his mother had refused food to a wandering mendicant 
priest, and that the only way to obtain her release from perpetual hunger was to 
feed on the tenth day of the seventh month the souls of all the great priests of 
all countries. Notwithstanding the difficulty of this undertaking, Dai Mokuren 
succeeded, and in his joy at seeing his mother relieved, started to dance. This 
performance is said to be the origin of the Bon Odori dances during the Festival 
of the Dead (July 13-16). 

159. DAI NICHI NYORAI ;fc B #11 3fc. One of the personages of the 
Triratna or Buddhist trinity, VAIROTCHANA TATHAGATA, the deity of wisdom and 
perfect purity- His name (Chinese TA SHI SHULAI) means Great Light ; he is the 
personification of the supreme intellect of the Buddha, and the spiritual father 
of FUGEN BOSATSU (q.v.). He is somewhat similar to Jizo in appearance and is 
generally shown seated, as KONGO-KAI DAI NICHI, with the left hand closed upon 
the index of the right hand, in the Dharma-Datsu Mudra, or gesture peculiar to 
the Dai Nichi of the Spiritual World. As Dai Nichi of the TAIZO KAI or 
Material World he is seated, in a meditating attitude, and wearing a tiara. 

1 60. DAI ITOKU. MAHADEVA. See Mio O. 

161. DAI TENGU ;fc ^ $J. See TENGU. 

162. DAKIU K; PJ. The Game of Polo. See Games. 

163. DANKA. Skeleton of a priest beating a wooden drum, in the form of 
a jingling bell (Mokugyo), or a fish head (Waniguchi). 

164. DARUMA ^ Jff , BODHI DHARMA. Sage to whom the introduction of 
the Zen sect of Buddhism in China is attributed. He is said to have been the 
son of a Hindoo King, and to have left his teacher, Panyatara, and retired in 520 to 
Lo Yang where he remained seated, absorbed in meditation for nine years, during 
which, temptations were heaped upon* him by the evil spirits without any result ; 
and he is accordingly often shown surrounded with demons of both sexes, like 
Saint Anthony, or being bitten in the ear or other parts of his holy person by rats. 
At the end of that period his legs had "rotted away" under him. The humorous 



treatment of his long retreat is an unending theme for artists ; netsuke carvers 

represent him stretching himself, or stretching his arms above his head, or, and 


more often, without legs, entirely enveloped in his garments, shaped like a bag, 
from which emerges his swarthy scowling face, shorn of eyelids, because, having 
once fallen asleep, on waking up he cut. them off as a penance. The eyelids, 
thrown on the ground, took the form of the Tea tree. A less common, though 
quite as irreverent a presentment, shows the Sage surrounded with cobwebs, and 
even a female Daruma may be met with, sarcastically directed at the weaker 
sex, no member of which could remain in meditation for nine years, or resist the 
temptation to talk. An owl is sometimes shown in the garb of Daruma. 

As the 28th patriarch of Buddhism in succession to Kasyappa, he is pictorially 
treated as a swarthy Hindoo priest with a short spiky black beard. His journey 
to Japan is pictured in a similar way, the figure standing on the waves, supported 
by a millet stalk, or a bamboo or a reed. He died circa A.D. 529. 

He is often found as a toy, sometimes with one eye open and one shut, and 
is the favourite snow-man of the Japanese boys. Humorous prints show the toy 
taking life on the eyes being marked out, in allusion to the popular belief that 
images of holy personages become alive, or at least effective, when their "eyes are 
opened" by the priests, who bless the figures, after which they can see, hear and 
revenge themselves when irreverently treated. 

Daruma sometimes is shown with one bare foot and carrying a shoe in his 
hand. Legend has it that three years after his death and subsequent burial, 
he was seen travelling towards India, in the western mountains of China, 
with one shoe in his right hand. The Emperor caused Daruma's tomb to 
be opened and it was found empty, but for a cast off shoe which the saint 
had left behind him. 

165. DEMONS. See ONI. 

1 66. DENSHIN |B jg, DENKEI J| and DENKO B J|f were the three 
Chinese brothers TIEN CHEN, KING, and KWANG. They inherited a rose tree at 
the death of their father, and as they could not agree as to ownership, they split 
the tree in three, when of course it died. After this event they remained 
together in complete union. 

5 2 






167. DOG HUNTING ^ }6 $j, by horsemen (!NU OMONO), with bows and 
arrows, was a pastime introduced by the Emperor Toba in the i2th century. It 
is represented as being followed to commemorate the delivery of the Emperor 
from Tamamo no Maye, because dogs chased her upon the moor of Nasu when 
she fled from Abe no Seimei's exorcism in the shape of a nine-tail fox. (Shaho 
Bukuro, Vol I.) 

It forms a part of a No dance. 


169. DOJOJIN it ff JjitjJ. The all-hearing genius of Hell. 

170. DOKEI jj|i H?. Name assumed in 1473 by Ashikaga Yoshimasa, 
when he entered the priesthood after his retirement. 

171. DOLPHIN. Ornamentally treated, the Dolphin receives some of the 
characters of the Koi or sacred Carp. Golden dolphins (KiN NO SACHI HO Ko), 
eight feet seven inches in length, made of solid gold, and said to be worth nine 
thousand pounds each, were made by order of Kato Kiyomasa in 1610, and placed 
on the top of the roof of the donjon (Tenshu) of the Nagoya Castle, in Owari. 
One of them, which many years before had been the aim of a thief, was 
exhibited, in 1873, at the Vienna exhibition. The story says that Kakinoki 
Kinsuke, to win the love of some woman, attempted the theft by means of a 
big Kite, after which Kite-flying near the temple was forbidden. 

172. DOMEJIN JH Wft j$. The all-seeing genius of Hell. 

173. DOSOJIN if H 1$ (SAi NO KAMI), God of the Roads. See Koshin. 
Children's God, one in each village, whose feast is celebrated by the boys, with 
decorated bamboo, which were burnt, on the i4th of January, with all the writings 
made on the first and second day of the year ; and Mochi (rice cake) was cooked 
on that fire. 

174. DOYO, usually called YUTEN SHONIN jjffi ^ _h A> was a priest of 
the temple of Fudo at Narita, who spent a hundred days in contemplative prayers 
and meditation in the middle of the sixteenth century. The God then appeared 
to him, and offered him as penance for his sins the choice between two swords, a 



blunt one or a sharp one, to be swallowed. Doyo selected the keen blade, and as 
Fudo drove it in his throat all his bad blood ran out, and after this operation he 
became deeply learned. His blood was used to dye some priestly robes, and he 
instituted a three weeks' fast to be practiced yearly as a commemoration of his 

175. DRAGON f|. Of all the array of supernatural creatures forming 
the mythical fauna of Japanese lore, none perhaps is more commonly represented 
in art work than the Dragon. Imported from China, its appearance does not 
greatly differ from that of the Chinese Dragon, except in the matter of claws, 
three of which only are vouchsafed to the ordinary Japanese Dragon and five to 
the Imperial or Chinese monster, also found in Japanese art. The ordinary 
Chinese Dragon has four claws only on each of its four limbs. 

The Dragon is full of remarkable powers, and seeing its body in its entirety 
means instant death ; the monster never strikes without provocation, as for instance 
when its throat is touched. The Chinese Emperor Yao was said to be the son of 
a dragon, and several of the other Chinese rulers were metaphorically called 
"dragon faced." The Emperor of Japan was described in the same way, and as 
such hidden, by means of bamboo curtains, from the gaze of persons to whom he 
granted audiences, to save them from the terrible fate otherwise inevitable. 

In Gould's book, Mythical Monsters, the dragon is dealt with at length, the 
translation from a Chinese Encyclopaedia of an article upon the dragon being 
given in extenso (page 243). An exhaustive description is also given by the 
Japanese novelist, BAKIN, in Hakkenden. [See Griffis Mikado s Empire, 1896, page 
478 & seq.]. 

The Chinese call the Dragon Lung because it is deaf ; it is the largest of 
scaly animals, and it has nine characteristics. Its head is like a camel's, its horns 
like a deer's, its eyes like a hare's (? a devil's), its ears like a bull's, its neck like a 
iguana's, its scales like those of a carp, its paws like a tiger's, and its claws like 
an eagle's. It has nine times nine scales, it being the extreme or lucky number. 
On each side of its mouth are whiskers, under its chin a bright pearl, on the top 
of its head the POH SHAN or foot rule, without which it cannot ascend to Heaven. 
The scales of its throat are reversed. Its breath changes into clouds, from which 


CHINESE DRAGON (/<"./...) 



SHIFUN (//'./-..) 






come either fire or rain. The dragon is fond of the flesh of sparrows and 
swallows, it dreads the centipede and silk dyed of five colours. It is also afraid 
of iron. In front of its horns it carries a pearl of bluish colour, striated with 
more or less symbolical lines. It has the power of invisibility and of trans- 
formation at will, it is able to shrink or to increase in size without limits. 

In both the Chinese and the Japanese mythology, the watery principle is 
associated with the dragon, and especially with the rain dragon Amario, or U-ko, 
or U-shi, also with the storm dragon. The ruler of the waters, Ryu o Kio, or 
Ryujin, or Ryujin Sama, lives beneath the seas, or at the bottom of lakes in the 
Ryugu-jo, the dragon palace. See Tawara Toda, Urashima Taro, and Air Castle, 
Monkey and Jelly-fish ; see the story of the happy hunter Hikohohodemi no 

Riujin has a messenger in Ryuja sama or Hakuja, the small white serpent 
with the face of an ancient man ; and he carries the precious jewel (Tama, the 
Mani of the Buddhists) or the two jewels of the ebbing and of the ilowing tide, 
the " Tide ruling gems" which he presented to Jingo-Kogo, to Hikohohodemi 
(q.v.), etc. See RIUJIN, KAMATARI, etc. 

The Dragon (TATSU) is one of the signs of the zodiac; the four seas, which, 
in the Chinese astronomy limit the habitable earth, are ruled over by four 
Dragon Kings. 

The celestial dragon presides over the mansions of the Gods and keeps them 
from decay. 

The spiritual dragon ministers to the rain. 

The earth dragon marks out the courses of rivers. 

The dragon of hidden treasures watches over the precious metals and stones 
buried in the earth. 

There is a hornless dragon, the Chinese Kiu lung. The Chinese winged 
dragon Ying lung is the Hai Ryo, shown with feathered wings and tail and 
birds claws, besides the dragon's head, they are also called Tobi Tatsu and 
Shachi Hoko. 

A white dragon which lived in a pond at Yamashiro in the province of 
Kyoto, and changed every fifty years into a golden bird, the Goncho, with a 
voice like a wolf's howl, and whose apparition was followed by terrible famine 



and pestilence. Another white dragon was the transformation of Raitaro 
(see the story of Bimbo). 

The yellow dragon is, however, the most honoured of the whole family. The 
Chinese attribute the origin of their system of writing to the yellow dragon, who 
presented to Fuh Hi a scroll inscribed with mystic characters as the sage was 
gazing upon the waters of the Yellow River. 

BAKIN, in his description of the dragon family, enlarges considerably upon 
the four dragons of the Chinese, as described later by Mayers : 

Sui Riu, a rain dragon which causes the rain to fall when in pain, the water 
presenting a reddish colour due to his blood. 

HAN RYU is striped with nine different colours. It is forty feet long and 
sometimes has red stripes with dark blue bands. 

KA RYU is a fiery dragon of scarlet hue, only seven feet long. 

The dragon of good luck is FUKU RYU, that of whom the luck is bad or 
indifferent becomes HAKU FUKU RYU. 

Ri RYU has a wonderful sight, hundreds of miles being as nothing to this 

Some dragons cannot reach heaven, the long-bodied HAN RYU in particular. 
Dragons can breed by intercourse with ordinary animals, with a mare, a Ryu-Me, 
with a cow, a Ki-Riu. 

The Dragon Queen is occasionally shown, dressed in shells and corals, with 
other marine attributes. 

As an emblem the dragon represents both the male and female principle, the 
continous changes and variations of life, as symbolised by its unlimited powers 
of adaption accommodating itself to all surroundings, therefore never finished, 
like the everlasting cycles of life. 

In connection with a Tiger, generally crouching near a cave or some bamboos, 
the dragon in the sky represents the power of the elements over the strongest 
animals.* The association of the two creatures was meant in Chinese to 
represent the Emperor and his ministers. 

The dragon is associated with numerous personages and stories. See Bashiko, 

* Anderson calls it U-Chiu no Tora, and says that it is emblematic of the power of the faith (C.B.M.-p. 53). 



Chinnan, Shoriken, Handaka Sonja ; also Tokimasa's crest, Ojin and Take no 
Uchi, etc., mentioned under Emblems and Attributes. 

For the eight-headed dragon, see Susano-o. 

The rain dragon entwined around a sword is a frequent theme, the sword 
being as a rule the Vajra hafted ken of Kobodaishi. 

Another sword, connected with a dragon legend, is the Kuzanagi, one of the 
three relics of the Japanese regalia, the fire quelling sword used by Yamato 
Take, and which Susano-o no Mikoto had drawn from the tail of the eight- 
headed dragon. 

Two dragons "affrontes," with the Tama between them, form the handles of 
bells, whether large temple bells or small grelots ; it is also a very common mode 
of decoration of sword guards, called Namban Tsuba. 

Dragon netsukes were the specialite of Tomomasa. 

A dragon ascending Fuji in a cloud is symbolic of success in life. 

BENTEN is often shown with a dragon, and her intercession in Enoshima 
against the troubles caused by such a creature, belongs to the story of Hojo 
Tokimasa (q.v.). In fact this Goddess is said to be " partly " a dragon. 

KWANNON is also represented in company with a dragon upon whose scaly 
body she stands. 

A dragon issuing from an ash-pan or Hayifuki (in the hibachf) frightening 
the man who uses this implement, represents the story of the boaster, and 
illustration of the saying : 

Hayifuki kara Riu (or - - Ja detta) almost identical with Hyotan 
Kara Koma : "It is the unexpected that happens." 

The Kumozui Taisei (Encyclopaedia for children) gives two more types of 
dragons, one with wings called Shi fun, and one with large scales, spiny fins, and 
the body of a fish, which is named Makatsugyo. 

KAN NO Koso, SUSANO-O, etc., are shown killing dragons. Another dragon 
slayer was T'an T'ai Mieh Ming, disciple of Confucius, whom the God of the 
Yellow River caused to be attacked by two dragons, to rob him of a valuable 
gem, but T'an T'ai slew the dragons, and to show his contempt of wordly goods 
threw the treasure in the river. Twice it leapt back into his boat, but at last he 
broke it, and scattered the fragments. 



176. DREAMS ^. Dreams are often occasioned by demons, and in 
particular evil dreams, are the work of the Oni RINGETSU, but they form the 
food of the mythical animal Baku (q.v.). Lucky dreams may be induced by 
placing in the drawer of one's pillow a picture of the Takarabune (q.v.). The 
Clam's dream is another name of the Air Castle (q.v.). 

Rosei's dream, illustrating the fallacy of worldly honours is frequently 
represented and sometimes attributed to Lii Yen. See Rosei, Soshu. 

A classical dream is that of a Chinese Sage, CH'UN Yu FEN ^jjk -f ^, who 
thought that he had lived for several years in a palace, and on waking up after 
a while, under a tree in his garden, told the story to his friends. They said that 
as he fell asleep an ant came down from his beard, and went into a hole near by ; 
thinking there might be a connection between the Ant and his dream, they dug 
up the place, and found an Ant's colony built exactly as he had described the 
palace of his dream. Ch'un yu had dreamt that the King of that underground 
realm had married him to his daughter, and given him the governorship of his 
Southern provinces, hence the names Nan Ko Che Meng given by the Chinese to 
this fairy-tale, the author of which is said to have been Li Kung Tso. It is 
called in Japanese Nan Ko no Yume, and its curious resemblance to the dream of 
Rosei will be readily noticed. 

Another dream, famous in Chinese lore and sometimes illustrated, is that 
of Tsai' Siang given as a moral example in the Kan-in-pien >(C Jl ^fi J$| JH. 
Tsai Siang loved to eat quails, and one night in a dream he saw a young man 
clad in yellow who, in eight verses, reproached him the hecatombs of living 
creatures necessary to satisfy his appetite. Tsai Siang went at once to his 
kitchen, where he liberated some scores of quails then awaiting the cook's 
attention. During the following night an equal number of adolescents dressed 
in grey came to thank him in another dream. The glutton mended his ways 
and later became a minister.* 

Another dream forming the theme of prints or pictures is that of Raiko 
being presented with bow and arrows by a Goddess. 

The dream of the quail-boys, or Hantan's dream is easily confused in pictures with the feather-clad dwarf 
god Sukuna Hiko no Mikoto A? ^ $3 ^ (q.v.), also called Sukuna Bikona. 



j \y 


Dreams of Fuji Yama, of two falcons or three fruits of the egg plants are 
considered lucky omens, predicting long life to the dreamer. Ichi Fuji, ni taka, 
san nasubi is the Japanese proverb expressing this belief. See Sagami Takatoki, 
who dreamt that Tengus were hovering around him in his sleep. 

177. EARTHQUAKE FISH Jjjj f| ^, or NAMAZU or JISHINUWO. This is 
the catfish to which earthquakes are due; the creature has a body like an eel, a 
large flattened head, and long feelers on both sides of its mouth, it lies with its 
tail under the provinces of Shimosa and Hidachi, and when angry, wriggles 
about, shaking the foundations of Japan. A large stone rests on its back, the 
Kaname Ishi, protruding in the garden of the temple of the God KASHIMA 
DAIMIOJIN (Takemika Tsuchi no Mikoto). This stone goes deep into the bowels 
of the earth, it is the rivet (Kaname) which binds the world together : when 
KASHIMA and KADORI MIOJIN came from Heaven to subdue the world, Kashima 
thrust his sword through the earth, the mighty blade shrank and became the 
Kaname Ishi which Kashima alone can move. Kadori Miojin is Futsu Nuchi no 
Mikoto, he has a gourd, and with that gourd and the help of Kadori, this God 
keeps the fish quiet. Mitsukuni, Daimio of Mito, grandson of Tokugawa leyasu, 
with a Saint Thomas bent of mind, had the earth dug around the Kaname Ishi, 

but his men could not get at the base of it. Kadori and his gourd, hugging the 
Namazu, is sometimes a subject for artistic treatment. His efforts are little 
thought of if one believes the proverbial sentence : A Gourd against a Namazu 
(meaning useless effort) alluding to the slipping of the gourd on the fish's skin. 
Earthquakes are also attributed to a beetle, named the JISHIN MUSHI or Earth- 
quake beetle, with a dragon's head, ten legs like spider's and a scaly body, 
which is supposed to live deep under the earth. 

178. EBISU lj$. jfc ^jf, or YEBISU, one of the Shichi Fukujin. Sometimes 
also named HIRUKO. He is the third son of Izanagi and Izanami, Koto Shiro 
Nushi no Kami, though sometimes said to be the son of Daikoku. 

Ebisu's name as a luck bringer shares with Daikoku the honour of a place 
in a cradle rhyme celebrating the arrival of the Takarabune on New Year's 
Eve quoted by Anderson : 



Sendo, mando, o fune wa gichi gichi 

Ebisu Sama, Daikoku Sama, 
Fuku no Kami yo 

Gichi, gichi kogeba. 


Most of which consists of onomatopoeia. 

His particular temple is at Mionoseki, where figures made of pottery, and 
metal ornaments for pouches, bearing his traditional appearance, are regular 
articles of trade. Legend has it that he originated the clapping of hands, usual 
in Shinto temples to call attention of the Gods to the prayers. 

Ebisu is deaf, so much so that he cannot hear the summons which in 
October calls all the other divinities to the temple of Izumo. This infirmity 
forms the pretext for a festival, the Ebisu Ko, falling on the twentieth of 
October. It is probable that originally Ebisu was an Aino divinity. His very 
name means " The laughing God," and his countenance is altogether that of an 
happy individual. Bearded, smiling, or laughing, on his head a cap with two 
points, or a bonnet, generally sitting on his crossed legs and holding a fishing 
rod and a big Tai fish, Ebisu cannot be mistaken. He is often shown with 
Daikoku (q.v.), in more or less humorous groups, and his own emblems are 
somewhat varied in their treatment : he may be cutting up his fish ; or hugging 
it ; or trying to cram the animal into a basket several sizes too small ; striking 
with his rod one of Daikoku's rats having a fight with the Tai ; or dancing with 
the fish strapped on his back, etc. 

Ebisu is the God of honest dealing, he is also the patron of fishermen and 
the God of food; often coupled with Daikoku as the two Gods whose 
shrines are the most common in households. This God has a peculiar hatred of 
cocks, hens and chickens, responsible for the paucity of eggs at Mionoseki. 
Hearn (U. J. I. p. 231) gives a humorous description of the troubles which befall 
anyone carrying as much as the image of a chicken in defiance of the deity's 
wrath. It seems that the God used to spend some of his time fishing at Cape 
Miho at night, and it is even hinted that his occupations were not always of so 
simple a nature, so that he had made it the cock's duty to crow loudly at sunrise 
to warn him that it was time for him to return. Once, however, chanticleer 


(Sheza Kato collection) 


failed in his duty, and Koto-Shiro, on the return journey, having lost his oars, 
had to paddle with his own august hands, which the fishes sorely bit. Hence 
his hatred of chickens, the effects of which the native simple folks dare not bring 
upon themselves. 

179. EISHUKUKEI Hf ^ JJpp. (A man on precipice, bowing to Sennins 
playing Go above.) One day the Emperor Bu of Kwan wanted to know where 
Eishukukei lived, as it was known in his native district of Chuzan that he eat 
mother-of-pearl, and he passed for a wizard. So he sent to Hakuryo for the son 
of the sage, named TAKUSEI j| {, and ordered him to go to Mount Kwa to 
hunt up his father. The son, when he reached the mountain, saw his father, 
seated on a rock floored with jewels and shaded by a purple cloud, occupied at 
playing with several other sages a game of Go. He inquired who were the 
players, and his father told him : Kogaisensei, Kyoyu, Sofu, and Ojishin. He 
then reproved him for his interference, and telling him that there was a talisman 
hidden under the pillar of his house, sent him home. (Ehon Kojidan.} 

1 80. EMMA O, EMMA TEN. See YEMMA, Regent of Hell. 

181. ENCHIN H %, Buddhist priest (814-891), founder of the Jimon 
branch of the Tendai Sect. He received from Go Daigo the posthumous 
title of CHISHO DAISHI. 

182. ENDO MORITO ^ ^ ^ ^, (MONGAKU SHONIN) ^C ^ _h A 
also called ENDO MUSHA MORITO ^ |ffc 3^ ^ ^ ^, from his military grade, 
Mushado Koro, was a captain living in Kyoto, who fell in love with KESA 
|S| He, wife of a Samurai, WATANABE WATARU fj|f $ ^, in 1143. As she 
resisted his entreaties, he vowed to kill her family, unless she allowed him 
to kill her husband and became his wife. She made an appointment to 
receive him in her house at night, when he would find her husband asleep 
in a room, alone, and could kill him. Endo came, and cut off the head 
of the sleeping individual he met in the appointed room, only to find that 
it was the lady herself, who, taking the opportunity of her husband being 
on a journey, had dressed herself in some of his clothes, and sacrificed her 



life to save her honour. Endo, finding his mistake, was overcome with 
grief, and, repenting his evil ways, shaved his head and became a monk, 
under the new name of MONGAKU. He retired to the district of Oki, and 
for twenty-one days remained naked, holding in his teeth the dorge-shaped 
handle of his bell, counting his beads, and praying under the waterfall of 
Machi (Kumano, Kii). Another version says that he began his penance on 
the 2oth day of the i2th month, and that three days after his body froze, 
but FUDO Mio-6 and his two attendants lifted him from under the icicles 
and brought him back to life. One of the Mountains of Oki bears the 
name of Mongakuzan, in his honour, and in commemoration of the holiness 
which he managed to attain. Mongaku doing penance is a pretty common 

He is said to have been sent to Izu in 1179, and to have incited 
YORITOMO to fight the TAIRA, and later to have been exiled to Okishima, 
where he died, because of a plot against the Emperor TAMEHITO (Tsuchi 
Mikado) in 1199, a behaviour hardly to be expected from a man who had 
acquired such a store of merit. 

183. ENJOBO was a priest of Owari, whose claim to celebrity consists in 
his having got rid of BIMBOGAMI, the God of Poverty, by means of a charm, used 
whilst imitating with peach tree twigs the action of pushing someone out of 
doors, and forthwith shutting the doors of the temple. This operation took 
place on the last day of the year, but Enjobo's slumbers were troubled the same 
night by a dream, in which the skeleton of a priest came and reproached him for 
having thrown away his companion of so many years. (See Bimbogami.) 

184. ENKO DAISHI M ;)fc ;fc ^ifi. Posthumous title bestowed upon 
the monk GENKU, also called HONEN SHONIN (1133-1212), who, after passing 
four years in the monastery of Hiyeizan, without finding the complete truth 
he was seeking, left it when eighteen years old to go to Kurodani, 
and, rejecting the practices of the Tendai sect, became the first exponent 
of the Jodo sect. He is said to have limited his prayers to the repetition 
sixty thousand times daily of the name of the Buddha Amithaba. 



185. ENOKI ;fif. The Enoki tree is the Celtus Sinensis or Celtus 
Wildenoiviana ; it is sacred to the God KOJIN, and it is considered a goblin tree, 
inhabited by malevolent onis. Its wood however, when made into chopsticks, is 
supposed to cure toothache. There is near Tokio a tree called Yenkiri Enoki 
(Union breaking tree), to which jealous lovers pray. According to legend, there 
was in Omi, an Enoki tree over one thousand years old, which grew amongst a 
forest of pines near the estate of a Daimio called SATSUMA BISHIZAEMON. The 
latter decided to have the tree felled, as it interfered with the landscape, seen 
from the castle, obstructing the view of a beautiful lake. The Daimio was 
beseeched not to carry out his idea, but without avail. During the night 
preceding the day fixed for the work, a dragon appeared to Satsuma's mother, 
predicting the end of her son's race if he did not desist ; Satsuma was deaf to 
all prayers, and the work was proceeded with. As the tree fell to the ground, a 
terrible noise like a loud moan was heard, and Satsuma's mother, his wife, his 
children, his retainers, and finally himself started to howl and run like mad 
animals. The Daimio hanged himself, and his mansion was deserted, until a 
princess of the Satsuma family, who had become a nun under the name of Jikin 
in the neighbouring Yamashiro temple of Kwannon, was prevailed upon to 
exorcise it. (See Shungyo in the Shobo-nen-jo-kio.} 

1 86. EN-NO-SHOKAKU ^ /h j. One of the earliest Buddhist 
Prophets of Japan living in the seventeenth century, and who ascended 
several of the highest mountains, Hakusan, Tate Yama, Daisen, etc., to 
consecrate them to Buddha. During his climbing expeditions, Enno Shokaku 
was accompanied by two demons, Goki and Zenki, whom he had made his 
servants. Both were endowed with great magical powers, and they built, 
under their master's direction, several bridges over mountain chasms and 
torrents. The popular name of Shokaku is Yenno Guioja. His supernatural 
powers were objected to, and he died in exile at Oshima. He is depicted 
in an okimono preserved at the Musee Guimet, amongst the patriarchs of the 
Shingon sect of Japanese Buddhism. 

187. ENRYAKU-JI $E H ^f. The temple founded on the Hiyeizan by 
SAICHO (later dignified with the title DENGYO DAISHI) in 788, during the 



Enryaku Nengo (782-805). More than three thousand temples followed its 
erection; they were then called Hokurei, and became the headquarters of 
the Yamabushi, whose dissolute ways led them to terrorise the whole town 
of Kyoto, and to rebel, with ASAKURA ECHIZEN NO KAMI, against Nobunaga, 
who in 1573 captured all the temples and purified them by reducing the lot 
to ashes. 

1 88. ENSHI $\\ ^. The Chinese paragon, YEN TSZE, depicted hidden 
in a deer's hide. His mother suffered from an eye disease for which the milk 
of deer was reputed the only remedy. He went to the mountains to get 
some, hiding in the hide of a stag, and laid in wait for a doe. All he got 
was a severe hiding from a party of disgusted hunters, who, however, 
pardoned him his disguise when they understood his story. 


189. The fan is characteristic of the Japanese ; in olden times, i.e., 
before 1868, it was the attribute of every individual man, woman, coolie or 
prince and likewise it was put to every possible use, doing duty either as 
an insignia of commandment or as a substitute for fire bellows. 

Fans are of two sorts : the flat, or Chinese, fan, named Uchiwa, and the 
folding fan, Ogi, Hi-Ogi, or Awo-Gi. The Uchiwa was imported from Corea, 
and remained in general use up to the fifteenth century. It is the attribute of 
Fukurokujiu, Jurojin, Benten, Bishamon, Seiobo and the Queen of the Sea, etc. 

The folding fan, however, displaced it amongst the male population, and 
even took the place of a short-tapered staff, called Shaku, which, ceremonial 
decreed, had to be held against the belt, at a certain angle, to give its 
holder a dignified appearance when appearing before the Imperial family. 

The invention of the folding fan is attributed to the widow of 
Atsumori (q.v.), who is credited with having cured the abbot of Meido by 
her use of the folding fan. Another story attributes the invention to a fan 
maker of the Tenji period (668-672) living near Kyoto, at Tamba, and 
whose name has been forgotten. The poor man was married to a shrew, 
and one night a bat came into their room ; the woman started to revile her 
husband for not getting up to throw the vampire out ; the poor animal 


ENSI1I (//..V.7-.) 

FOX GHOST (.;.) 


K\l)0 MOKITO (ir.!..K.) 





came in contact with the lamp and scorched its wings, falling to the floor. 
As the man picked it up to put it out of doors, one of the wings opened, 
and gave him the idea of a folding fan which could be carried in one's 
sleeve. The first one which he made was composed of twenty-five slats of 
Hinoki wood, hence the name Hi Ogi given to it. 

The slats are fixed between two Ova hone, or parent sticks, slightly 
curved inwards to keep the fan compact when closed, and the whole is 
rivetted by means of a bit of tube and two washers, called the Kaname 
(Crab's eye). 

Daggers (Tanto) are often made with the scabbard and handle shaped 
like a closed fan. 

War Fans were made of metal, iron or bronze as a rule ; those used 
by Generals bore on one side the red Sun of Yamato on gold ground, and on 
the other the moon or dragons and groups of stars ; but the decoration of 
metal fans varies much. 

The following list gives the names of the chief varieties of fans : 

Akoya Ogi, of sixteen blades, painted with emblematic designs and 
from the two outside sticks of which depended bunches of long streamers. 
(Isai Gwcishiki, 1864.) 

Akome Ogi. The folding fan attributed to Atsumori's widow, composed 
of thirty-nine inside blades, painted white, and decorated with the emblems 
of longevity : the Chrysanthemum, Ume, and Matsu figured in lacquer. This 
type of fan was used by the court ladies until 1868. 

Chukei. A fan carried by priests and nobles. 

Gumbai Uclriiva, made of two pieces of leather, or of iron, fastened 
together on either side of the straight stick, and used in war only. 

Gun Sen. Also a war fan, either flat or folding, and made of metal, 
chiefly iron. 

Hi Ogi, made of twenty- three inside blades of Chamaerocyparis obtusa 
and used as a court fan from the Xlth. century. 

Jin Sen, a camp fan made of feathers, frequently shown in the hands of 
warriors, the feathers of the peacock or of the pheasant being most often 
used. It has the shape of an Uchiwa, with the feathers pointing separately. 



Komori. Open court fan, with fourteen bamboo sticks, upon which is 
pasted coloured paper of any shade, except the unlucky green and light 

Mai Ogi. Dancer's fans, used from the XVIIth. century. They are built 
upon ten ribs only, and held together by a leaden rivet. They are covered 
with thick monochrome paper, with a Man painted on it. 

Maki Uchhva. These fans are so built as to allow of their being rolled 
up like an umbrella around the central stick. 

Mizn Uchhva. Fans made in Fukui, with waterproof paper, and which 
are occasionally dipped in water to reduce the temperature when in use. 
They were invented about the end of the XYIIth. century, and are often 

Mita Ogi, are huge fans carried by firemen, and used in processions 
and festivities. They are seven feet long, and are made of six blades of 
Hinoki wood. 

Rikin Ogi. Tea ceremony fans, dating from the beginning of the 
XVIIth century ; they have only three sticks, and were designed by SEN- 
NO-RiKir, of tea ceremony fame. See Cn.v NO Yu. 

Shibu Uchhva, are used for kitchen purposes ; they are liberally coated 
with the evil-smelling mucilage made from unripe persimmons, and from 
which they take their name. 

Suye Hiro Ogi, are very flexible fans used in the No dances, and the 
skeleton of which consists of fifteen, eighteen, or twenty-five sticks. 

Tetsn Sen, are the folding war fans, with ten iron ribs, dating from 
the Xllth. century, the covering of which consists of stiff monochrome paper, 
with designs of the red sun and the moon. 

Uma Jirushi (horse ensign), was a huge fan with silk covering and 
sticks five feet long, mounted at the end of a pole some fifteen feet long ; 
it was used as an ensign by the Tokugawa Shoguns. 

For an extensive illustrated monograph on fans, see Mrs. Salwey's 
book and her Japan Society paper, which have been to some extent used 
in the above article. 



The fan plays a role in a great many stories, amongst which see 
VASHI the wrestler. See also EMBLEMS, ATTRIBUTES, and OMENS. 

190. FAN DANCES. The fan is the attribute most commonly used 
in dances : it is generally shown in the hands of the Kagura dancers 
(see Manzai dancers) or of the performer with the Shishi mask. The Kagura 
dance is said to commemorate the performance of UZUME when getting 
Amaterasu out of the cave. In the Fan Dance, which is, however, more 
of a juggler's performance than a dance, the fan represents the leaves of 
a pine tree, and the performer adds to the number he carries until some 
are balanced on his forehead, nose or mouth, hands and feet. 


192. FAN LI ^ ?H. See HANREI. 



195. FISH ^ (DRIED) or HIMONO -f *$} , forms often a motive for 
Kodzukas and Netsuke. Given as a present to anyone entering upon a 
journey, it has a hidden meaning, and expresses the wish that the 
recipient will be "well preserved" in health. 

It is also given with some peas (mame), the allusion being a pun on 
mame (busy or healthy), and expressing the same wish. A grilled HERRING 
has also a hidden meaning ; KONOSHIRO means " burnt castle," and this 
unlucky double entente made it a very ominous food, of which nobles took 
good care never to partake, fearing lest the omen should apply to their 
own castles. IWASHI, a sardine, like the Himono, is used to prevent the 
return of the demons after their expulsion on New Year's Eve, as described 
under CHARMS. This custom has given rise to a proverb : Iwashi no atama 
mo shinjin gara " Even the head of a sardine can do something for you 
if you pray (to it) long enough." And the proverb is sometimes found 
illustrated in print, an Iwashi head surrounded with rays being prayed to 
by several individuals prostrated before it. 


KAZUNOKO (dried roe of herring), means many children, .and as 
expression of this wish is used in the New Year's festival. 

FISH HEAD. A wooden hollow fish head is used as a sort of drum in 
Shinto temples; it is commonly called Waniguchi (crocodile mouth). Wooden 
gongs, made in the shape of a fish, and hollow, are used in China. 

FISH (made of paper). On the Tango no Sekku, or boys' festival, 
taking place on the 5th of May, huge Carps, made of paper or of cotton 
cloth, are attached to masts and poles, one for each boy in the household, 
as an allusion to the emblematic perseverance of the A'oz, which swims 
against the current and even attempts to leap waterfalls (see CARP). In 
a like manner, the boy is expected to fight against adversity and reach a 
fortunate position in the world. 

196. FISH SAVE. A Japanese Ambassador to China, married there, 
and after his departure for his native land, his Chinese wife gave birth to 
a son. The father refusing to return to live witli his wife and offspring 
in China, the mother cast the boy into the sea, where a fish picked him 
up and carried him to the coast of Osaka, landing him just as his father 
passed by. The boy was given the name of Fish Save. 


In Hokusai's Mang-wa are pictured a series of mythical creatures, whose 
bodies are partly related to the genus Homo, and which are called Mythical 
Foreigners in Anderson's Catalogue of pictures, etc., in the British Museum : 

CHOHI or TENAGA, long arms. 

CHOKYAKU or ASHINAGA, long legs. 

CHOJI, long ears. 

GEKIBOKU, tailed men, carrying on the shoulder a hoe, to dig holes 
in the ground for their tails. See Telliamed, 1748, for a similar myth. 

HITOBAN, flying head, probably one of the Bakemono, but the hands 
of this creature can also fly away in opposite directions during the night, 
and return to the body in the morning. 

IPPI, half man, shown walking with his mate (Vol. III). 

JIURI, one arm and one leg only. 



KAFURI UMIN, flying men, shown in Vol. III. with a bird's bill, 
and in Vol. XL with a human face. They are said to live in Funtan. 

KOGAN, nape eye, with bow and arrow. 

KOBITO, pigmies, nine inches high. 

KOKEI, crooked legs. 

KUKOKU, dog's head (has a wife of normal appearance, shown next 
to him). 

MUFUKU, no belly. 

MITSUME KOZO, with a third eye in centre of forehead, is one of 
the Bakemono 

ROKUROKUBI, whirling neck. 

SANSHIU, triple face. 

SANSHIN, triple body with one head only. 

SENKIO, perforated chest. q.v. Anderson gives the name Kenkio, 
although the Kana transliteration in the Mangwa reads Senkio A^jMJj&j 

TEIREI, horse legs. 

UMIN, flying men (same as Kafuri Umin). 

Several of these are also described as Goblins. Most are drawn from 
the chapters on the Ethnography of the foreign and barbarous countries 
in the Wakan san sai Dzuye and from other Chinese sources ; Japanese 
artists, however, have not, as a rule, given much prominence to these 
creatures ; the Dutchman, the curly haired foreigner with a long trumpet 
(like the Tibetan ones) and his female companion, of shorter stature, 
with long straight hair, leading a Karashishi at the end of a chain are 
more commonly met with. 

Coral divers are always depicted as black men with curly hair. 

198. FOX ^. The Fox bears the name of Kitsune, and is reputed an 
evil creature, a great many degrees more so than the Badger (Tanuki) 
(q.v.), and capable of demoniacal powers, such as possession. This form of 
misfortune bears the recognised name of Kitsune-tsuki, and, according to 
B. H. Chamberlain (Demoniacal possession in Things Japanese), the belief in 



it is still strong, even in these years of enlightened scepticism. The 
belief in foxes' magic came from China about the tenth century, and 
the mere description of the evil deeds of foxes would fill a volume. 
An essay on the subject will be found in Lafcadio Hearn's Unfamiliar 
Japan, Vol. /., pp. 316, & seq. The Inari fox, by exception, is a 
well-disposed creature, perhaps the messenger of the God of rice and 
harvest had to become benevolent, but the others, the field fox, the 
Kokko, the Jenko, Reikko, are bad, and worse than all is the man fox, 
the Ninko, or Hoto Kitsune. 

Foxes are long-lived animals ; at the age of a hundred they may 
possess human beings, or delude them by taking the form of women (see 

A fox with a brush in its mouth, and nursing a baby, represents 

When a thousand years old they become either white or golden, and 
their powers are extremely great ; they have nine tails, and take the name 
Kiubi no Kitsune. In Ehon Wakan Homare such a fox described as 
" golden hair nine tail evil Fox," is depicted with human hands, flying 
away from a warrior, and on the following page YUN CHU TSZE (Unchiushi) 
HI f4* ""?* is shown contemplating a picture of a fox dressed as a courtier, 
when he predicts the ruin of his country at the battle of jj:^ jiff |lj Mount 
Shunan. According to legend, TA Ki J& ti> the favourite of Chow Sin, 
was a fox in woman form (see the story of Go TOBA'S concubine, 

The fox forms the popular representation of Inari Sama, and as such is 
often met with in the form of stone images, showing the animal in a seated 
posture, with or without small bronze bells, and which are used at the 
entrances of Inari's temples and in many other places. 

White foxes, with the sacred jewel in their ttvlons, are sometimes a 
subject met with in art. Another familiar subject is that of the foxes' 
wedding, or KITSUNE YOMEIRI, when the sun shines amidst the rain, the 
bride being carried to her husband's house. Every fox is said to have a 
family of seventy-five, and possesses the infinite vision (Ten Gan), the all- 



hearing ear (Ten ni tsun), the secret of the souls of others is open knowledge 
to him (7'a shin Isun). He has the full knowledge of the universal past 
(Shiyuki mei tsim), and of the universal present (Zhin kyan Isun), besides 
the widest powers of self-transformation and transmutation, of which he 
makes the largest use in its evil designs upon men. 

Like the badger, the fox disguises itself as a priest, or uses its belly 
as a drum (Kitsune no ham Isuziuni), or generates the fox fire (kitsune-bi), 
the Will-o'-the-wisp. With its distended belly it is, like the badger, some- 
times shown with the Fugu fish, playing with Hotei at To hachi ken. 
They occasionally shave men's heads, and make them look like monks ; 
other fox tricks consist in eating the grease of candles after extinguishing 
them, of deluding blind men in following them about, grasping their tails, 
which they believe to be the kimono of some friendly guide. 

When the moon is in the sky they can manage to take its form. 
They are, however, afraid of wrestlers, and cannot utter complete words : A 
Hoin or a Yamabushi can exorcise them out of a possessed individual. 

The fox is worshipped in Matsue, at the Temple Kodomo no Inari, or 
Jigyoba no Inari, and prayed to by people whose children fall sick, or 
object to having their heads shaved, or refuse to be bathed (perhaps because 
of the high temperature of the bath). 

In Tales of Old Japan, A. B. Mitford, now Lord Redesdale, gave two fox 
stories. One (from the Kanzen Yawa) is that of Tokutaro, of Iwahara, in 
Shinshiu, who, not believing in foxes, made a wager to spend the night on the 
Maki moor, to disprove their existence. On arriving there he saw a fox run into 
the hedge ; a moment later he was accosted by the wife of the headman of Maki, 
' who was going on a visit to her parents in upper Horikane, and begged that 
he would accompany her. He consented, but when they reached the house of 
her parents he told her father that she was undoubtedly a fox in disguise, 
and would prove her to be so. In endeavouring to do so, he burnt her 
to death in front of the kitchen fire. He was bound with ropes and tied 
to a post, to wait till the morning, when he would be taken to his lord 
for judgment. At that juncture, appeared the priest of the temple Anrakuji, 
of Iwahara, with a servant, who inquired into the cause of the headman of 

7 1 


Horikane's grief, and recognising Tokutaro, offered to shave his head and 
make a monk of him as a penance since he had not killed the girl from 
any other cause than his belief that she was a fox. The headman having 
agreed, Tokutaro's head was duly shaved by the priest . . .In the 
morning, Tokutaro awoke in the middle of the moor, to find that he had 
been the victim of a bad dream, but his pate was bare, and he became 
a priest under the name of Sainen. 

The story of the grateful foxes is more popular. A man once bought 
for half a Bu (sevenpence) a fox cub, which three boys were going to kill; 
he dressed the fox's wound and gave it back to its parents, which came 
near him to find their cub. A short while after, his own son got sick, 
and the physician ordered him as the one and only cure the liver of a live 
fox. None could be procured, but late at night a messenger came, with 
a liver, stating that he came from a certain person, whose name he gave, 
the very man who had tried to procure it but had failed. This person 
being invited to dinner, after the child had recovered, was quite surprised 
at his host's expressions of gratitude, as apparently he knew nothing of the 
messenger who had brought the liver. 

During the same night the man had a dream, in which the old vixen 
told him that she had killed her cub to requite her debt to him, and that 
her mate had acted as messenger in the circumstance. 

The BADGER and the Fox. Tanuki and Kitsune were in sore straits 
through lack of food ; the badger suggested, that he would pretend to be 
dead, and that the fox, taking human shape, should carry him to the 
town, sell him, and with the money buy food for both. This ruse proved 
highly successful, and the two animals resolved to repeat it, changing role in 
turns. The badger, however, had made up his mind to keep all the money 
for himself, and when he sold the fox whispered to the buyer that Kitsune 
.was shamming. The man killed the fox. Then the tale of vengeance 
began. The son of the fox made a wager that he would so disguise 
himself that the badger, with all his cunning, would not be able to recognize 
him and avert his fate. He would, said he, dress as a noble, and in that 
disguise ; cross a certain bridge unheeded. 



The badger heard this, and went to the bridge to watch. Late in 
the day a Daimio passed with his retinue, and the badger shouted to him: 
"I know you; you have come to pay me that wager." The fox cub was 
hidden near by, and as the badger gave himself away he killed him on 
the spot. 

In another story of fox revenge, a goldsmith of Oji, whose work 
consisted in chasing menukis and fuchi-kashiras for sword hilts, used to 
scoff at Inari. One day a woman came and asked him to call with some 
gold ornaments which one of her relatives desired to inspect, with a view to 
purchase. The goldsmith came as desired, taking some choice specimens 
along, which the lady took from him, begging that he would wait at the 
door of a castle on the Oto-nashi-gawa. While the man waited, he saw 
the building decay and crumble to dust under his very eyes ; nothing 
remained but a ruined well, from which flew away a fox, snarling at the 
bewildered goldsmith. 

Eoxes are shown amongst chrysanthemums, as an allusion to another 
fox girl story. A prince, having once become infatuated with a beautiful 
young girl, her real form was later revealed to him as she was sleeping 
amongst chrysanthemums, when she resumed the shape of a fox. 

. .In one of the No dances is preserved a presentment of the legend, 
according to which Inari Sama, the Fox God, helped the smith Sanjo 
Kokaji Munechika to forge a sword for the Emperor. 

B. H. Chamberlain says that Inari blew the bellows for Kokaji, the 
swordsmith, and that this legend is commemorated in the fires lighted on 
the "occasion of the Fuigo Matsuri, or feast of the bellows, on the 8th of 

Kitsune Tsuki is a common subject in art : a fox, wrapped in a man's 
dress, slumbers near or under a sheaf of straw. The hunter, who unexpectedly 
finds the animal, is too surprised to kill it. Or, the reapers in the field 
think that they see a fox, while it is only their master's servant bringing 
them food, and the poor man gets beaten to death. 

Foxes are also depicted attempting to break Daruma's meditation. 

In his translation of Chiushingnya (2nd Edition, p. 80), Mr. F. V. Dickins 



gives the following names of Goblin foxes : Shinochr, Kurosuke, Reita Sansuke, 
Osuke, Yatsuyama, and Kuzunoha. See also the Hundred Stories of Monsters, 
Ehon Hiaku Monogatari (3 vols., illustrated by Takehara Shunsen). 

199. FROG. The frog and the toad are of common occurrence in 
Japanese art. See TOAD, GAMA Sennin, JIRAIYA, KOSHIN Sennin, ONO NO TOFU, 
CHUGORO, TOKUBEE. Frogs over an upturned water-bucket, or basking upon 
a lotus leaf while a kingfisher watches his opportunity to pick the delicate 
morsel ; frogs ascending Fuji with hats, umbrellas, and picnic box made of 
lotus leaves and fruits, while Fuji itself takes the appearance of a huge 
frog's head ; frogs drilling like soldiers, playing with foxes and monkeys, 
or worshipping another and bigger frog, seated amongst leaves like an 
enthroned Buddha, are but a few common adaptations of this animal. 

The frog, in company with the snake and slug, form an allegory 
called Sa Sukumi, "the three cringing ones," afraid of one another because 
the snake can eat the frog, which disposes of the snail, but the slimy 
secretion of the latter is fatal to the snake. This belief is made use of in 
the legend of Jiraiya, where magic powers in the same relation to one 
another are attributed to the three animals. 

There is a proverb which says : " What does the water frog in the well 
know of the great ocean ? " and it is said that a Kioto frog and an Osaka 
frog, feeling hurt by the aspersion thus cast upon their race, decided to set 
upon their travels and enlarge their minds by contemplating the Eastern 
Ocean and the China Sea respectively. They met on the road after enduring 
many hardships, and after the usual greetings, inquired from one another what 
the two towns were like. They found that there was hardly any difference 
between them, according to one another's description, and the older frog 
suggested that instead of going further, they should both set back and 
return to their own wells, saving themselves further trouble and travel. 
And they did so, returning home feeling that they had been very foolish, 
but consoling themselves with the old proverb that " Even Kobodaishi 
drew some characters badly." 

The croaking of frogs is not very melodious, which may account for 
their being called Dutch nightingales, with the exception of the Kajika, 



KIT.SUNE TSUK1 (a.s.T.) 





whose cry is esteemed. The Emperor Go TOBA strongly objected to 
the noise, and since his days the frogs of Shike-kuro-no Ike have been 
silent (q.v.). 

ONO NO TOFU, the caligraphist (q.v.), was encouraged in his studies by 
watching a frog trying to get at a willow leaf hanging over a stream. The 
subject is used in the Hana garuta (nth month set). 

For the Erog in the Moon, see CHAN -Gnu. 

A man crouching, in a peculiar pose and with a vacuous expression on 
his face, is also intended to represent a frog. (See drawings by Toyokuni.) 

200. FU DAISHI / ff ^ @p. A Chinese priest, who lived in the Vlth 
century. He is generally represented between his two sons, FUJO ^ jfc an d 
FUKEN ^ $|, and popularly called WARAI BOTOKE (the laughing God). He is 
credited with the invention of the revolving bookcase, or Rinso, containing the 
6,771 sacred books of Buddhism, and which it suffices to revolve three times to 
acquire as much merit as would be obtained by the earnest perusal of 
the whole, besides which, a long and prosperous life is thus secured by 
means of a relatively slight physical exertion. Fu Daishi and his sons form 
the first illustration of the Butsu Zo Zui. 

The Rinzo, or Tenrinzo, is figured in Hokusai's Mangwa, and in the 
work of William Simpson, The Buddhist Praying Wheel, page 115. 

201. FUDO >T I|J]. Buddhistic divinity, identical with ACHALA the 
Immovable ; he is also called FUDO Mio O, and is one of the Dai Nichi 
Nyorai ; its other Sanskrit name is AKSHOBHYA. 

He is represented seated over the brink of a precipice, or standing on 
a rock, surrounded by flames. In his right hand he carries a vajra hilted 
sword, or sometimes the Amakurikara, and in the left a rope, which, 
according to some, is intended to bind the wicked. According to Buddhist 
texts, the rope is used by the God, like a fishing line, but with better and 
more constant results, to draw men to the other side of the river, where 
they find the true knowledge. 

His head is covered with thick black hair, with a long plait of eight 
strands extending to the left shoulder. 



He is the Divinity of the waterfalls, one of the eight patrons of life in 
the Japanese astrology, and also the God of Wisdom. He has two acolytes: 
one, pink coloured, is KONGARA DOJI, the other, like a red lotus, is SEITAKA 
DOJI, both of whom are often indentified with CHOCEN and CHOAKU, 

202. FUGEN BOSATSU ^ | (SAMAXTA BHADRA). The Chinese Pu- 
HIEN, a Buddhist divinity, seated at the left of the Buddha (Sheika).. He 
is as a rule shown with a roll of texts in his clasped hands, or occasionally 
a lotus, and seated on an elephant, the latter having often as many as 
three pairs of tusks ; or sometimes seated upon a group of elephants. 

He is the God who dispenses knowledge and wisdom, and is the 
spiritual son of Dai Nichi Niorai (Yairotchana). 

Fugen is the patron of the extatic sect, which practises the Hokkezammai. 

203. FUH HI ^^, or FUKKI, the Inventor of the Eight Diagrams 
of the Chinese. See SHINNO. 

204. FUJI YAMA H Uj, FUJI SAN. " The " mountain of Japan, 
celebrated in art and in poetry from the earliest times. Hokusai devotes to 
its appearance the hundred views of Fuji (Fuji Hyakkei), and the thirty-six 
views, Saigio-Hoshi's contemplation of the peerless (/f^ "".) snow-clad mountain 
is a common subject, not only for the artist, but even for the free caricature 
of the school-boy. The poet Narihira cannot tear himself away from it, 
and stops with his retinue at the foot of the peak, composing a poem. 
Jofuku is said to have ascended Fuji, and found there the monks from 
Mount Horai concocting the elixir of life (^f ^E Fuji, immortal), which his 
master, the Chinese Emperor, SHIN NO SHIKO (see CHENG), had sent him to seek, 
with the result that he came over to Japan with 500 Chinese couples and 
the best books of China. His deception being found, the Chinese sages 
were put to death and all the books destroyed. (This legend is not in 
agreement with the Chronology of Mayers' Chin. Read. Manual.} 

It is usually credited that Lake Biwa was formed at the same time 
as Fuji San. Fuji is associated with dreams, as the omen of greatest 





NARIHIRA (../.) 


luck. Dragons, across the mountains or clouds, or the Caps of Fuji, are 
common art subjects. 

205. FUJIFUSA $ffc H [jj$ )^] (FUJIWARA). Patriot and, according to 
legend, later, monk (1335) who accompanied the Emperor, Go DAIGO, during 
his exile. The Yedo Osetsuyo (I. 28) compares him with HANREI. 

206. FUJI HIME jj$ $|. Princess Fuji, the divinity who inhabits 
Fuji Yama. She is also called the "Princess who causes the blossoms of trees 
to flower" (Ko-no-hana-saku-ya-hime), or ASAMA, or SEXGEX, and is pictorially 
represented with a large sun hat and a twig of wistaria (perhaps through 
some popular pun upon Fuji *^. C and Fuji ^ t> wistaria )fc) in her hand; 
the name of her elder sister is IXYAXAGA HIME. Some of their adventures 
in the age of the Gods have been recorded in the Kojiki and the Nihongi. 

207. FUJIX (FUTEX) 5c Ji, (FENG PKH JH f). The God of the Winds, 
shown with the head of a demon, two claws on each foot and a thumb, with 
three claw-like fingers on each hand, with one of which he grasps a bag 
containing the winds, whilst the other holds a spear from which depends 
a red pennant. When thus depicted he is one of the Twelve Deva Kings, 
VASU ; when without the spear, he grasps his bag with both hands, the 
winds escaping from one end of it. He is sometimes shown with Raijin, 
the Thunder God, whose attributes he occasionally borrows, both repairing 
their "plant," very much the worse for wear, or fighting in the sky. 

208. FUJIWARA $H |j^. Powerful family, who from 660 to 1050 
practically ruled Japan, and who, even after the advent of the Shogunate, 
kept to the fore of the Japanese nobility. From its ranks were selected 
the Empress and the chief officials. The name has also been honoured by 
artists and poets, besides warriors. 


210. FUJIWARA SADATOSHI jf| ^. Shown unwrapping the Biwa 
sent him by his Chinese master, Liu (RenjSbo). (Zen Ken Kojitsu.} 

211. FUJITSUNA ||fc $PSJ (Aworo SAYEMON). See the story of the LOST 
CASH. Once during a famine the Shogun, TOKIYORI, was sending rice to 



a convent, when one of his oxen relieved himself in the river. AWOTO 
FUJITSUNA said : " See how the ox follows the example of his master." 
Explaining that the Shogun was sending rice to the wealthy priests while 
the people were starving, and that likewise the ox contributed to the river, 
which was already full of water, instead of waiting until it came across 
a paddy field suffering from the drought. 

Fujitsuna's wit was appreciated by the Shogun, who offered him a ' 
place at court, but he strenuously refused. 

212. FUJO and FUKEN. Sons of Fu Daishi (q.v.). 

213. FUKIUHAKU ffi ^ i&- Sennin watching flowers in a vase. 

214. FUKUJIN H p. See SHICHI FUKUJIN. " Les Sept Dieux du 
Bonheur," according to Humbert, generally called the Seven Household 
Gods, or the Seven Gods of Good Fortune, or the Gods of Luck. 

215. FUKUKONGO, or AMOGHA VAJRA (704-774) ^ <*? Pu KUNG. A 
priest from India, who went to China about 733 A.D. under the Emperor 
HIUENG TSUNG, and became one of the patriarchs of the Tantra sect. Accord- 
ing to Eitel (C.B.) he introduced a new alphabet for the transliteration of 
Sanskrit, and published 108 works, mostly translations. 

216. FUKUROKUJIU jfg jfc tp. One of the Seven Gods of Luck, 
shown with a tall head, sometimes much longer than the whole of his 
body. Old and bearded, he is the God of Longevity, and as such, usually 
accompanied by the crane and the tortoise. His name means Wealth, 
Prosperity, Longevity, and the first item of it is often represented by the 
Tama, or sacred jewel, which he carries in his hand. A stag, also 
emblematic of long life, is often with him. The Stag, according to Chinese 
legend, is a long-lived creature, but instead of becoming white in its old 
age, it changes to blue when a thousand years old, and to black at its 
second millenium. 

Fukurokujiu is bald-headed, and dressed in old-fashioned garments : 
some see in him a presentment of LAO TSZE (Rosni) ; other writers would 
identify him with Jurojin, from whom he often borrows the staff and 



SAIHYO (..!/.) 


FU'lEN (U.GI.) 


makimono, or the fan and the peculiar head-gear, but not as a rule the 
dignified countenance. In fact, Fukurokujiu is more often shown in pleasant 
or humorous groups. His elongated cranium is particularly attractive to 
the other Gods of Luck, or even to ordinary boys, who play with the 
benevolent deity, attaching a scarf around his head in a modified game of 
Kubi Kitbi (neck pulling), climbing on his head, shaving it, standing 
upon a high stack of tables, etc. ; or Fukurokujiu will exhibit his caligraphic 
skill with a brush tied to his forehead, or examine some roll of texts, or 
be depicted exorcising the Oni on New Year's Eve, or having a chat with 
the Chinese Emperor, Chen Tsung. He is, of course, often represented in 
the Tarakabune, or treasure ship, with either the whole or part of the 
Shichi Fukujin. It is said that once the sage, Ya Kuwaboku (KIKWAHAKU, 
q.v.), was visited by a dwarf, three feet broad, five feet high, whose head 
was half his total height ; this personage had a long beard, a red dress, 
and was very boisterous, he held in hand the Kotsu (Tablet). Noticing 
Saisho, the disciple of Ya Kuwaboku, he told the latter that this disciple 
was no other than the God of the mountain Tai San. The author of 
the Ye-ma no te-hon moreover thinks that Jurojin is identical with Fukorokujiu; 
and this is confirmed by the Sogenjigo saying that a Taosse, Fukuraku, was 
in Kiayen (1056-7) transformed into the Nankiyoku rojinsei (southern Star of 
long life), and obtained the names Ko no Minami and Jurojin, and in the 
Fnzoku In it is recorded that in Gen yo (1086) a dwarf answering to 
the above description came to visit the Emperor, So Chi Zung, and, after 
getting drunk, told him that he was Rojinsei of the Southern star, the 
holy one who prolonged the life of men. 

217. FUKUSUKE |g $)]. A Toy made in the shape of a dwarf with 
a big head, sometimes used as a model for netsuke, especially poised on 
one foot or a stool, reaching a dinner service in a box, or as a shop sign, 
or as the first figure in a lantern entertainment. 

218. FUKUTOMI ORIBE jjjg g $j| gR. A tale which dates from 
circa 1340, tells how a man named Fukutomi Oribe became extremely rich, 
thanks to his skill as a punster. He had a cantankerous wife, who was 



called by his neighbours Mrs. Demon, as they could not find any other 
way to describe the ugliness of her person and the unloveliness of her 
nature. One of the neighbours, thinking profitable puns easy to make, 
gave up his own work to try imitating Fukutomi, but failed in every 
attempt. The tale forms a book, intended to warn people who yearn for 
unexpected luck by keeping before them the example of the unlucky 
neighbour, Hokusho Tota. 

219. FUKYOKU SENSEI g Jg] ft & (shown carrying the tools of a 
mirror polisher), seemed to hail from a foreign land, as his speech differed 
from that of the people. Me polished mirrors to earn his living. One day 
his landlord asked him: "Who could live in the world without a disease?" 
" I have a good medicine which can cure any disease," replied the sage, and 
as a pestilence soon after decimated the land, he distributed it on the 
door-steps, curing no less than ten thousand people without exacting any 

220. FUMON MUKWAN H H f$ M- A vei 7 learned priest who 
lived in 1212-1291, and who, after twelve years of travel in China, came 
back to his native land and succeeded his master as Abbot of the temple of 
Tofukugi. It was rumoured in Kyoto that the palace of Higashiyama was 
haunted, and the then Emperor, Kameyana, thought that perhaps a con- 
templative Buddhist priest might be effective as a demon queller. He sent for 
Fumon, asking him whether he could lay the ghosts. The Abbot replied that 
" Even in the secular books it is said that a ghost cannot overcome virtue, 
how therefore could they exist where a priest lives ? " The Emperor, acting 
on that advice, had the temple of Xanzenji built in the palace, and the 
abbot took his residence therein, to remain in possession until his death, 
after which he was canonized under the name of TAIMIN KOKUSHI ^ ^ 13 $$ 

221. FUNDO. See the sacred treasures of the Takaramono. 

222. FUSE HIME of SATOMI. Lady depicted in court dress, with a 
makimono and a pet dog. It is an illustration of the story of SATOMI, in 
Hakkenden. Her father vowed to give her as a bride to whoever would 




.,. FUTEN - (y.. v . t -.) FIIJ , H , ME (Wi _ A) 



bring him the head of one of his enemies. The happy suitor was a 

223. FUTEN JJS, ;. See FUJIN. 

224. FUTON of TOTTORI Jjfj Jft. 0) ^\ Hfl. This is a ghost story given 
by Lafcadio Heani in Unfamiliar Japan. Two little boys were living 
in a small house, after the death of their mother. Alone and penniless, 
they could not pay the rent of the place, and their only possession was 
a dilapidated futon. Their heartless landlord took possession of it, and 
turned them out of doors, where they hugged one another for warmth and 
died in one another's arms, in the snow by the side of the house. A 
poor innkeeper who had bought the futon from the landlord, not knowing 
where it came from, was surprised night after night to hear the voices of 
the two brothers comforting one another, and found that the voices were 
those of the two ghosts. He gave the futon to the village temple, and 
had the Kyo recited upon it for the peace of the infants' souls, after which 
they were never heard any more. 

225. GAKI !$ j|. See GHOSTS. 

226. GAMA SENNIN 4g H flj A- The Sennin with the Toad, shown 
holding a toad (sometimes three-legged) in his hand, or with the animal 
climbing over his dress, or on his shoulder. The toad has often its full 
complement of legs, and in some rare cases it is even shown bigger than 
the Sennin himself. His name was KOSENSEI (Teacher Ko) f^ ^ ffi, or 
How SIEN SENG, and he is described as having had no hair on his face, not even 
eyebrows ; and his skin was covered with protuberances. One day as he went 
to bathe he was followed by a man named BAGEN, who assumed the form of 
a frog, to watch the Sage; there is another version in which Kosensei is said 
to have assumed the frog shape when in the water. Kosensei, who put his 
magical knowledge to practical use by selling drugs endowed with wonderful 
powers, presented Bagen with a magic pill which gave him a hundred years of 
life. He is sometimes shown in the act of giving the pill to the toad 
or frog. 



227. GAMES. 

Bibliography : Chief!}' the second volume of the Nihon Fii zo Kit Shi. 

The works of Lafcadio Hearn, Griffis, Chamberlain, and Mrs. Chaplin 

A complete survey of Japanese games would require a volume in itself; 
the following list contains only some of the more common pastimes. 

AKAMBE consists in pulling down the lower eyelids, as explained under 
that word in the text. 

ANA ICHI appears to correspond to the Western game of pitch penny. 

CHIXSHIN MUGA MUGA or MOGURA is essentially a boy's game ; it 
consists in hopping for as long a time as possible on one leg only, the 
other being bent back. 

CHIYE xo ITA, boards of wisdom, is similar to the French jeu de 
patience. Pictures of some war scene are pasted on thin boards, which are 
afterwards sawn in irregular shapes. The player must fit them together, 
and reconstitute the picture. 

CHIYE xo 'YVA, ring of wisdom, Chinese puzzle of rings threaded on a 
bar of metal, much after the European types. 

COCK FIGHTING, TORI NO KEAI, appears to have been in vogue in the 
early period of Japanese history. B. H. Chamberlain tells us that it became 
a fashionable craze in 1874; whether the Dutch were responsible for a 
similar fashion during the seventeenth century is not clear, but netsuke carvers 
have made of the Dutchman hugging a cock a very familiar figure. 

DAKIU, the game of polo, was introduced from China, where, we are 
told by Prof. Giles, it was an Imperial pastime, so highly esteemed that 
a maker of polo clubs is reputed to have ascended to heaven, thanks to 
his skill. Dakiu, however, never was very popular in Japan, owing to the 
expense it entails. It differs from European polo in several points ; seven 
players on either side, dressed in a distinctive colour, enter the field, each 
carrying a ball of the same colour as his dress balanced in a sort of 
triangular net formed at the end of a long stick. The goal, in the centre 
of the field, some eighteen feet from the entrance, consists in a wooden 
screen with an eighteen inch opening in the centre, to which is attached 



a bag of string netting. The game consists in throwing into this bag in 
as short a time as possible, seven balls of one colour. 

Do Cnu SUGO ROKU, travelling game ; compare the French jeu de I'oie. 
Its most popular form is called the Game of the Tokaido road ; it is 
played on the New Year's Day, and upon a large sheet of paper, on 
which are indicated the fifty-three stations of the Tokaido, the stakes are 
placed at Kyoto, and the players, starting from Tokyo, throw dice to 
determine their rate of progression. 

FLOATING FAN. This game, no doubt derived from the Chinese cup 
floating, followed the same rules. A winding stream was selected, upon 
which fans, specially lacquered, were floated by the players, who had to 
compose poems during the time taken by the fan to travel between two 
stations, say, for instance, two consecutive bends of the stream. An 
illustration will be found in Mrs. Salwey's paper, "Pastimes of the Japanese," 
in Vol. ]'. of the Japan Society's Transaction. 

FUKU BIKI is a game played during January. One of the players holds 
a bunch of ribbons, to which are attached prizes or labels bearing puns on 
the prizes given, and the other ends are pulled by the other players, who 
must guess the nature of the things attached to the tapes they hold. 

KARUTA, meaning card, probably from the Spanish Carta, forms the 
generic name of several games : 

In the GENJI GARUTA, allusions are made to the wars of the Taira 
and Minamoto families; the SHI GARUTA game is based on Chinese quotations; 
the KOKIN GARUTA upon ancient odes ; the HYAKU-NIX-ISSHIU GARUTA 
consists of a hundred cards, each of which bears a verse from that famous 
collection of hundred odes. 

The IROHA GARUTA bear the signs of the Iroha syllabary as initial of 
fifty cards to be matched by fifty proverb pictures. 

The UTA GARUTA consists of two sets of cards, one of which is adorned 
with pictures and the other with the corresponding poems, which must be 
matched. One hundred cards were used. 

In the HANA GARUTA, or flower cards, forty-eight cards are used, four 
cards being devoted to each month, and decorated with the flower 



emblematic of that month : Pine, plum, cherry, wisteria, iris, peony, 
lespedeza, eularia (Japonica), chrysanthemum, maple, willow and paul- 
ownia. The relative values of the cards of each set of four are further 
distinguished by some small animal, coloured cartouche (Tanjaku), or particular 
design. As an example of the associated subjects, Ono no Tofu is depicted 
on the cards of the eleventh set, with the willow and the frog. This 
game was favoured by grown-up folks, who found in it opportunities for 
gambling. Less valuable were, as a rule, the stakes in the Iroha Garuta 
confined to children ; the loser of the game, if a boy, had his face marked 
with ink, if a girl, a wisp of straw was tied in her hair. 

GKNMI and HEIKK. This is a boy's game. The players have red or 
white flags attached to their backs, according to the clan which they 
represent, and they carry upon their heads earthenware pots, which the 
opposite side tries to break with wooden swords. The game was not 
without danger, as the heads chanced to receive as many blows as the 

GHOSTS GAMES. In the most elementary O BAKE GOTO, a girl loosens 
her hair over her face, and plays the role of the O Bake, with frightening 
gestures, rolling of eyes, and lolling of tongue, in imitation of popular 
ghost pictures, accompanied with sundry noises. 

Amongst more organized ghostly games, the HIYAKU MONOGATARI consists 
of a hundred grisly tales told at night. The tales are short, never exceeding 
a few sentences, and the room is lighted by a lamp containing a hundred 
short wicks at the beginning of the game. After each anecdote has been 
told, one wick is removed ; darkness slowly invades the house as the reel 
of stories becomes exhausted, till, ultimately, the last tale told, the 
last wick is snuffed, and the ghost appears or should appear to the 
accompaniment of sundry noises made by the players. Another ghost 
game is the KON DAME SHI, or soul examination. A number of flags are 
set in some dismal place, as, for instance, near a cemetery, where ghosts 
are reputed to wander, and at night stories are told, the players going in 
the intervals to collect the flags, one by one. 

Go is a complicated game, of Chinese origin, and which was, according 



to tradition, introduced to Japan by KIBI DAIJIN (q.v.), and which we find 
associated with not a few legendary worthies (see EMBLEMS). 

It is played on a low table of massive construction (Go Ban), on the 
top of which nineteen lines, drawn from one side to the other, intersect 
an equal number of lines drawn at right angles to the first. Three 
hundred and sixty-one crossing points, called Me, are thus formed, and 
the central one is named Taiyuki, or primordial principle ; the remaining 
three hundred and sixty represent degrees of latitude. The chief celestial 
bodies are represented by nine spots (Seimokit), Black ishi, or stones, of 
which there are one hundred and eighty-one, represent night, and one 
hundred and eighty white ones represent day. The game consists in 
capturing ones opponent's pawns by enclosing at least three crosses round 
his ishi, and slowly covering as much of the table as possible. A lengthy 
description of the game can be found in KORSCHELT'S paper in the German 
Asiatic Transactions, parts 21 cl scq. 

GOMOKU NARABE, is an easier game of Go, in which the first player to 
get five pawns in a line in any direction wins the game. 

HANETSUKI is the game of Battledore and Shuttlecock, specially favoured 
about the New Year. The shuttlecock consists as a rule of some round 
seed, perhaps gilt, and into which are fastened several feathers, much like 
the European article. But the battledore is a heavier implement : made of 
wood and nearly square, it might be called a bat ; one side of it is purely 
ornamental, carved with the figure of some hero or of some famous actor. 
The loser is fined by having his face blackened, or merely rings of ink 
drawn around his eyes. The game is common to boys and girls. 

HASAMI SHOGI is played with pawns. The game consists in pushing 
on the board a pawn between two of the other player's ; when this result 
is attained, the winner takes the pieces adjacent to his lucky pawn. 

HATATSUBURAKASHI. The game of Kite fighting, peculiar to Nagasaki, 
the point of which consists in cutting loose the adversary's kite. To 
that effect the kite (Tako) is attached to its ordinary smooth cord (Jada 
Yoma) by means of a hundred feet of a specially treated string, called Biidoro 
Yoma, and a second smooth cord depending from the lower corner of the kite. 



The cutting cord is covered with glue and powdered glass, and attached 
to the centre of the kite. When it meets the cord of the other player, 
clever manipulation causes the cords to rub until one gives way. 

ISHINAJO, the game of Marbles. 

JIUROKU MUSASHI. Easy game played with sixteen round paper pawns, 
on a divided board. 

KABE DACHI. Man's game. The performer stands near a wall, with 
the back of his head touching it, supporting himself on the palm of his 
hands, which rest on the floor, with the fingers touching the wall. The 
feat consists in raising the body vertically, so that the soles of both feet 
touch the wall. Also called Shachihoko dachi. 

KAI AWASE or KAI Oi. The shell game, played with three hundred 
and sixty clam shells, one valve bearing a verse and the other a picture 
to which the verse refers. The poems are divided amongst the players, 
and as the pictures are thrown one after another on the mats, the holder 
of the corresponding poem must place his shell near it. 

KAKUREMBO. Hide and seek. 

KEHAZE KAMI. One player stands, holding a paper at arm's length, 
the other tries to kick it with one foot without tumbling. 

KEMARI. Football much favoured at Court in ancient times. The 
Japanese football was made of two hemispheres, stitched on a diameter, the 
stitching forming a hollow zone around the ball. Football rejoices in the 
possession of a Three Headed divinity called Mari no Kami (Ehon Tsuhoshi}. 

KISHAGO HAJIKI. Game of marbles played with hard round shells which 
are flicked away by a special motion .of the thumb and index finger, like 
in the Ishinajo. 

KIOKUSUI NO YEN. A game of Chinese origin* consisting in floating 
sake cups upon a winding stream, along which the players were seated. 
Poems were to be composed and committed to paper between the beginning 
of the game and the passage of the cup before the player if he desired to 
take some refreshment. If the player could not compose a poem in time to 

'"" Introduced by Gensho Tenno in 486 ; it took place on the third day of the third month. 



seize the cup, he was expected to let it pass, and those who could not 
produce any poetry remained without wine until perchance a cup stopped 
in front of them by accident. It is reported that one of the Chinese 
Emperors had a winding stream specially constructed for this amusement. 

KEN. Games played with fingers, a few conventional motions representing a 
whole scene ; the name is derived from the Chinese lf fist. The best known are : 

JAXKEX, which represents a pair of scissors (nasami) cutting some cloth or 
paper (kami) and meeting a stone (ishi) hidden in its folds, the meaning 
being that a stone can be wrapped up, and the scissors can cut the wrapper 
but they cannot damage the stone. 

TOHACHI KEX, or Kitsnne Ken. Played by three people, one of the 
players depicts the fox by placing his hands at the side of his head to 
simulate the ears, another extends his arm to personify the hunter with his 
gun (teppo), a third one sits sternly with his hands on his knees to represent 
the headman of the village (shoya). The motions of the fingers of the 
players must be made in the proper sequence, and must be appropriate. The 
game is much favoured by women, and as an example in European games, 
similar in principle, but immensely easier, can be given the French Pigeon vole. 

MUSHI KEN is based upon the hierarchy of the snake (hebi), the frog 
(kaeru) and the slug (namekuji) in magical powers. The snake is represented 
by the index finger, the frog by the thumb, and the slug by the little finger. 

A game, somewhat akin to Ken, consists in casting shadows on a wall 
by means of one's limbs and simple " properties," such as a pipe or pieces 
of paper, so as to represent animals. 

Ko AWASE. The Perfume game or Incense game fully described in 
Lafcadio Hearn's works. 

This exquisite pastime necessitated such an elaborate set of utensils, 
that "Ko Awase sets" of beautiful lacquer have long been classified amongst 
collector's treasures. 

The principle of the game consists in guessing the nature and name 
of some incense from the perfume of its smoke. The various players, seated 
on the mats around a small scoring board were given counters, papers to 
write poems or the name of the blends, the host then passed the smoking 



incense round in small boxes closed but for a narrow slit at the top 
through which the smoke arose. The guests recorded their guesses in writing 
after smelling the incense, and handed in their counters according to certain 
intricate rules. 

Incense sticks vary considerably both in quality and in price, and 
the differences between the best blends being very subtle the players must 
be endowed with very acute senses to hit upon the right names at the end 
of a long game. 

KOMA ASOBI. Top spinning, for boys. The Japanese top differs from 
the European one, but is very similar to the Sabot of the French boys, 
its upper part is cylindrical, and the lower part tapers to a point where it 
is shod with iron. In the childrens' toys, the round part is made of 
bamboo with holes in the side to make them hum whilst rotating, the 
taper part is a hard wooden plug. Sometimes the tops are bound with 
iron rings, and are used in top fights. 

Another game played with a top is called Fox Catching : the top is 
placed on the floor, and the boy "fox" attempts to reach it without getting 
his head caught in a hoop held by his playmates between him and his 

KOTORO KOTORO. Catching the child. The players walk in single file, 
touching one another, with a "father" at the head of the file, whose duty 
it is to swing his Hock so that they may not come in contact with a 
single child, the Oni, who attempts to catch the last of the line. Should 
he succeed, the " father " has to exchange places with him. 

KUBI HIKI, Neck-pulling. The two players are set back to back with 
an endless scarf joining their foreheads, which they pull by moving the 
head forwards till one of them gives in. 

MAKURA ARASOI. Pillow catching. The two players squat on the floor 
tied back to back, a pillow is set at some distance in front of each and 
they must reach the pillows without toppling one another over. 

MARITSUKI. Girls' game, playing at ball. 

MAWARI KOBOTOKE. Childrens' game : Small ghost, consisting in dancing 
in a circle around a blindfolded child. 



MAWARI SEKKO. Circulating incense stick, so-called although there is 
no incense circulating, but the players sit in a circle and make poems, 
each player using as a first word the last one of the verse uttered by the 
previous player. 

ME KAKUSHI, or MEKUSAN. Blind man's buff. This game finds its 
application in the dramatised versions of Chiushingura. 

NAMAKO SUBERI. This is really more a physical exercise than a game: 
the players are two in number, naked and with the skin well greased, and 
the man who throws his partner down is the winner. 

NE No Hi No ASOBI. The amusement of the day of the Rat. Old- 
fashioned pastime, perhaps originally endowed with a religious significance. 
On the first day of the Rat of the first month, Court ladies uprooted small 
pine trees to celebrate the day. 

NIRAMI Ai or NIRAMI KURABE. The two players sit face to face. One 
with a piece of paper stuck to his forehead makes grimaces to cause his 
partner to laugh without smiling himself. 

OGI OTOSHI, better named To SENKIO, was a girl's game played by 
two people, with fans. Between them stood on a small table a target in 
the shape of an open fan, and the corners of which were provided with 
bells, this was called the Cho. The game consisted in the players hitting 
the target with the rivet end of their fans by throwing the latter in such 
a fashion that it turned on itself in its trajectory. 

ONI GOKKO. The "puss in the corner," or the French quatre coins. 
The oni stands in the centre of a group of trees or other points of vantage, 
and should one of the players be caught by the oni, when running from 
one place to the other, they change places in the game. 

OSAMA KEN. In this game some six or seven boys represent the various 
grades of society, and according to their playing they rise or drop in grade. 

OSHIKURA. There are several Udeoshi and Suneoshi, Yubizumo, which are 
really physical tricks played with the arms, legs and thumbs respectively. 

OTEDAMA or OJAMME. Girls' game played with seven small bags filled 
with small seeds. 



POETRY. Besides the games given above in which poetry plays an 
important role, capping verses was a favourite pastime of the learned, and 
the value of such an achievement can be understood by referring to the story 
of Yoshiiye and Abe no Sadato, also Hosokawa Yusai. 

SAJI SUMO. Both players stand on the right leg, holding the left in the 
left hand, and with the right hand they try to throw one another down. 

SARU KABURI or HIKAKI KABURI. The player puts on his head a tall 
basket, through which he cannot see, and attempts to kick it off. 

SHITAE TACHI. A man stands near a wall, with his hands folded behind 
his back, and he must touch the wall with his forehead without, tumbling 

SHOGI. The game of chess, played with forty pawns (twenty each side), 
of a peculiar pentagonal shape, with the name written on each, a description 
of which can be found in Baron K. Suyematsu's -4 Phantasy of Far Japan. 

SUGOROKU. Travelling game such as that of the TOKAIDO ROAD. 

TAKE UMA. Literally WOOD HORSE, stilts. 

TAKO AGE. Kite flying on New Year's Day. 

TEMARI. A girl's game played with a ball. 

TENUGUI BIKI. Towel pulling, a man's game. The towel is held fast by 
the players in their elbow joints ; the game is merely a tug of war. 

TOKO or TSUBO UCHI. An old Chinese game, favoured by some of the 
Sennins, it consists in casting a ball in a narrow -mouthed pot or in shooting 
arrows in a long-necked bottle previously filled with peas. 

TSURU No HERIORI. A man's game. The player with his arms tied 
behind his back poises himself on one foot and tries to seize with his teeth 
a fruit placed on the ground, without tripping. (Imitating the crane.) 

WAMAWASHI. Hoop trundling. The only difference between this game 
and the European variety appears to be in the stick used, Western boys 
have a straight stick, Japanese have a forked implement, in the opening 
of which the hoop is guided. 

YAMI SAIKU is a patience game for blindfolded players. A large mask 
of Otafuku, or some other well-known type, is cut into parts, and the 
player must reconstitute it. 



YUBI ZUMO. Thumb pressing. The two players sit face to face and 
force their thumbs together as a trial of strength. 

There are many variants to the trials of strength, they may be made 
with the legs, the fists, the hands; Kubihiki takes place with a long endless 
rope passing from neck to neck of the players under their bodies while on 
all fours, etc., until there is hardly any difference appreciable between the 
game and the physical exercise, and one might include wrestling amongst 
popular games. 

When a company meets, one sits outside the circle blindfolded, to decide 
who will perform some game. He is supposed to be Kaminari, the Thunder 
God, and whilst a plate or some other object is passed round from hand 
to hand in the circle, he cries Goro-Goro Zudon (the Japanese onomatopoeia 
for the Thunderclap), and the person who then holds the object must begin 
the entertainment. 

228. GARIO 3$!} |$H /iff UW, or BINGA, or BINGACHO. The companion 
of Vishnu : GARUDA. Mythical creature, half woman half bird, sort of 
winged and feathered Angel, with a tail like a Phoenix and legs like a 

It is also called the KARIYOBINGA BIRD. 


GEESE, with rushes in their bills, are emblematic of the care which 
should be exercised when selecting an abode, as it is believed that 
geese carry in their bills bits of rushes, which they drop in ponds, before 
taking to the water, or as some say, to stand upon. 

A favourite design consists in a wild goose, or a flight of wild geese 
passing across the disc of the moon. 

230. GEKIBOKU $$ vet- Tailed men, see MYTHICAL FOREIGNERS. 

231. GEKKAWO ^ T H. Poetical name of the God of Marriage: 
MUSUBI NO KAMI, YUEH LAO ^ ^, the Old Man under the Moon, who 
binds with a red silk thread the feet of lovers. In Chinese legends, the 

9 1 


old man varies this occupation, and by way of physical exercise, chops 
down the cassia tree, everlastingly growing in the moon, and which, when 
its foliage is too exuberant gives it a red colour. The red silk thread 
plays a role in the selection of the bride of Kwoh (Yuen Chin) amongst the 
five daughters of Chang Kia Cheng. Mayers give as an alternative name 
Kieh Lin |g J$. 

232. GENII ^fl ^ f$, the HAPPY, or the Merry Genii, see WAGO JIN. 
They are presented in the guise of two Chinese boys, trampling treasures 

233. GEMPEI ^ ^. The war of GENJI (or MINAMOTO) and HEISHIN 
(HEIKE or TAIRA) which took place between these two families during the 
Xllth Century. 

234. GENJI $jt another reading of the word MINAMOTO, name of the 
clan descended from the Emperor SEIWA (856-877), which proved a terrible 
adversary of the FUJIWARA, and later in 1185 defeated the TAIRA at Dan 
no Ura after a war which lasted thirty years (GEMPEI war). The victor, 
YORITOMO, became Shogun, but died, after having driven his half-brother, 
YOHITSUNE, to commit suicide. The GENJI clan became extinct in 1219, 
when SANETOMO, second son of Yoritomo, was treacherously murdered by his 
nephew KUGYO, son of Yoriiye, on the staircase of the temple of Hachiman, 
at Kamakura. Amongst other books see Bakin's Ehon Genjio meizo (1804). 

235. GENJI. WHITE BANNER of the Genji. See the story of KOMAN. 

236. GENJI MONOGATARI jg & $9 g- Lengthy novel in fifty-four 
volumes, written at the end of the Xth Century by the poetess MURASAKI 
SHIKIBU (q.v.). Thirty-one of its chapters are devoted to the adventures 
of Prince Genji, and the number of personages it includes necessitates a 
biographical volume in itself. 

237. GENKEI I^C III- A Chinese sage, YUAN CHAO, represented as an 
old man carrying a flower basket on his shoulders. He is probably the 
prototype of a great many rough netsuke. He is said to have lost his way 



in the Tendai mountains in the middle of the first century, A.D., in company 
with Ryushin. They were rescued by two female Sennins, whose favours 
they received, and after leaving them they found themselves seven generations 
older. See RYUSHIN. 

238. GENKU $j| 2j5. Celebrated Buddhist priest honoured after his death 
with the titles of HONEN SHONIN and ENKO DAISHI (q.v.). 

239. GENXO OSHO 0% 7ft] IP?, founder of the Raizoji temple of 
Kamakura, is the priest who, with his hosso, broke to pieces the death rock 
of Nazumo in Shimozuke, into which the Tamamo no Maye had been 
transformed. (See ABE xo SEIMEI.) A humorous picture of this incident 
is given in Jinji Ando by Kuniyoshi. See STONES. 

240. GENSO flft j|l. The Chinese Emperor, MING HWANG (HUAN TSUNG), 
of the Tang dynasty, born 685, and adopted son of the then Emperor Jui 
Tsung to whom he succeeded in 713 A.D. Genso delighted in the con- 
templation of the flowering cherry tree, and when the blossoms were too 
slow to open according to his Imperial opinion, he had the drum beaten 
by his female attendants to give them notice to hurry. He is generally 
represented playing the flute with his concubine YOKIHI (q.v.), the erstwhile 
wife of his own son, and of whom he had become so infatuated that he 
took her in his seraglio, gave his son another consort, and left the cares 
of the Empire to his ministers. Yokihi becoming all-powerful, her two 
sisters were also introduced into the Imperial harem, whilst her father and 
brother obtained elevated positions. The licence of the Emperor was only 
stopped by the revolt initiated by his own companion of debauchery, the 
Tartar minion, Ngan Lu-shan, ending in the massacre of the three sisters, 
and the abdication of Ming Hwang, in 756. 

241. GENSUKE BASHIRA jt| fljj & or A tt & EE Pillar of Gensuke, 
which was in the middle of the old bridge at Matsu (Hitobashtra Matsud). 
See also Matsuo. In the Keicho era (1596-1614) the Daimio, HORIO YOSHIHARU, 
decided to build a bridge over the Matsue river, but stone after stone 
was swallowed in the sand of the river bed, and when at last the bridge 



was finished, the pillars sank or were swept away, men being continuously 
employed repairing the structure. There was no way to abate the trouble 
except by burying a live man in one of the piers, and it was decided 
that the first man who should pass the bridge, without having under his 
Hakama, the stiffener known as Machi, would be the victim. It happened 
to be a man named Gensuke, whose ghost ever after haunted the pillar, 
in the form of a red fire visible on dark nights. A similar but older 
story attaches to the bridge of Nagara famous in Japanese poetry. At 
some later date wicker or metal figures were used to propitiate the spirit 
of the waters instead of human sacrifices. 

There is a parallel to this curious belief in the effect of the immuring 
a live man, to make a building secure and strong, in the Roumanian 
ballad of Manoli. 

242. GKNTOKU 2lfl|. The Chinese Emperor, CHAD LIEU Ti 0j 
also known as RIUBI (Liu PEI |^lj fff ) the name under which he was known 
when a child. He is said to have been a grandson of the Paragon of Piety 
KEI TEI, and a distant relative of the Han rulers. He supported his infirm 
mother and himself by making straw sandals and mats. He met KWAN Yu 
and CHOIII, with whom he later took an oath of brotherhood in a peach 
orchard, and became commander of a small force, but when Tsao Tsao attempted 
to usurp the throne, the three brothers in arms turned against him, from 
the province of Sze Ch'wan, until his fall in 220, when his son, Tsao Pei, 
usurped the government and Liu Pei took the title CHAO LIEH Ti, as 
Emperor of China. This was the beginning of the period of the Three 
Kingdoms, and the foundation of the minor Han dynasty in Shuli. 

One of Gentoku's adventures is classical : he was betrothed to the 
sister of the ruler of Keishu, RIUHIO, who, desiring to abdicate in his favour, 
invited him to some festivities at his castle on that occasion. He had, 
however, reckoned without his brother-in-law, SAIBO, who beseiged the castle 
during the feast. The only place which was not surrounded was the steep 
western battlement, at the foot of which the river Dankei ran its course 
in a deep ravine. One of Gentoku's retainers, Iseki, showed him that 


GENTOKtl (ir.LJi.) 

GAMA (A.) 

GOSH1S1IO (ll.S.I.) 
TOYS (C.//..V.) 






dangerous means of escape, and the Emperor, quickly mounting his horse, 
Tokiro, cleared the torrent by a jump of over thirty feet. 

He is also represented travelling in the middle of the winter, on foot, 
amongst snow-clad mountains, to seek CHU Ko LIANG (KOMEI), his future 
adviser and general, whom he found in a hut of reeds poring over some 
classics, and very chary to accept the Emperor's offer. For his son, A-Tow, 
see CHOUN. 

243. GHOSTS (Yitrei). See also BAKEMOXO and GOBLINS. 

Since the painter, OKIYO MARUMAYA, limned the first ghost picture at 
the request of the then Shogun, from the appearance of his own dying 
aunt, the artistic presentment of ghosts and ghost stories has become 

The spirits are shown with long straight hair, hand waving or 
beckoning, or holding the dress, generally with flowing sleeves. The head 
is strongly delineated, and also the upper part of the body, but from the 
waist downwards, the forms are misty, and taper into airy nothingness, 
for ghosts have no feet. In netsnke, this latter point is of course a 
determinant feature. 

244. GINGA $j| yBf. See AMA-NO-GAWA, the Via lactea. 

245. GIUBA -^ $jj or ZUIREI, one of the sons of Benten, shown with 
horse and draught ox, transformation of Yakuwo Bosatsu (Baichadryaraja). 


Men playing Go in or outside a large orange. This is an allusion to 
a story given in the Wakan zoho guahon Kagami of Hasegawa Yasuyoshi 
(1698) and in Ehon Hokan. In a garden grew an orange tree which 
bore very large fruits ; two oranges particularly were of such an abnormal 
size that they were left on the tree for a very long time, as curiosities, 
and they remained wonderfully fresh, showing no sign of decay. Some 
day, however, the owner of the tree decided to cut down the fruit and 
to open them. As the oranges were split, two sages walked out of the 
fruit, and went to play Go upon a table which happened to be conveniently 


> v 


close. After a while, one of the sages pulled from his dress a dragon-shaped 
root, and all partook of this food ; then, calling for water, the old man 
drank some, and spat it on the ground, where it resolved itself into a 
dragon, which carried the four to heaven on a cloud. 

The story is sometimes illustrated by showing the sages issuing from the 
orange, or playing Go inside it. In some places, however, a ground cherry 
takes the place of the orange, but this variant could not be traced in books. 


See also ADACHIGAIIARA, Tale of the tongue cut sparrow, Badger's 
money, and story of the Prince and the Badger in Mitford's Tales of Old 
Japan, and a great many scattered stories in the works of Lafcadio Hearn. 


249. GO DAIGO ^ j|) ^C jjl- The ninty-sixth Emperor of Japan, 
who tried to shake the domination of the HOJO family of shikken of Kamakura, 
but failed, and was exiled by Hojo Takatoki, in 1332, to Chiburi, one of 
the Islands of Oki. After the happy campaign of Nitta Yoshisada (q.v.), 
he came back to Kioto, in 1333, on the advice of Yoshitsuna. The story 
of Go Daigo's checkered reign is surrounded with romance. When he fled 
from Kioto, he was followed by the poet Fujifusa seeing the latter weep 
upon his misfortune, he composed a verse, 

Sashite yuku 

i Kasagi no yama wo 

\ $ 

< Ideshi yori 


b Ame ga shita ni wa 

a, Kakure ga mo nashi, 

which means both : " Since I have left the Kasagi mountains, I have no 
shelter under the heavens," . . and . . " Since I have lost my umbrella, 
nothing shelters me from the shower." 
To which Fujifusa replied : 


(By courtesy of Messrs. }'<iinatt(ik<i) 


Ikani sen 

Tanomu kokage ni 

Nawo sode nurasu 
Matsu no shita tsuiyu, 
meaning : " Whatever can we do, if reckoning upon the shade one takes 
shelter under the pines, the drops in falling will still more wet the long 
sleeves." ... in which shita tsuiyu means falling rain drops, or tears 
as well. 

On the road to the Oki islands, several attempts were made to rescue 
the Emperor, one by a monk RIOCHIYU in Kioto, the other in Bizen, by the 
daimio KOJIMA TAKANORI, who, thwarted in his attempt, rode in advance of 
the escort, and with his sword removed the bark of a cherry tree upon 
the trunk of which he wrote the Chinese allusion : ^ 

Ten Kosen wo Munashu suru nakare, ... 

Toki ni Hanrei naki ni shinio arazu x.., 

(O Heaven ! do not destroy Kosen, whilst Hanrei still lives.) -*e- 

to give the Emperor a hint of his loyal designs. fe 

Go DAIGO, however, was placed in safe keeping in a temple. 
His daughter, HINAKO NAI Smxxo, tried to follow him, but she could 
not endure the hardships of the journey, and she died at Sozen Goku 
Mura, in Tottori. During her illness she asked for some chestnuts, bit one 
and threw it away. The fruit germinated into a tree, the chestnuts from 
which bear small marks, like tooth-bites, and it is called Hagata guri no ki. 
The tree of the tooth-marked chestnuts. After seventy days of exile, Go 
Daigo eluded the guard of Sasaki Kiyotaka, and with Minamoto no 
Tadaaki, managed to reach a fishing boat, the skipper of which hid him 
under loads of evil-smelling cuttle fish, and, telling the pursuing Kiyotaka 
that two men in court dress had been seen escaping in the opposite 
direction, took them across to Osaka no Minato, in Hoki, where the Emperor 
landed, carried on the shoulders of NAWA NAGATAKA, who, with his brother 
Nagashige, took him to the summit of the Funa no ye Yama, and defeated 
Kiyotaka when the latter arrived in hot pursuit. The triumph of the 



Emperor was short-lived. The Ashikaga Takauji proclaimed himself ShSgun, 
and entered into open revolt, Go Daigo's son, Morinaga, fell into disgrace 
and was murdered. Go Daigo tried to retain Kioto as his capital, against 
the advice of Kusunoki Masashige, but soon again he had to fly to 
Yoshino, whence he and several of his successors have been occasionally 
called the Yoshino dynasty. After the death of Xitta Yoshisada, his 
followers rapidly dwindled away, and he died in August, 1339, holding in 
Ins hand his sword of which he had made so little use. 

250. GODOSHI ^ j|| =$. See Wi: TAO TSZE. 

251. GOKURAKU >gt ^. The Buddhist Paradise. 


GOMO ^t %&. The Taoist worthy, Wu MENG. When eight years 
old, he suffered himself to be bitten by mosquitoes, rather than brush them 
aside for fear they might plague his parents who lived in the same room. 
This paragon of filial piety became a disciple of the wizard TING I ^ A ~T 3% 
(SmjiN TEIJI), and as an example of his proficiency, he is often repre- 
sented crossing a river on a feather fan, which he waved over the boisterous 
waters, as the winds were against his progress. He is also represented 
with fan in hand, driving through the heavens a chariot drawn by two 
stags. He is credited with the slaying of a giant snake, and his favourite 
pupil appears to have been Fu Chen Kung. His daughter, TSAI LWAN, 
is the SIIINRETSU, or GOSAIRAN of the Japanese, herself an adept of Taoist 
necromancy and the companion of BUNSHO (WEN SIAO) (q.v.) with whom 
she is depicted riding on tigers above Mount Etsuo. 

253. GOMPACHI $| A and KOMURASAKI /h ^. The story of the two 
faithful lovers is a celebrated one and has been dramatised in popular 
plays. During the reign of Reigen Tenno (Kwambun period), in the second 
half of the seventeenth century, Shirai Gompachi, skilful swordsman of 
Inabi, killed one of his clansmen in a quarrel and flew to Yedo. On his 
way he met a girl, Komurasaki, who told him that she was held captive 
by robbers, and that he, too, would be caught by them unless he hurried 
away. Gompachi stopped, attacked the robbers, and rescued the girl whom 



he took to her parents in Mikawa. He then returned to the Yedo road, 
met with another party of robbers, who would have despatched him but 
for the timely arrival of a man named Chobei, who rescued him and 
entertained him in Yedo. In the Yoshiwara, Gompachi heard of a new 
Joro, just arrived from the country, and who was called Young Purple. 
She was no other than Komurasaki, whose people had met with misfortune, 
and who had sold herself to pay their debts. Gompachi, deeply in love 
decided to redeem her, and as he had no money himself, he began a life of 
crime, killing and robbing people to get enough money wherewith to buy her 
back. He was caught and beheaded, Chobei buried his body at Ekko-in, 
and Komurasaki came a few days later to kill herself on his grave. 
Their common tomb is called the grave of the Shiyoku, and the souls of 
the twain are embodied in the legendary bird Hiyokudori (q.v.). See the 
Shossestn Hiaku mon, of Bakin and Hokusai in 1804 also Yedo Mnrasaki 

254. GONGEN SAMA |f| J^ %jj[. Popular posthumous name of IEYASU. 

255. GORO TOKIMUNE JOB B It See SOGA Brothers. 

256. GOSANKE $P ^EL ^C- Name of three families issued from the 
Tokugawa Shoguns. See MITSUKUXI, Daimio of Mito, and KANAME ISHI. 

257. GOSHISHO ft ^ W tffi. Hi- Wu Yux, also called 
Su -^ -ff, Chinese general who, in a literary competition, showed his learning, 
as well as his wonderful strength, by holding above his head a three-legged 
bronze brazier, whilst with the right hand he wrote a lengthy stanza. He 
is generally represented in the act. The Shaho Bukupa. says that Goshisho 
was a general of So (Cnu). The Duke Ai, of Shin, desirous of grasping 
the supreme power, had proposed an assembly of nobles at Rinto, where 
all were to discuss the matter of his elevation to power. Being a man 
with little faith in chance, he posted a guard near the bridge of To with 
orders to kill anyone who dared to oppose him, and further he proposed 
that a president be elected for the conference, who should be a man of 
great strength, capable of lifting a kanaye weighing 1000 kin (1329 pounds), 



and, at the same time, of such literary attainments as to solve three riddles 
which he, the Duke, had chosen. This was all pre-arranged to insure the 
election of his own favourite, Ko SONKO, who however got rather lamely 
through the test. GOSHISHO then rose and disputed the seat. Lifting the 
kanaye with one hand, he wrote the proper answers with the other, and the 
nobles enthusiastically elected him. Goshisho then asked the Duke to give 
him a guard as far as the gate of To, because he thought that he had seen 
some ill -looking knaves lurking about, and the Duke was thus thwarted in 
his plans. 

While Fu CH'A, King of Go (^ Wii), was at war with KOSEN, King of 
Yetsu (| Yiieh), the latter sent him a beautiful girl as a present. Goshisho, 
thinking this gift might be a dangerous one, advised the King to have 
nothing to do with the girl, but the King thereupon ordered him to be killed 
and his head to be exposed. According to legend, the King was later 
captured by the enemy, and, as he was led past the exposed head, this grim 
remain of Goshisho was seen to grin (see HANREI). Another version has it 
that Goshisho committed suicide in 475 B.C., after an eventful life famous 
in Chinese history. The Chinese and Japanese Repository (I. 311) gives a 
short history of his flight from his native country, T'su, to the Court of Wii, 
after the treacherous execution of his father and brother in B.C. 520., 

258. GOSHO NO GOROMARU fP $f 0) I|$ A- See SoGA Brothers. 

259. GO TOP.A TENNO ^ Mj % ^ Jl. The eighty-second Emperor 
of Japan, who was elevated to the throne by Yoritomo, after the defeat of 
the Taira clan at Dan no Ura, in 1184. Go Toba, who was then four 
years old, " invested " Yoritomo with the ShSgunate, and lived peaceably 
till the Shogun's death, in 1198, when he tried to take in his own hands 
the whole of the government and to get rid of both the Minamoto and 
Hojo, who were struggling for the regency of the Empire. After a short 
fight, Go Toba was captured and exiled to Amagori, in the Old Islands, 
where he lived till 1239. He is said to have whiled away his leisure by 
forging swords called Goshokaji (palace forging) with the assistance of twelve 
swordsmiths, one for each month of the year, in a smithy specially erected 



in his palace, and yet legend has it, that the deposed monarch was highly 
sensitive to noises, one story being to the effect that he commanded a pine 
tree to be still, as the rustling of its branches in the night kept him from 
sleeping. According to another story the frogs of the pond of Shike Kuro 
no Ike have been dumb since 1200, because, when Go Toba was staying at 
the house of the Choja Shikekuro, near Amamura, their nightly croaking 
disturbed his august slumber and he forthwith commanded them to be 


,, Banner of the 1000 Gourds, or Sen Xari Hisago. At a 

fight between Toyotomi HIDEYOSHI, and another of the Kuge, or retainers of 
OTA NOBUNAGA, Hideyoshi having no standard to carry before him, im- 
provised one by plucking a gourd plant by the roots and using it as a 
pennon. After beating his opponent he adopted the gourd as a standard, 
vowing that he would add to his banner (Umajirushi) one gourd for each 
victory he won thereafter. The incident is said to date from circa 1550, and 
the gourd banner, with the flowing strips, is a common feature frequently 
met with in art, and, curiously enough, Kuniyoshi has depicted it in some 
muchaye representing the campaign of Kusunoki Masashige. 

261. GOYEMON (ISHIKAWA) JL Hf PI Dft )\\l son of Ishikawa 
Akashi was a celebrated bandit of the XVth century, who, when thirty-seven 
years old, attempted to murder Taiko Sama, but failed ; he was taken to 
Kyoto and there publicly boiled to death in an oil bath in the presence 
of his wife Oritsu, his father-in-law Iwaki Hyobu, and his son Goroichi, 
who had to share his father's death. Three officials were present, named 
Iwaki Toma, Hayami Toma, and Yamakaze Heima. 

Before his execution he composed a poem which has been preserved, but 
his name and the recollection of his fate have also been transmitted through 
three centuries in the humorous, though somewhat accurate, description of 
the tub-like bath, popularly called Goyemon Euro, which is heated from the 
outside, and the bottom of which is made of iron. There are several 
versions of this story. 



The penalty of boiling to death was called Kamaire, it had just been 
introduced from China by Takeda Nobutora, and was suppressed by the 
Testament of leyasu. According to another version he actually stole the 
incense burner (in the shape of a snipe), Chidori Koro, and wrapped it in a 
piece of Shokko no nishiki, rich brocade from the Chinese province of Shoku. 

It is also said that he wanted to steal a very valuable vessel belonging 
to Taiko Sama (Toyotomi Hideyoshi), and that he disguised himself as the 
Emperor's messenger to gain access to the palace. His plan was thwarted 
by Hashiba Hideyoshi, who, thinking he recognised the robber, immediately 
put on the dress of a servant, and after Goyemon had flown discovered him 

hiding on the second story of a temple. 
A] His celebrated verse reads : 


j^ Ishikawa ya 

-) jt Hama no Masago wa 


\ty Tsukuru tomo 


Yo ni nusu bito no 

Tane wa tsukimaji 

"Although the sands are all gone of the Ishikawa (river) and of every 
sandy shore, yet the seed of a robber will not remain exhausted for 

j j 


262. GREEN IN MY EYE (game). See AKAMBE; gesture; see BEKKAKO. 

263. GWAN SHIN KEI M M - YEN CHI N K'ING. Chinese sage, 
represented with a package on his shoulder, and walking with a crooked 
cane to which is attached a rolled book. He is also called GWAN HITSU, 
he was a learned man who held office in the time of TOKUSO (TE TSUNG), 
of the To dynasty, and refused to acknowledge Ngan Luh Shan, after 
the deposition of the Emperor GENSO. In 785, when he was seventy-six 
years old, he was strangled by a man named RIKIRETSU (^ ^ ^,'j Li Hi Lieh). 
Many years after a merchant of Rakuyo, passing along the mount Rafu 
(Lo fuh), saw him with another sage playing at Go under a tree ; they 
rebuked him for disturbing them, and Gwanshinkei gave him a letter to take 
to the house he dwelt in during his earthly life. It is said that once he 



caused rain to fall during a drought by liberating some people who had 
been wrongly imprisoned. 

264. GYOGI ff ^ ^ H|, or GYOGI BOSATSU. A celebrated Buddhist 
priest who, in 736, headed the deputation sent by the Emperor SHOMU to the 
temple of Amaterasu, in Ise, to pray for the permission of the Goddess to 
erect at Nara the statue of the Daibutsu. He propagated the doctrine of 
the SHIN BUTSU KOXDO, or RYOBU SHINTO, in which the original religion of 
Japan was permeated with Buddhism, its deities being considered as the 
various incarnations of the one Buddha, and those temporary avatars received 
the popular name of Gongen. This "canny" stroke increased the popularity 
of Buddhism, and the mixed religions flourished side by side in common 
temples until the Restoration in 1868 and the "revival of pure Shinto." 

Gyogi is popularly credited with some works of art and the construction 
of several bridges, besides the invention of the potter's wheel*, the use of 
which he taught to the people of his native province of Izumi. The pottery 
turned out by this accomplished monk was called Gyogi Yaki, and some 
specimens are said to have been religiously preserved up to the nineteenth 
century. He died in 749. 

265. GYOKUSHI 3L ~f, of Nangun, had supernatural powers over all 
the elements, causing wind, rain, whirlwinds, and storms, now destroying 
trees or buildings, now petrifying grass, or building castles with the dust of 
the road or the stones of the fields. Riding upon a large horse, he covered 
thousands of Li a day, and blew coloured clouds. He is one of the Taoist 
Rishis, and perhaps identical with Giokushisho -fc -f 1 J|L. See HORSE. 

266. HACHIMAN A HI- "The eight banners," posthumous title of 
the Emperor OJIN TENNO, son of Tarashi Nakatsu Hiko and Okinaga Tarashi 
Hime (Jingo Kogo). He is credited with a life of no years, and died in 310 A.D. 
He has been deified as a War God, and was the special patron of the Minamoto 
clan, who are responsible for many of his numerous shrines. Born whilst his 
mother was engaged in the Korean war, he is often shown in the arms of 

~ Aston, Nihongi, I-i2i, says that the wheel was used before Gyogi's time. 

I0 3 


Takenouchi no Sukune, who stands in a boat, whilst the messenger of the 
Dragon King, Riujin, offers to the infant Emperor the jewels of the flowing and 
the ebbing tides. In his youth, he was called HONDA (Homuda), because of a 
fleshy growth on his arm, similar to the leather elbow pad (tomo), worn by archers. 
In the ninth year of his reign, whilst Takenouchi was on a tour of inspection, 
his younger brother, Umashi no Sukune, accused him of having some designs upon 
the throne. Ojin listened to this calumny ; but thanks to the devotion of 
Maneko, who, strongly resembled Takenouchi, and who killed himself in his 
stead, the old minister was enabled to come and attempt to justify himself. Ojin 
decided to leave the decision to the judgment of God, and the two brothers were 
submitted to the ordeal by boiling water, in which Takenouchi was successful. 

The Emperor is said to have once stopped his horse in the middle of a 
journey, to contemplate the falling leaves. The gentle dove is his messenger, 
but he is, nevertheless, usually pictured with a fierce face and a scowling expression 
and grasping a two-edged sword. There is in the Kojiki a story of how NIMPAN 
(or Susukori), having distilled a strong liquor, Ojin partook of it and became 
augustly drunk, but his augustness served him in good stead, for, as he went 
along the Osaka road, merrily singing, he hit a boulder with his staff . . . and 
the stone ran out of his way. . . . 


268. HACHI NO KI & 7|C. Story of the Potted Trees. 

In 1253 the fifth Hojo Shikken, TOKIYORI, abdicated in favour of his son, and 
taking the title of Abbot Saimioji, went on a journey through Japan, with only 
one companion, DOUN NIKIAIDO, also disguised as a monk. Both suffered greatly 
from the hardships attending a winter trip, and one night when stopped by a 
storm of unusual violence, they took refuge in the house of a man whose refined 
ways proved that he had seen better days. On enquiry they found that he was 
the son of a magistrate of Sano, who had been despoiled of his estate through 
his confidence in an unworthy kinsman. He, however, did not bear any ill-will 
to the Kamakura clan, though his petitions to the authorities had been constantly 
ignored, and in proof of his loyalty, he showed them his suit of armour and 
rusty weapons. The ex -Regent forced this man, TSUNEYO SANO, to accept a small 


GENTOKU (//.) 


HAGOROMO (itr.G.) 
HADESU (/<.) 


present of money, in exchange for which he received from Tsuneyo's wife a lock 
of her hair. Before they left in the morning, Tsuneyo apologized for being so 
poor that he had no incense wherewith to effect the purefication ceremonies, but 
bringing near the fire-place his dwarf trees, the flowering plum, the bamboo, and 
pine, he chopped them down and burnt them instead. A year later a rising of 
the Miura clan necessitated a general call to arms, and from all parts of the 
country warriors came to Kamakura, even long after the revolt had been quelled. 
Amongst the late comers, was Tsuneyo, in wretched attire and on a rossinante, 
whose presence excited a great deal of merriment. On giving his name he was 
at once taken to the Regent, in whom he recognized his guest of the previous 
year. Tokiyori restored to him his father's estate and office, and added to it 
three domains, the names of which bore resemblance to Pine, Plum and Bamboo. 
In the No play it is said that the trees were used to warm the guest room 
during the cold night. 

269. HACHISUKE y\ $]. Paragon of Ingratitude ; the subject of a story 
translated by Dening and B. H. Chamberlain, who gives him the name 
KYNEMON. He was a peasant of Takayama in Hida, who, overtaken in a 
ravine by a snowstorm, thought his last hour had come. He was, however, 
rescued by a female bear, who took him to a cavern where she laid him, 
insensible, between her two cubs. The man came back to consciousness and 
the bear fed him right through the winter. For a long time his story 
excited wonder, and brought him enquiries from hunters respecting the location 
of the bear. He finally succumbed to his greed when offered a sum of money 
and half the value of the flesh and skin of the bear, and he took to the 
animal's den a poisoned cake. With the price of his treason he bought a 
farm, but fate overtook him and all his enterprises failed, his family sickened 
and died, and he was gored to death by his own ox.* 

270. HADESU J^| [ (3 or HASUHI. Common name of KASHIWADE 
NO OMI, who was sent to Korea on an embassy by KIMMEI TENNO in 545. 

* Compare this Indian story : A Deer of five colours, with white horns, saved a man from drowning, and 
made him swear to be silent. The Queen having dreamt of such an animal, rewards were offered for its dis- 
covery. The man betrayed the deer, which, on being caught, told the story to the King, and the perjured man 
was beheaded. 


He is general!}' represented with his left hand in the mouth of a tiger. His 
story is told in the Nihongi to the effect that, after several stormy days, his 
party, having landed on the sea-shore, he found in the morning that one of his 
children had disappeared, and that a heavy fall of snow had obliterated the 
boy's traces; but in a short time, the snow having melted, he found the spoor of 
a tiger. Girding his sword, he advanced to the cliff and beseeched the Gods 
to assist him in his revenge. A large tiger presented itself, the unhappy 
father seized the brute's tongue and stabbed it with his sword, ultimately 
bringing its skin to the Emperor. In another version the child is said to 
have been a girl. 

271. HAGATA GURI NO KI. The tree of the tooth-marked chestnuts. 
See under Go DAIGO TENNO. 

272. HAGOROMO ^ ~& (Feathery robe). Subject of a No play. An 
Angel (Tennin) came once to the forest of Mio, near Okitsu, and climbed a 
mountain to behold mount Fuji and the sea of Suruga. She admired the 
view and then, after hanging her feather robe to a pine tree, started to dance 
on the sand beach. A fisherman, Hakurio, happened to pass just then, and 
thought her a beautiful woman, but presumably his looks did not betoken 
sufficient respect, for the Tennin was afraid and went straight back to Heaven, 
minus her robe, which is still preserved in a temple hard by. See Chamberlain's 
Things Japanese and Classical Poetry. 

Hagoromo is also the popular name of some sort of cake, and as an 
allusion to the fairy tale it is usual to serve this delicacy in a tray with 
.. Pine branches painted on it. The fact is stated in the poem : 
& Kwashibon no 


Makie no matsu ni 
J^ Kakari keri 

Hagoromo to damo 
Yoberu senbei. 

"The sweetstuff called Hagoromo is found hanging from the pine branch 
painted in gold lacquer on the tray." 

Dennys, in his Folklore of China, quotes a somewhat similar Liu-chiu 

1 06 


story : a farmer named Ming-Ling-Tzu saw a woman bathing whose clothes 
were hung on a pine tree, and when she came to claim her garments, which 
the farmer had gathered, a squabble ensued, which, however, terminated in 
a wedding ; but the woman went back to heaven ten years later. The same 
story is found in the Norse myth of the white swan, or sometimes seal, 
which married a fisherman and gave him three children before leaving him, 
finally, in Siberian and South African folklore; an essay on the subject can 
be found in Conway's Demonology, 1880-81. 

273. HAKUDO fjij jj|i. Chinese sage depicted in the guise of a coolie, 
with two baskets slung on a pole. 

274. HAKUGA NO SAMMI |f H H {fc. A noble of the tenth century, 
named SEMI MONO or SEMI MARU, played on the flute a tune which nobody- 
could either imitate or understand. Hakuga, after listening to his play for 
three years, overheard him once express his deep regret that, after his death, 
there would not be anybody to play it again as he knew of no one to 
whom he could transmit it. He then begged SEMI to take him as his pupil, 
and happily succeeded in his undertaking. This legend forms the subject 
of a No dance. 

275. HAKUHAKU |$ ^, or KAKUBAKU, was a learned Chinese sage, 
KWOH P'OH, who in his old days, was promoted to the title Suifu Senhaku, 
and who died in 324 A.D. He had received from his master nine books 
of Taoist magic and philosophic knowledge kept in a green bag, from 
which they are called Ts'ing nan shu. Chao Tsai $j[ j|j<; stole them from 
Hakubaku, and later they were lost in a fire. 

He is depicted travelling or crossing the sea in the company of a demon. 

276. HAKURAKU f^^|. The story of Hakuraku is also known as 
the Taoist parable of the real horse. Hakuraku had been sent all over 
the world by his master, the Emperor of China, to find the finest horse in 
existence. He came back after a lengthy journey and reported that in a 
certain place he had located a bay mare which was absolutely perfect. 
Messengers were at once sent to secure the horse, but when they got to 



the place described they found a black stallion of ideal beauty. They were 
somewhat surprised but not disappointed, because, according to the teachings 
of Wang Yang Ming, when the expert descries hidden qualities without any 
reference to outward appearance even this is true knowledge. In allusion to 
this legend the veterinary surgeons are popularly called Hakuraku. 

277. HAKUSEKISHO U ^ (Hakusekisei). One of the Taoist 
Sennins illustrated in Hokusai Mangiva, Vol. III. He was too poor to buy 
any mystic drugs ; he therefore started to raise pigs and sheep (and is thus 
shown) until he had the sum of ten thousand gold pieces to procure the 
materials of an elixir. Once he boiled a white stone (Haku-seki) for his 
food and he retired to the Mount Hakuseki, hence his name. 

278. HANASAKASE JIJII $ Pfc ^, or HANA SAKA Jun. The Old Man 
who makes the dead trees to flower. A very popular juvenile tale, often found 
illustrated. In Nelsuke the old man is shown digging the ground, with his 
dog near him, gold coins showing amongst the freshly-tilled soil, or sitting 
under a dead tree with a box of ashes. There was once an old couple who 
had a dog named Shiro, and particularly nasty neighbours. One day the 
dog began sniffing and barking at a certain spot of the garden with such 
insistence that the old man dug the earth, and all unexpectedly his spade 
came upon a large number of coins. The neighbours, who had watched the 
performance through the palisade, tried to entice the dog to their own garden, 
but only succeeded by main force. The spot at which the dog sniffed was 
found to be filled with filth and offal. Thereupon they killed the dog 
and buried it under the root of a pine tree. The old man, much grieved, 
offered sacrifice upon the spot, and during the night was rewarded by the 
ghost of Shiro whispering to him to cut the tree down and make a rice 
mortar of its trunk. This mortar was endowed with the property of changing 
each grain of rice into a gold coin. The envious neighbours again made up 
their mind to obtain some of these riches and managed to borrow the mortar, 
but their rice turned into filth as they poured it in, and in their anger they 
broke it and burnt it. The old man was waiting in vain for the return of 
his mortar, but the ghost of his dog visited him again, and commanded 

1 08 


him to get the ashes from his neighbours and to scatter them over some 
dead trees. As the ashes touched them the withered twigs began to sprout 
and became covered with blossoms. The old man went over the country and 
his fame reached the Daiinio of a neighbouring province, who tested his 
powers and loaded him with presents. One of his envious neighbours tried 
to imitate him with ordinary ashes, but the impostor, on being called to a 
Prince's yashiki, was unfortunate, not only in failing to revive the trees, 
but still more so in that some of the ashes were blown by the wind into 
the Prince's eyes, with the result that his life was immediately forfeited. 

In another version, he escaped with his life after a severe beating and 
went back home. The good old man then took compassion upon him and 
his wife, and presented them with some money, after which the wicked 
neighbours repented and changed their evil ways. 

279. HANDAKA SONJA ^ j^f iM If: ^, or PANTHAKA. One of the 
Sixteen ARHATS, often represented apart from the others. Like Badhra (Hattara 
Sonja), Handaka's appearance is threatening: he is generally shown with a 
bowl from which issues a dragon or a rain cloud. He holds the bowl aloft 
with his left hand, and with the right carries the sacred gem. Sometimes 
he is shown seated on a rock, the dragon occasionally represented aside and 
crouching to reach the Tama. 

280. HANGAKU |g |||. Daughter of Jo no Sukemori. When the 
latter revolted himself against Yoriiye, in 1204, his castle of Torizaka was 
beseiged by SAINEN NIUDO (Sasaki Moritsuna, q.v.) and his daughter fought 
amongst the defenders, using large billets of wood as missiles. This strong 
woman was at last captured by Sainen. A spirited illustration of her fight 
is given in Ehon Sakigake. 

281. HANGONKO K^IW- "The Spirit returning in the Incense 
Smoke." This story forms the subject of the play, Sendai Hagi. The 
Yoshiwara belle, Miura ya Takao, was extremely famous, and her most devoted 
admirer was Date Tsunamune, Lord of Sendai, whose advances she persistently 
refused to accept. The Prince, however, hoping to succeed in his suit, bought 



her from the Joroya for her actual weight in gold, and she was then ordered to 
follow him to his castle. Takao had to obey, but, before leaving, she called 
her lover, the Ronin Shimada Jusaburo, to whom she gave some incense sticks, 
saying: "We shall now be parted, and perhaps may never meet again. Even 
it may be that I shall soon die, but when you wish to see my face again watch 
the smoke of this incense." She was taken to Sendai, and the Prince gave 
her to choose between becoming his mistress or being killed. She chose death, 
and her ghost appeared in the fragrant smoke before the eyes of Jusaburo, 
as she had promised. See the Chinese story of Rifujin under Kan no Koso. 

282. HANKI fjs[ fi(. One of the sons of Benten. His attribute is a rice 
dish. He is also called SHITSUGETSU, and is a transformation of Sendanko 
Bosatsu, the Sanskrit Tchandanagandha. 

283. HANKWAI $$ HH". The Chinese FAN KW'AI, who died circa 200 B.C. 
He is generally represented carrying under his arm a door, in allusion to an 
episode of his life which is variously reported. He was drawn from the 
lower class of the Chinese people, having been a dog butcher, but being one 
of the early adherents of the Han dynasty he became one of the ministers 
of the Emperor HAN KAO Tsu (Kao Ti ; Japanese, KAN NO Koso), and became 
further attached to him when Kan no Koso married one of his relatives. 
One version has it that KAO Yu was plotting against the life of the Emperor, 
and Hankwai having heard that the conspirators were assembled in a room 
feasting with Kan no Koso, he forced his way to it, and bursting open the 
door entered the room with the door under his arm. The Emperor invited 
him to partake of the feast, and Hankwai helped himself to a boar's leg, 
which he carved with his own sword and washed down with ten shos (20 
litres) of wine, after which he accused Kao Yu of treason, playing the role 
of a drunken man to give Kan no Koso time to escape with Chang Liang 
(Ehon Riozai, Ehon Hokan). During the following year the aged Emperor 
raised him to the command of his troops, but on an accusation being made 
against him ordered his minister, Ch'en Ping, to have Hankwai beheaded. 
Thanks to his relationship with the Empress, he escaped after a short 
confinement in jail, being reinstated after the Emperor's demise. 



In Mayer's version, the Emperor is said to have shut himself up in his 
palace, forbidding anyone to approach, and spending in luxurious self- 
indulgence so many days that Hankwai forcibly effected an entry and 
violently upbraided Kan no Koso, whom he found sleeping with his head 
resting upon an eunuch's body as a pillow. 

284. HANNYA $ ;. See MASKS. Female demon with horns, open 
mouth and sharp fangs. 

285. HANREI $L -Us- T' ie Chinese FAN Li, who was minister of Kow 
TSIEN (Kosen), and lived about 470 B.C. 

In a book dealing with Taoist sages he is included amongst Sennins, 
with this description : 

" HANREI served at the Court of Shu, and had Taikobo for his teacher. He 
drank water and ate cinnamon. He became minister of Yetsu (Yiieh), and 
assisted KOSEN to destroy Go (Wu). He is represented with a wine gourd 
in his belt and walking in the wind." 

He is said to have suggested to KOSEN a means of terminating his 
twenty years' warfare with Fu CH'A of Wu, which consisted in sending to the 
latter the famous beauty, Si SHE (j? $jj Japanese, SEISHI), whom he had found 
washing silk, and who, after her training at Court, was acknowledged the 
"belle" of the Chinese Empire. This stratagem was successful; Fu CH'A, 
distracted by her beauty, forgot his princely duties and was beaten, after which 
HANREI left his master to enjoy his own peace of mind in a distant province, 
where he soon became extraordinarily rich. See GOSHISHO. Upon his fidelity 
to KOSEN is based the quotation of Kojima. See Go DAIGO. 

Anderson (Catalogue, p. 379) gives another version, in which SEISHI is the 
mistress of Kow TSIEN, and HANREI is made to drown her in a lake. 

286. HARE Jfa (UsAGi). The hare is one of the familiar animals of 
Japanese folklore, and the hare in the moon or pounding rice is, of course, 
one of its most frequent presentments, perhaps because Mochi means both 

* This appears, however, to be a mistake, perhaps due to a confusion with Chow Sin (1123 B.C.) or Kieh 
(1766 B.C.), although it has been said that after the fall of Fu Ch'a she had boasted that she would also captivate 
Kow Tsien, and Hanrei, to prevent this, took her one night in a boat over the Lake Suche (Sochu), where he 
treacherously killed her. 



"full moon" and "rice cake." When associated with the moon, like the 
Chinese rabbit, and in reminiscence of the hare which, according to Hindoo 
legend, leapt in the fire to become food for Sakyamuni and was thereafter 
sent to the moon to keep company to the old man and to Chan chu, it is 
represented surrounded with Equiseta plants, the familiar horse tail, or 
scouring rush, seeming to imply the existence of water on the moon, in 
opposition to astronomical ideas. 

The hare is also one of the signs of the Zodiac Jjp. He is one of the 
companions of KINTARO (q.v.) ; he recurs often in the pictures of the Xllth 
Century artist, Toba Sojo. 

It is said that the female conceives by running on the waves on the 
eighteenth day of the eighth moon, if the sky is clear, or by licking the fur 
of the male during the same period (Ehon Kojidan}. 

The hare lives to a very long age, it becomes quite white when five 
hundred years old, and even attains the millenium, as appears from the 
adventures of Chang Kien ; and, in connection with his abnormal longevity, 
it is fitting that, when pounding in a mortar, he is also described as 
preparing the elixir of life. 

A hare and a mouse had lengthy chats with the King of Izumo, sixth 
descendant of Susanoo no Mikoto. There are several popular hare stories: 
one given in the Kojiki is that of the Hare of Inaba, who twitted the 
crocodiles into forming a bridge from Old to Inaba, where he wanted to 
go. When, however, he reached land from the back of the last crocodile he 
jeered at them, and just escaped their anger with only his fur pulled. On 
the road he was rescued and healed by the fairy personage, O Kuni Mushi 
no Mikoto, who was on his way to marry the princess Yakami. 

Another story is called "The Revenge of the Hare," or also KACHI-KACHI 
YAMA: the Crackling Mountain. 

There was an old man cutting wood in the mountains, his old wife 
brought him his dinner, but a badger stole it whilst they were talking ; the 
old man caught the animal and took it home, hung it from the rafters, and told 

According to a Mexican legend quoted from Sahagun in Andrew Lang's Custom and Myth, the moon 
was originally a man, and the marks upon its disk were produced by a RABBIT being thrown across his face. 






(lY.L.B.) (C.P.P.) (H.S.T.) 



his wife he would soon come and kill the Tanuki and they would eat it. The 
woman started pounding rice, and the badger, thanks to its magical powers, 
assumed human voice, and asked her to untie him, saying he would help her, 
instead of which he killed her, assumed her shape and cooked her, presenting 
the stew to the old man as a dish of badger for his evening meal. After the 
woodcutter's appetite was satisfied, the animal resumed its original form and 
told the old man that he had eaten his wife, and then flew to the mountain. 
Now there was an old hare in the mountain who was very fond of the old 
woodcutter, and he went to see him and promised to avenge him. He 
begged from the man some hot grilled beans, and carried them in a bag ; 
when he met the badger the latter wanted some of the beans, and the hare 
said he would give him a handful if he consented to carry on his back to 
the top of the mountain a load of dry hay. The badger consented, and 
after he had set on the journey the hare, walking behind him, struck his 
flint and fired the hay. Tanuki, wondering at the noise, inquired what it 
was. "Oh," said the hare, "this is Click-click Mountain (Kachi-Kachi Yam a) 
or the Mount of Victory." A bit higher up the noise increased, and the 
badger got nervous. "Don't worry," said the hare, "this is Bo Bo Yam a 
(the Mount of Defeat), and they always have strange noises here." Soon 
the badger's back was sore and blistered, and he went away cursing, rolling 
all the way down the mountain trying to quench the fire and get rid of his 

The hare then mixed some red pepper and gums, and disguised as a 
plaster-seller went to the badger's place. The badger used the plaster freely, 
needless to say with what results, and it took twenty days for his back to 
heel. He went then to the seaside, and there met the hare busy making a 
boat, in which he said he intended to go to the moon ; he even proposed to 
make a second boat for the badger, but the other said he had had enough 
of the hare's tricks, and he would make just as good a boat for himself out 
of the clay which was plentiful thereabouts. But when they launched their 
boats the clay soon got sodden, and the badger's boat dropped to pieces ; 
then the hare "finished" Tanuki with a few strokes of his oar, much to the 
delight of the woodcutter who had come along to watch the fray. 

" 3 H . 


287. HASUI. See HADESU. 

288. HATAKEYAMA SHIGETADA H Uj 3 J&. Son of Shigeyoshi 
and descendant of Taira no Takamochi. In the Wada feud he nearly 
captured the Tomoe Gozen at IJji Gawa, but she escaped, leaving her 
sleeve in his hands. Shigetada had left his estate of Numada, in Ise, to 
to the care of a man named Sanemasa, who, however, offended the head 
priest, Inube lyetsuna. The latter complained to the Kamakura Govern- 
ment, and Shigetada was deprived of his estate and confined to the house 
of Chiba Tanemasa, where he refused to take any food for seven days. 
Finally he was sent back home. The Hojo Shikken could not pardon 
him his loyalty to the Minamoto Shogun by the first one of whom 
(Yoritomo, then dead) he had been treated with great favour. He was a 
friend of the SOGA Brothers in the camp of their father's murderer, and 
when he heard that the hunting party would soon break up he gave the 
SOGA the hint to act at once, sending to Tora, the mistress of one of them, 
a poem reading: "The maples of the mountain have begun to turn red, 
wait till the evening to see the leaves." His son, Shigeyasu, had once a 
drunken brawl with Hiraga Tomomasa, son-in-law of H5jo Tokimasa, 
who had him executed. But the treacherous Shikken was not satisfied 
with this murder, and a few months later (Genkyu II., 1205) he sent for 
Shigetada, who was in Suruga, and when the latter entered Kamakura, 
he was set upon and shot with arrows by the Hojo soldiers. See 

289. HATTARA SONJA {$ |?fc H or BHADRA. One of the Sixteen 
ARHATS, generally shown with a white tiger crouching at his feet ; he holds 
a knotted staff, and is occasionally shown seated on a rock. He is also 
shown with the ringed staff (Shakujo) or the Nioi (short wand), symbolical 
of the powers of faith. 

290. HEAVEN, Four Kings of. See SHI TENNO. 

,, River of. See AM A NO GAWA. 

,, Spinning Maiden, Cowherd and Bridge of Birds. See 



HEAVEN, Pillars of. See JOKWA. 

201. HEIKE ^ 0Sc or HEISHI. Another name of the TAIRA clan (q.v.). 
See the Heike Monogatari Zue, by Yukinaga, (1710, reprinted 1829). 

292. HEIKE GANI Ifi ^, or Heike crabs of Akamagaseki (Shimonoseki), 
are tiny crabs to which attaches a curious legend, verging on superstition : 
they are popularly credited with being the ghostly remains of the Heike 
warriors killed at the battle of Dan no Lira, in 1185, by the Minamoto 
(Genji). See Hearn. 

They are also called TAISHOGANI (Chieftain's crabs) and Tatsugashira, or 
dragon's helmet, and people see in the ridges of their shell the roughly 
delineated shape of a warrior's helmet. In representations of Renkei's fight 
with the ghosts (q.v.) it is not uncommon to see the crabs surrounding 
the boat of Yoshitsune, or the drowning warriors of the Taira army, 
specially Tomomori. According to legend the ghosts nightly bail the 
bottom of the sea with bottomless ladles. For a similar legend, see 

293. HEITARO SONE *$> ; jf|$ ft* fl|. Masayoshi Heitaro Sone, of 
Hitachi, was a famous archer whose father, one of the court guards, had 
been murdered while Heitaro was still a boy. On a pilgrimage to Kumano, 
to pray for a clue to the murderer, his skill was used in saving a large willow 
tree from being cut down to rescue an entangled falcon, Heitaro cutting 
the string which impeded the bird by means of a single, well-directed arrow. 
On the same day he met on the road a comely maiden, with whom he fell 
in love, and their union was followed by the birth of a boy. One day the 
ex-Emperor, Shirakawa Tenno, who suffered from chronic headaches, went 
to pray for relief at Kumano, and was told by the Gods to consult an Indian 
physician, who informed him that his illness was caused by the skull which 
had once been his own, in a previous existence, when he was but a priest 
Rengebo of Kumano The skull dropped once in a river, it had later been 
caught by some drooping twig of a willow tree, and in growing the branches had 
carried it aloft. Workmen were set to fell that tree, which happened to be the 
one that Heitaro had previously saved. At every blow of the felling axe Heitaro's 



wife became weaker, and she died when the tree fell, after telling Heitaro that 
she was the sprite of the tree and presenting him with the skull. As the fallen 
trunk was drawn in the road, it stopped opposite the door of Heitaro's house, 
and the combined efforts of hundreds of men could not move it until Heitaro's 
little son began pulling on the rope. The august skull was enshrined in 
one of the Thousand K\vannon of San jin san gen do at Kyoto. 

294. HELL ^fl, /d^ (JIGOKU). Hades, properly speaking, was not a feature 
of the Shinto faith : its development is due to the introduction of Buddhism, 
and with it the intricate infernal paraphernalia created by Indian imagination. 
The correct working of its appalling tortures and punishments is insured by 
a host of Infernal Deities, under the sway of the Ten Regents of Hades, 
characterised by their fierce appearance and the character O Ql, King) on their 
head-dresses. YEMMA O, or EMMA DAI O, the Indian Yama Raja, the Chinese 
Yen Mo, being the chief Regent, seated near a whirling wheel on which 
are, at his right, the two witnesses KAGUHANA, who smells all odours, and 
the female MIRUMK with the all-seeing eyes. He is also assisted by another 
all-seeing personage, DOMEJIN, and an all-hearing one, DOJOJIN, besides the 
wonderful TABARI NO KAGAMI, the mirror or soul-reflecting mirror. 

The other Regents are : Tsing Kwang, Chu Chiang, Wu Kuan, Sung 
Ti, Lung Chuan, Pien Ching, Tu Shih, Tai Shan, Wu Tao. 

The Styx of classical tradition is here represented by the River of the 
Three Roads, SANZU NO KAWA, on the banks of which prowls the hag of 
Hades the Old Woman of the Three Roads, or SHODZUKA BABA, sixteen 
feet high, with big eyes, and who whiles the time away by robbing the 
dead of their garments and hanging them on the trees with the help of her 
consort, TEN DATSU BA. But the benevolent figure of Jizo hovers about to 
protect the souls of little children, and helps them in the daytime to build 
up the cairns of stones, forming their penance, in the dry bed of the SANZU j 
NO KAWA, albeit this labour is made everlasting by the old hag, who every 
night disperses the stones. The Nihongi speak of several Ugly females of 
Yomi in the legend of Izanagi's visit to the infernal regions. 

The representations of Hell and its tortures are easily recognisable, and 



their horror bears comparison with the Chinese lucubrations, in which men 
are chopped, boiled, and ground by grinning o;n's with an extraordinary 
wealth of detail. 

The accepted name for Hell is JIGOKU ; the mild place which in Shinto 
tradition took its place was called YOMI, or NE NO KUNI (Nihongi), and 
it was visited by Izanagi no Mi koto in search of his spouse. 

There are, however, other names recognised, such as the Sanskrit cold 
hells : AH-TA-TA, where the lips are frozen ; An-BA-BA, where the tongues 
are frozen ; and the great white lotus hell, the PUNDARIKA, in which the 
bones, bared and bleached by the cold, "look like a carpet of white lotus on 
the waters." A nomenclature of the Buddhist Hells, by Mr. de Harley, will 
be found in the Toung Pao, Vols. VII. and VIII., 1st series. 

295. HENJAKU ^jf *!j (Chinese PIEN TS'AO) was an innkeeper in the 
Chao province about the sixth century B.C., to whose house came the wizard 
CHO So Kux (J|. jjji jjj Ch'ang sang Kung), who, detecting in his host 
unusual attainments, taught him the rudiments of his art. The pupil soon 
excelled the master, and legend attributes to him the discovery of the channels 
through which the vital spirits are conveyed (i.e., the blood vessels). He is 
credited with having been the first to dissect the human body. According to 
legend, however, he had a transparent abdomen, and could not only follow 
the course of his blood but also watch the action of drugs. He is usually 
depicted as a handsome man in fine raiment, whilst his teacher is almost 
nude, ugly and unkempt. 

296. HICHOBO J=^ J^. ffi (FEI CHANG FANG) was a man of Jonan who 
became a governor. An old man Ko Ko (Hu KUNG q.v.) who sold drugs 
in the city used to retire in a pot hung to his door-post. Hichobo, observing 
him from the second story of his house, went to pay him his respects, and 
he became the disciple of Ko Ko, with whom he is often confused. He is 
depicted riding on a crane in Ehon Hokan and in Sensai Yeitaku, but sometimes 

like Ko Ko partly hidden in a jar, or with his arms in it. 

297. HIDARI JINGORO ^ 3L MR (Jingoro the left-handed). 
Celebrated sculptor who lived from 1594 to 1634. Amongst his famous 



productions are the sleeping cat (nemuri no neko) in the temple of leyasu at 
Nikko, and two elephants, also in the same temple. Legend has it that 
he once picked up a mirror which a girl had dropped in the street, and that, 
on beholding the fair damsel, he fell so deeply in love with her that he kept the 
mirror, and forthwith carved a figure of his love. When the statue was com- 
pleted he placed the mirror in a fold of its dress. Now, the wood took to life, 
and the carver became a happy man, but his loyalty to his lord was very great, 
and when the head of the Daimio's daughter was requested by an enemy, 
Jingoro sent instead the head of his living figure. When the man who 
had to take the head away came back, he attacked Jingoro, thinking that 
he had indeed murdered the Daimio's daughter, and severed his right hand. 
This statue was not the only one to become alive : a horse which he had 
carved for a temple, like the one painted by Kose no Kanaoka, used to 
leave the sacred precincts at night and graze in the neighbouring fields, 
much to the dismay of the owners, until it was deprived of its wandering 
properties by appropriate incantations. 

298. HIDEYOSH1 (TOYOTOMI) ^ ^ (jj| ). Toyotomi HIDEVOSHI, 
the greatest warrior in Japan, is better known perhaps under the name of 
TAIKO, title meaning retired Prime Minister, or by that of TAIKO SAMA. 
Finally, owing to his ugliness, he was nicknamed the Monkey Servant, Saru 
Kuanja. He was the son of a poor farmer named YASUKE, in the village 
of Naka, Aichi district, province of Owari, and was born in the sixth year 
of Temmon (1537). He received the name of HIYOSHI MARO (good sun), and 
lost his father when eight years of age. He then had the name Ko CHIKU 
and the nickname Saru Matsu, monkey pine. His stepfather had been a 
servant of ODA NOBUNAGA, and finding the boy clever, although full of mis- 
chief, sent him to the temple of his village to be instructed, but the boy 
was returned to his home owing to his troublesome habits. He was then 
sent to a blacksmith, who had to part with him soon after for the same reason ; 
and so on with several masters, who could never keep him for more than a 
month. Finally, when twenty years old, he became a servant of Matsushita 
Yukitsuna, one of the lieutenants of Imagawa Yoshimoto, who placed great 


9 P 

- a! 

= O 

a ~i 

Q - 


confidence in him. One day, however, he sent Hiyoshi to Owari to buy a 
suit of armour, and the lad, being ambitious, sought service with Nobunaga, 
whose sandal keeper he became. Having been entrusted by Nobunaga to 
superintend the repairs to the ensile of Kiyosu, where the workmen were 
sluggish, he so hustled them that in a few days the castle was available, and 
Nobunaga seized the opportunity to promote him. He was then named Hashiba 
Chikusen no Kami, or TOKICHI TAKAYOSHI, and nicknamed Cotton Tokichi, 
Momen Tokichi. As the Saito family were strong enemies of Nobunaga, he 
proposed to attack them with a troop of highwaymen. He was successful, and 
received his name of KIXOSHITA HIDEYOSHI. In 1570, his conduct during the 
war against Asakura Yoshikage was rewarded with 30,000 kokn of rice. In 
1573 he attacked the castle of Odani and captured Asai Nagamasa, whose 
personal estate of 180,000 koku became his reward. He then, in 1574, built 
for himself the castle of Nagahama, took HASHIBA as his new family name 
from the names of two of his generals, NIWA (Ha) and SHIBATA, and adopted 
the Kiri crest (Pawlonia Imperialis). In 1581 he invaded Mori, and within 
five years subjugated the five Western provinces. 

In 1583 he captured the castle of Takamatsu by flooding it, and on 
that very night heard of the murder of Nobunaga by Akechi. He then 
hurried back to Amagaseki, and fought the Akechi party, killing Akechi 
himself at the battle of Mount Tennozan a few days after the murder of 
Nobunaga: hence his popular name of "Three days Shogun" (Alikadenka). 
He had then a following of over 60,000 men. He was rewarded with "Sub 
under fourth" rank and the title of Lieutenant-General, but resigned these 
honours on the spot. Hidenobu, eldest son of Nobutada, succeeded Nobunaga, 
and his uncle, Nobuo, acted as his regent, but the important affairs were actually 
left in the hands of HIDEYOSHI after the battle of Shizugatake. He killed 
Shibata Katsuiye, who, with Nobutaka, third son of Nobunaga, had plotted 
to destroy him. He then became a Privy Councillor (1583), and built the 
magnificent castle of Osaka, where he went to live ; his influence was then 
such that even Tokugawa leyasu was afraid of him. leyasu, however, sided 
with Nobuo to attack HIDEYOSHI, but was beaten and had to give his son 
as hostage. In 1584 HIDEYOSHI became Dainagon ; in 1585 he was promoted 



to the real second rank, and became Keeper of the Seals (Naidaijin). He 
then subjugated Chosokabe in Shikoku, Sassa in Etchu, Uesugi in Echigo, 
and Tokugawa recognised him. He had entreated the last Ashikaga Shogun 
to adopt him, but met with a refusal, and he petitioned the Emperor to 
allow him to take the name of TOYOTOMI, which he originated. 

In 1586 he was appointed Prime Minister (Kwambaku), and as this title 
was reserved for the highest nobles the powerful lord of Satsuma, SHIMAZU, 
objected, but HIDEYOSHI, with 150,000 men, defeated him in the following 
year. In 1588 the Emperor honoured him with a visit. In 1590 he attacked 
Hojo Ujimasa and Date Masamune, who refused to obey his commands, and 
he defeated them. 

When he entered Kamukura it is said that he went to a temple where 
was kept a statue of Minamoto no Yoritomo, and, stroking the image, said: 
" My dear friend, you and I have grasped Japan in our hands, but you were 
born in a palace and I in a thatched hut. Now what do you think of me ; 
who will send an army to the Empire of Ming ? " 

In 1591 he resigned his premiership to his adopted son, Hidetsugu, and 
advanced to Nagoya, in Hizen, with 500,000 men. He subjugated the Coreans, 
who sent to Ming Shen Tsung for help, but the Emperor was himself afraid, 
and promised to HIDEYOSHI that if he stayed his hand the three great 
Provinces (Do) of Corea would be given him, and he would be crowned 
King. He then ordered his army to return, and in the eighth month of the 
first year of Keicho (1596) received an ambassador from the Ming Emperor. 
But as he opened the message, he found it to be rude, and (according to the 
Taiko ki} tearing the letter to pieces drove the ambassador out of the 
country*. He then assembled a new army to invade Corea and China, but 
whilst the fight proceeded he died of disease at the age of sixty-one. 

See also the anecdote under GOURDS about his standard ; see ISIIIKAWA 

HIDEYOSHI is said to have imitated Moritsuna in his treatment of guides. 
When he led his army through Hakone, before the battle of Ishikake yama, 

s The original letter is, however, preserved to this day in the private collection of a noble whose ancestors 
served under Hideyoshi. 

I 2O 


(By courtesy af Messrs. \ 'ainamika) 


a hunter showed him the way, and legend has it that he killed the man. 
This mountain range is also called Taiko yama. 

The Taiko had a pet monkey which was very mischievous, and had been 
taught to jump at every visitor in a threatening manner, much to the confusion 
of the stately Daimios who called upon Hideyoshi. One man, however, DATE 
MASAMUNE (who later became Daimio of Mutsu, and sent ambassadors to the 
Pope in Rome), determined not to be laughed at by the Taiko, and, bribing 
some servant, he was shown the monkey before the audience began ; he then 
hit the animal's face with his clenched fist until the monkey showed no 
more fight, and then went away. When Date Masamune was introduced in 
the audience room, the monkey hid itself behind Hideyoshi, and could not be 
induced to come forward in its usual manner. Taiko Sama was very deeply 
impressed, and, of course, knowing nothing of the anterior proceedings, he 
concluded that Date was a very strong man, rather to be feared, and with 
whom it would be policy to be friendly. 

299. HIEN YUAN TSI $f || ^. A wizard of the time of Suang 
Tsung of the Tang dynasty, circa, 845 A.D. He had the power of ubiquity, 
was followed about by wild beasts, and his magic knowledge was unequalled. 
Once, when received in audience by the Emperor, a court lady chided him, and 
he caused her to be transformed into a wrinkled hag until she beseeched his 
forgiveness, when he allowed her to resume her former state. He is identical 
with KEN EN SHYU, of whom it is written that he was an old sage who, 
after several centuries of life, had not failed in complexion and had a fine 
black beard trailing to the ground. Once the Emperor Sen So j|[ ^ (Suang 
Tsung), after summoning him to court, sent him back with a purse filled 
with coins, when the sage began throwing them to the people and the supply 
appeared to remain miraculously inexhaustible. 

300. HIKKEN ifl $i or KOSEI, also KONGOSHU Bosatsu. One of the 
sons of Benten, represented with a writing pen and ink slab ; it is a trans- 
formation of Vadjrapani. 

301. IIIKOHICHI OMORI ^ -fc ^ ^ (often given as OMORI 



HIKOSHISHI), represented as a warrior, carrying on his back a female demon 
(Hannya or Kij'o). 

One version gives the story as follows : OMORI HIKOHICHI was a vassal 
of Ashikaga Takauji ; at the battle of Minatogawa, in 1342, he met a 
beautiful woman who persuaded him to carry her across a stream ; when 
they reached the middle of the ford, the warrior saw in the water the true 
reflection of his burden, with the face of a witch, and drawing his sword 
he slew her on the spotj. 

Another version given in Takenobu's Tales, apparently taken from a 
theatrical rendering of the legend, somewhat differs from the above. The 
followers of Yoshisada and Masahige, after being defeated by Takauji at 
Minatogawa (see Go DAIGO), flew to Yoshino, and the northern clan, having 
taken Kyoto, established a Court there. The victors had arranged for a 
religious ceremony and a No dance near Matsuyama, in lyo, and people 
were coming from afar. Amongst the crowd was a girl whose bearing was 
different from that of country folks, and a boorish warrior, Sayemon Dogo, 
noticing her, went and proposed to take her to the dance and later to his 

The girl flatly refused, and Dogo accused her of being a spy. A 
scuffle resulted, in which the girl was overpowered, and at that juncture 
HIKOHICHI appeared, who, on hearing the charge, examined the girl and, 
seeing through Dogo's statements, claimed her as a relative of his, the 
daughter of the custodian of the Sumiyoshi temple. He then took the 
girl on the road to the dance, but the rains had formed a rivulet across, 
and he offered to carry her on his back. The girl, who was no other than 
CHIHAYA, the daughter of Kusunoki Masashige, putting on her face a 
Hannya mask, drew a dagger and tried to cut HIKOHICHI'S throat, saying : 
"Remember the death of Masashige and the sacred dagger you took from 
him." She thought that he had caused her father to commit harakiri. 
HIKOHICHI, however, had recognised her at the beginning, and he told her 
so, threatening to take her to Kyoto to have her beheaded. She then had 

t It is interesting to note that in European folklore witches were credited with being unable to cross 
water without taking the appearance of devils. 



to explain her conduct. Omori was touched by her filial piety, and told 
her how Masashige and his brother, Masatsuye, had committed seppuku 
together (see Kusunoki Masashige), and that when he had brought their 
heads to Ashikaga, the latter recognised the dagger of Masashige as a 
valuable blade, a gift to him from Go DAIGO, and told him to keep 
it till the peace was restored. He gave the girl the dagger and his 
own No kimono, with the necessary instructions to return unmolested to 
her own home. In the meantime his retainers, who had taken to 
flight when they had seen the attack of the Hannya upon their master, 
had gone to fetch Sayernon Dogo, who returned with them only to find 
HIKOMICHI shouting like a madman, and defying the spirit of Masashige. 
Finally, springing into Dogo's vacant saddle, and calling to him as 
if he were Masashige's ghost, to come and fight him if he dared, he 

302. HIMONO. Dried fish; see FISH (dried), EMBLEMS, and CHARMS; 
see Oni Yarai. 

303. HINADORI |}ft Jjj. See KUGANOSUKE. 

304. HINAKO NAI SHINNO. Daughter of Go DAIGO. See the story 
of the tooth-marked chestnut. 

305. HIOCHO /j J^. One of the Chinese sages, shown without any 
peculiar attributes in Hokusai's Mangwa, Vol. III. 


307. HIRU KO NO MIKOTO @ | ifc, or HIRUGO, elder son of the 
creative couple, Izanagi and Izanami, sometimes said to have been the first 
fisherman, and the original Yebisu (Ebisu). 

308. HIRUNOGOZA NO TSURUGI jfc fP J$[ M The sacred sword 
substituted for the Kusanagi no Tsurugi, which was lost in the sea at the 
battle of Dan no Ura, but the latter is believed to have been only a copy 
of the herb quelling sword of Yamato Dake (q.v.), the Kusanagi no Tsurugi, 
and to have been forged during the reign of Sujin Tenno. 



309. HITOBAN ^| JOt 51- Mythical creature with a flying head. See 

of the six celebrated poets, and was deified as God of Poetry, with temples 
at Akashi, in the province of Harima, and at Ichi no Moto. He lived in 
the seventh century, and was a foundling, picked up at the foot of a per- 
simmon tree (Kaki) by the warrior Abaye, who adopted him. He is usually 
shown, like most poets, seated in the Japanese manner and holding a 
makimono. One of his poems, composed as he was going to sleep under a 

tpine tree, reads : 
Ashibiki no 

^ Yamadori no wo no 

. Shidari wo no 

Naga naga shi yo wo 
5 Hitori kamo nen. 

" Undulating mountains, how long is the tail of your pheasants ! 
Longer ; oh, how much longer shall be the night for one who shall sleep 
alone. . . ! " Hiakku Nin Isshiu. 

311. HIYEIZAN Jfc ^ ill- Small mountain near Kyoto, once covered 
with temples and monasteries. See BENKEI, KIYOMORI. 

312. HOHODEMI ^ A & IE ^, or YAMA SACHI HIKO, fourth Mikoto, 
the famous hunter. He once changed his calling with his brother, UMI 
SACHI HIKO, the great fisher, whose hook he lost. UMI refused to return to 
his brother his bow until he returned him the hook. Both were angry 
because their change of sport had proved a failure in both cases, and Yama 
tried to propitiate his brother by making out of his sword five hundred 
new hooks, but it was all in vain. Umi wanted the original hook. Yama 
finally got to the palace of the Sea King, Riujin, who directed that search 
should be made amongst the fishes. The hook was found in the throat of 
the Tai, and Riujin sent Hohodemi back on a crocodile (Want) to his brother 
to return the hook in such a way that Umi would be greatly impoverished 
after three years. He also gave him the two jewels of the flowing and the 



ebbing tides, with which he was later to subdue his elder brother Umi, 
whose contortions are mimicked in the court dances performed by his 
descendants, the Hayato. This is also called the tale of the Happy Hunter. 
See Kojiki, page 119 et seq. ; WAXI ; TOYOTAMA HIME. 

313. HOJO j|[ fljf-. The Nio who guards the South. He is more 
usually called ZOCHO (Virudhaka), his attribute is a straight spear, his statues 
are painted white, he wears a complete armour but no helmet, and he is 
called the King of Prosperity. This name is better read HOCHO. 

314. HOJO ;jb $ Celebrated family of Kamakura " Shikken," who 
from 1200 till 1333 were the real masters of Japan, during the rule of the 
"Puppet Shoguns." They were descended from Taira Sadamori. The first 
Shikken was HOJO TOKIMASA, father of MASAKO, wife of Yoritomo. When the 
latter died in 1199, Masako and her father grasped the power; through the 
forced abdication and subsequent murder of Yoshiiye they established firmly 
their influence upon the Shdguns, whom they practically superseded. They 
even tried to overthrow Sanetomo, but failed. To the third Shikken, Yasutoki, 
is due the feudal code, Teikan Shiki Mokn (see Carey Hall, Japan Society, 

315. HOJO TOKIYORI ^b & $f fl- See NICHIREN ; see Hachi no Ki. 
Fifth shikken, who caused the Daibutsu of Kamakura to be founded, 

and signalised himself by his popular administration. He is often repre- 
sented with his minister and adviser, Awoto Fujitsuna. 

316. HOKEN. Chinese general. See SOMPIN. 

317. HOKEN ZENSHI ^ f| (also BUKAN ZENSHI) the Taoist Rishi, 
FENG KAN. Shown riding upon, or sleeping near a tiger, or in company 
with the two mad Sennins, HANZAN (Kanzan) and JITTOKU (Shi Te) (q.v. 
also " Four Sleepers "). 

318. HOKYOSHA f|$ ife ^ used to sit on a flat square stone, twenty 
feet wide, at the foot of Mount U. He found on it a stone pot and an 
evil-quelling sword. One day he was surrounded by coloured clouds, from 


which issued music; a sacred bird approached him, and two divinities came 
down on a dragon and on a stag to invite him into heaven. 

319. HOMMA MAGOSHIRO SHIGEU.TI ; fUJ j| 0J I|$ |T . Archer 
in the army of NITTA YOSHISADA. While the army was awaiting the attack 'of 
TAKAUJI'S fleet at Wada no Misaki (Minatogawa) he espied a sea-fowl with 
a fish in his claws. He then cried to Takauji : "You must be wearied doing 
nothing for so long, I will give you some fish," and with an arrow he 
shot the bird so that the fish fell on deck and the bird in the sea. 

There are several variants of this story. Sometimes the bird carries a 
letter, as it is also said that Magoshiro shot the bird with an arrow through 
the head, fastened to it a strip of paper bearing his name, and sent it on 
another arrow right into the boat of Ashikagn Takauji. 

is shown in the Ehon Kokyo (Hokusai's) leaning against a pillar of a temple, 
on which he has written: "My father has fallen in the fray; how anxious I 
am to follow him." 

321. HORAI |f| 5$r [Jj, HOKAIZANT. One of the three mountains in the 
fortunate Islands of Paradise, the home of everlasting life, where live the 
crane, the tortoise, and the stag, and where the plum tree, the pine, the 
peach, and the fungus grow in profusion, besides the jewelled tree of which 
mention is made in the story of the Moonchild and the old Bamboo Hewer. 
The HORAI SHIMA, or Elysian Isle, finds -its place in Japanese gardening 
as an isolated arrangement of six rocks, representing a tortoise. 



HORSE OF 1000 Ris (miles) Sen Ri no Uma. This wonderful animal 
was given to Go Daigo Tenno by Takasada, of Inaba, but Fujifusa 
thought that this gift could only be a portent of calamity, as it accorded 
with the appearance for several nights on one of the roofs of the palace 
of a monstrous yellow bird, the Kecho, which emitted awful shrieks in the. 

dead of the night. See HIROARI. 




HITOMARU (.!/..) 

HAXKWAI (/<.) 


HANHEI (ll.y.K.) 


The HORSE is emblematic of manhood. It forms the crest of the Princes 
of Soma, the animal being attached to a couple of pegs and kicking high 
with its back legs. Its name is given to the Japanese division of time, 
between n a.m. and i p.m. ^p. One of the infernal attendants has a horse's 
head on a man's body. One meets occasionally with presentments of the 
horse and plum flower, and also of the horse and the monkey. In connection 
with this latter occurrence, it appears that in olden times a monkey was kept 
in the Imperial stables to keep the horses in good temper, and the box of the 
holy horse at the shrine of leyasu, in Nikko, is decorated with carved monkeys. 
who are said to endorse the dress of Shinto priests about Xew Year's Day, 
and render divine honours to their companion. In Ehon Kojidan (VII.) a 
monkey with the Sambasso headdress and a gohei holds the tether of a horse, 
in front of which he dances in the stable. 

In Ehon Hokan (II), under the title ^ J^ >^\ %j^ / ba shin yen, a monkey 
and a horse are tethered to a pole and to the character )ft above it. It is 
explained in the text that the horse is emblematic of a restless mind, as it 
wishes to run round the post, whilst the monkey is emblematic of selfishness. 
If restlessness of mind and selfishness are restrained by a chain of fine teachings, 
the mind will soon attain perfect contented peace (Nirvana). Groups are also 
found of horse and rat, w r hich are, however, merely representations of Zodiacal 
or horary characters, as the horse, one of the signs of the Zodiac, represented 
the first hour of day, the rat representing the first hour of night (n p.m. to 
i a.m.). Clay models are found in old burial mounds, where such figures 
were deposited to represent the horses of the dead, with whom they were 
buried. The names of a few celebrated horses have been preserved, and will 
be found in the stories to which they belong, amongst them being : 

SHOYAHAKU, belonging to the Emperor Genso, 

ONIKAGE, the horse of Oguri Hangwan, 

IKENZUKI, to Sasaki Takatsuna, 

SURUSUMI, the mount of Kagesuye, 

TAYU-GURO, the black horse of Yoshitsune, 

(see BATEISEKI, GENTOKU, KAJIWARA KAGESUYE). Horses standing with 
the head and the four feet brought together are frequently met with as 



netsuke (see Behrens' " Traces of Evolution," Japan Society). In pictorial treat- 
ment, the fewer the number of brush strokes the more clever the work, seems 
to have been a constant motto, another feature being the crowding together 
of large numbers of horses in a small space ; the same applies, of course, to 
a great many other animals. It must also be borne in mind that the Japanese 
mounted their horses on the right, and backed them in their stables so as to 
feed them from the door, whether from a dislike for kicks or for the sake 
of convenience is not clear. A horse head or a hobby horse were used either as 
headgear in the first case, or as mounts in the other, at the festivals of 
Hachiman, and Guionji and pictures of horses were offered to the divinity 
(Aston, Shinto). 

There are several stories of pictures of horses becoming alive, like that of 
of Kanaoka, which went grazing at night, and to the picture of which peg 
and tether had to be added to keep him indoors. See also HIDARI JINGORO. 

There is a type of toy money, named Komashiki sen, upon which the 
horse is figured ; the horse is used in the game of chess, and almost corresponds 
to the knight, but can only move forward. 

A man modelling a horse is a subject for netsuke, the hand of the sculptor 
leaving marks all over the body of the animal. In Ehon Kojidan the story 
is illustrated, and the author says: " GIOKUSHISHO 3 ~f~ ^ made a horse 
of clay, over which he could ride for thousands of miles, and if he sprayed 
water with his mouth, each drop as it fell became a jewel. He is one of 
the Sennins." 

323. HOSHO ^ TR. The Chinese Sum CHENG, shown in the guise 
of a Sennin " with flaming eyes." He is identical with SHOSEI (q.v.) 

320. HOSO |j jjjfl (or g jj*) or HOSO-SENKO. Sennin shown as an old 
man reclining on the waves. He was a man of Hojo who needed only one 
breath every three days, and could sleep in the water for a day at a time, or 
lay motionless for a year, till the dust covered him an inch thick. After living 
one hundred and fifty years he seemed no more than twenty years old, and 
received the title of Daishin Shinjin. He is referred to in a joke of TOBOSAKU. 

He is identified with the Chinese TS'IEN K'ENG, later named PENG Tsu, 



or patriarch of P'eng. He is said to have been the orphan son, or grand- 
son, of the Emperor Chwan Hii, SENKYO (see SEIUKO). He was 767 years old 
at the end of the Yin dynasty in 1123 B.C., and appears to have lived nearly 
eight hundred years, chiefly on mother-of-pearl. 

325. HOSO ~Jj ^j. Chinese general whom CHOW SIN jj^J" ^ (Show of 
Chang) sent in 1123 B.C. to resist the attacks of Si Peh (Ch'ang of Chow), 
later known as Bu\vo, at the battle of Muh ($ f Bokuya). See Buwo. 

326. HOSOKAWA YUSAI jfgH Jlj & ^. Warrior who, besieged in 
1600 by the army of Johida Mitsunari, owed his safety to the fact that the 
Emperor knew him to be versed in the mysteries of the Kokinshu poems, 
and to be the only man knowing the right interpretation of the names of 
birds and trees mentioned therein, knowledge which could be imparted to 
none but the members of a certain noble family of Kyoto. B. H. Chamberlain 
says that the meaning of these words was found by Motoori to represent 
birds and trees of ordinary character. 

327. HOTARU. Fireflies. Catching them forms an elegant pastime, 
mentioned under GAMES. The fireflies of Ujigawa are associated with 
the legends of the War of Gempei ; they are said to fight afresh the battles 
of the Taira and Minamoto under the name of HOTARU KASSEN. The 
largest species is called Genji Botaru, and its members are said to be the 
ghosts of the fallen Minamoto; the smaller flies are the Heike Botaru. 

Fireflies are also associated with the story of SHAEN and of the Ghost of 
KIYOTADA (q.v.). 

HOTARU HIME ^ jj. Story of the firefly lover. Hi O, the King of 
the fireflies, lived in the moat of the castle of Fukui, in Echizen, and his 
bright but coquettish daughter, Hotaru Hime, was courted in turn by a 
number of lovers, amongst which a golden beetle, a black bug, a scarlet 
dragon fly, and a hawk moth, to all of which she set the task of bringing 
her fire before she declared herself. All tried to get it from lamps, and were 
burnt. The hawk moth, however, had more cunning, and crawled inside 
the paper wick of a candle, but the candle was snuffed before he reached 



the flame. Finally Hi MARO, the firefly Prince who. held sway on the other 
side of the castle, happened to hear of the trouble, came round, and success- 
fully wooed her. But even unto this day, when the priests find dead insects 
around the temple lamps, they say: "Princess Hotaru must have had many 
lovers to-night " (Griffis). 

The game of firefly-catching at Ujigawa forms part of a play, the hero 
of which is a scholar named Kumazawa Banzan. He fell in love with a 
girl, Miyuki, whilst catching fireflies, but the two lovers were separated, and 
after many years Kumazawa, wending his way through the Tokaido Road, 
found a blind musician, who was no other than Miyuki. 

See also YORIMASA, whose soul is said to have taken the shape of fireflies. 

328. HOTEI tf\ |. One of the Seven "Gods of Luck," and probably 
the most popular, judging from his numberless figures. Fat, almost beyond 
reason, and generally exhibiting a generous allowance of his bulky stomach, 
joyously laughing, whether alone or surrounded with children, carrying on 
his back the linen bag (Ho-tef), from which he derives his name, and in which 
he stows away the Precious Things, or Takaramono, or which he uses as a 
receptacle for playful children ; often placing himself in it, either to sleep or 
gaze on his surroundings, or perhaps be drawn as in a barrow by his brother 
God, the joyous Daikoku. Sometimes shown in a dilapidated carriage drawn 
by boys, and then called Kitntma So, the waggon priest, oftener seen carrying 
in one hand his bag and in the other a Chinese fan, or balancing on his 
shoulder, at either end of a coolie pole, the bag of precious things and a boy. 
In some cases carrying in his hand a clam shell, playing the role of begging 
bowl, or interchanging attributes with some of the other Shichi Fuku Jin. How- 
ever numerous are the varied appearances of this emblem of contentment, it is 
impossible to mistake the laughing face and the half-clothed mountain of 
flesh. Hotei sometimes receives the appellation, Shichi Hiaku Sai, " The Sage 
of Seven Centuries." 

He is usually identified with a Chinese priest of the Xth century, named 
CHISHI (Keishi)*, who lived at Ming Chu (the present Nimpo in Chekiang), 

* Puini (he. cit.) says, according to the Sogenjiro, his name was Keishi, monk of the Gakurun Temple of 
Fung hwa, on the Semingshan ; the Dentoroku calls him Choteishi. 


IIOTEI AM) rmi.DKKN (.;.) 



II'PKN SHONIX (;;./...) 

KARAKO AND HOTEl's BAi; (.;.) 

INARI (.I/.GV.) 


and who was popularly called Putai no San Mr. Linen Bag from the sack 
in which he carried his scanty belongings and whatever edibles were given 
him. In the course of his travels, combining the craft of a fortune-teller with 
his vocation as a begging priest, he came in 916 to the temple of the future 
Buddha Maitreya, and improvised a poem to the effect that the holy Maitreya, 
dividing his body into hundred myriads, often appeared to people who 
knew nothing of it. It seems that folks took this for a statement that he 
was Maitreya, and then began picturing him. He died about 916 (Teimei 3). 
In old books an easy way of drawing Hotei is given, the outline of the 
character >|^ Kokoro forming his arms, neck and abdomen (Ehon Hokan, 
Vol. VI.). 

329. HOTOKE ffi. Meaning a Buddha (Nure Botoke : wet god, out-of- 
doors statue) ; is also applied to a corpse, or to the soul of the dead. The 
Gaki Botoke are hungry ghosts, the souls of those who have nobody to place 
food offerings before their graves, and who seek nutrition by invading the 
bodies of the living and causing Okori, or intermittent fever (Hearn). 

Hotoke Umi is the tide of the returning ghosts. 

330. HOWO JH, Jin or Hono (in some German books, FOHO). A Bird, 
the Phoenix. It is the FENG of the Chinese, the female of which is called 
Hwang, and it is usually represented as a gorgeously coloured bird with 
long tail feathers, somewhat like a composite animal, part pheasant, part 
peacock, the idea of which may have been derived from some inaccurate 
description of either. It is one of the four supernatural creatures of Chinese 
myth; its feathers are red, azure, yellow, white and black, the five colours 
corresponding to the five principal virtues ; while the Chinese ideograms for 
uprightness, humanity, virtue, honesty and sincerity are impressed in various 
parts of its body ; its cries are symbolic, its appearance precedes the advent 
of virtuous rulers, and it has honoured with its visits the courts of several of 
the Chinese Emperors : Yao Shun in the semi-mythical period, and even as 
late as 23 B.C. during the Han dynasty. 

The Phoenix is often depicted with the Dragon in works of art, or, like 
the Crane, falling through the sky while children or Sages wait on the earth 


to catch it with a rope, or in association with the Kiri tree (Pawlonia), 
besides which it is the attribute of Imperial authority and the familiar 
creature of some Sages. See BAIFUKU ; RIOGIOKU. 


332. IBUKI YAMA $*' Pfc til- Mountain in Omi, upon the summit of 
which lived a malevolent deity, which YAMATO DAKE went alone to kill. The 
Deity changed itself into a white serpent (some say a white boar), and Yamato 
Dake, thinking this creature was only the messenger of the God, went on, 
but he was immediately surrounded by a mist which made him reel like a 
drunken man. He escaped, however, and by drinking the water of a spring 
at the foot of the mount he recovered his senses : hence the spring was named 
Wi SAME (stand sober). 

333. ICHIMOKU . Mythical foreigners, with a single eye in the 
centre of the forehead like the Cyclops, and who "live out of the North 

334. ICHIMOKUREN g jj|. Divinity of Tado, in Ise, specially 
prayed to in periods of drought to obtain rain. It has only one eye, hence 
its name. 

335. IDATEN J|L Ufa Jfc . Buddhist Deity of peace and contempla- 
tion, shown as a young man of martial character ; he carries a halberd, 
and his hands are apposed ; the loose parts of his garment are kept in place 
by his feet as a symbol of the subdued elements, and he is also depicted 
with both hands resting on the pommel of his sword. Like Bishamon, he 
is often shown pursuing an oni, but the latter carries away the sacred gem. 

336. IGA NO TSUBONE $** H Jjjj. A celebrated strong woman of Go 
DAIGO'S Court. After the invasion of the Imperial palace by Ko NO MORONAO, 
following the flight of the Empress, she found the river Yoshino swollen by a 
flood, and impassable, she uprooted a tree, threw it across the ravine in 
which flew the river, and carried the Empress on her back safely to the 
other side. See KIYOTADA. 



337. IKAZUCHI ff. The eight Gods of Thunder : O-Ikazuchi, HO-NO- 
Ikazuchi, KuRO-Ikazuchi, SAKU-Ikazuchi, WAKi-Ikazuchi, TsucHi-Ikazuchi, 
NARU-Ikazuchi, and Fusni-Ikazuchi. 

338. IKIRIYO ^ fH. Ghost of a living person. See Hearn's Kotto. 

339. IKKIU fife. Celebrated poet of the XVth century, who adopted 
the hetaira JIGOKU REIGAN (q.v.), with whom he is often pictured. See 
also SAIGYO. 

In the Tei-yo-shu of the book Ten shu-shi, there is a poem of the poetess 
JIGOKU, of Takasu, as follows, the first stanza of which is said to have been 
composed by Ikkiu, and the other by the Joro : > 

Kikishi yori /> > 

Mite osoroshiki 0*9 


Jigoku kana T 

Shini kuru hito mo ' 

Ochizara me yawa. *"* 

" Jigoku (Hell) is more awful to look at than to hear of ; that is why the 
men coming should not fall down " (Gilbertson). 

Ikkiu lived from 1395 to 1481, and was a pupil of the painter, Soga 

The head priest of a temple had a very valuable porcelain Koro, 
which he had forbidden his priests to handle in his absence. Once, however, 
they broke their promise, and showed the Koro to a party of visitors, one of 
whom dropped it, and the precious incense- burner was broken. They were 
thinking how they could break the sad news to the Abbot, when one of the 
young students saved the situation. The head priest had just returned, and 
he went to him with the pieces of the incense burner in his sleeve. " Holy 
Abbot," he said, "all living things .... what?" The old man wondered, 
but replied : " Must ultimately die." Then the boy inquired : " All fragile 
things?" .... "Must be broken," said the old man, perhaps guessing 
what the bent features of the boy did not allow him to detect, and as his 
answer was uttered, the young Ikkiu presented to his gaze the remnants of the 


broken Koro. His presence of mind not only gained the monks their pardon, 
but helped him in his priestly career (Greey). 

340. IKKAKU SENNIN $j f[Jj X (single horn Sage) is sometimes 
said to be another immortal the Hindoo Sage, Rishjaringa, who, like Kume 
no Sennin, could not resist the temptation afforded him by the sight of women 
on the earth, and he was punished by the loss of his power of living in the 
sky, falling to earth on the spot. The correct version is, however, to the 
effect that he was the son of Vivandaka and of the fairy Urvasi, and lived in 
Mount Dankatola. He fell in love with and married Sendaramo, whom he 
carried home on his back ; he is accordingly depicted with a small horn on 
his forehead and carrying a woman on his shoulders. He is the hero of a 
No of the same name. See KIRIN. 

341. INARI ^ ^nf, or IXARI SAMA. This name signifies load of rice, 
and it is said to have been given as a posthumous honour to the legendary 
man, UGA, who first cultivated rice, and is specially honoured at Inari no 
Yashiro. Tradition has it that Kobodaishi met an old man carrying on his 
back a rice sheaf, in 711, near Toji, and recognised in him the Deity protector 
of his temple. He then called this Deity, Inari (rice bearer). It is thought that 
some misconception or some confusion, due to the name MIKITSUNE UGA NO 
MITAMA, has caused the identification of the August Spirit of Food Deity, or 
God of rice, with a Fox divinity, and its association with the Fox (Kitsune), 
sometimes described as his messenger, and generally represented seated at the 
door of the temples of Inari. 

In fact, Inari Sama is often described as the Fox God, and is usually 
shown in the guise of a bearded old man carrying a sheaf of rice, accompanied 
by, or seated upon, a white fox. KODOMO NO INARI is the children's Fox God. 
In the first horse day (Uma no I) of February, country boys make little flags 
with papers of various colours, red, yellow and blue, and write the name of 
Inari on them, and offer them to the temple. 

INARI is also worshipped on the Fuigo matsuri, or Festival of the Bellows 
(November 8th), held in honour of Hettsui no kami, Goddess of the Kitchen. 

INARI must not be confused with KAMIYA (q.v.). It is also worshipped as 



a healer, a giver of wealth, and even sometimes as a protective divinity of 
the Joro class. 

See Fox ; also KOKAJI and Aston Shinto. 


343. INKI f3* , YiN-Hi or KOBUN [; ^]. Sennin of Tensui, usually 
shown sitting on the ground in front of " the lotus flower seat on which 
ROSHI was wont to sit." He is shown reading in Hokusai's J\Iangiva, Vol. 
III., and in Gessen's Ressen dzu san standing watching something far away. 
In the same work, another IXKI |P" ^[ is also figured, but holding a 
makimono and a gourd. 

INKI lived about B.C. 1070, but the Taoist legends credit him with 
some five hundred years of life, during part of which, in obedience to a 
revelation, he waited at the gate of Hankuh for the passage of Lao Tsze. 
When the latter was taken to the West by a black buffalo which had 
been miraculously sent him, Inki besought Lao Tsze to instruct him, and 
he received from the master manuscript of his work, the Tao Teh King. 

344. INKYO fa $fe ^C JL or INGYO, was an Emperor of Japan famous 
for his cruelty. Once he went to fish in the island of AWAJI, but could get 
no sport ; he had the matter investigated by his diviners, and was told that 
the God of the Island wanted a ball-shaped jewel which lay at the bottom 
of the sea, before he would allow the Emperor to catch any fish. All the 
fisher folks of the island were summoned, but their efforts were in vain. A 
woman named SASAJI OTOME, picked out of the crowd, was ordered to dive 
again, and the Emperor swore that if she did not succeed he would kill 
her husband. She found the jewel hidden in a large clam, and fell dead as 
she laid it at the Emperor's feet. 

345. INYAKU |J $&, or JAKO, one of the sons of Benten; transformation 
of SHAKA (Sakyamuni), and shown with the jewel and key. 

346. IPPEN j|||. Buddhist priest who founded the Ji or JISHU sect 
in 1275, and whose wandering life and varied adventures have served as 



themes for many prints. It is said that every time he made a convert, 
he started dancing with his co-workers, repeating the while the invocation 
to the Buddha Amithaba. 

Some pictures from the story of Ippen Shonin are reproduced in the 
Kokkwa (148-158, Vol. XIV.}, amongst which his sharp fight with some of his 
relations, who, having a grudge against him, once attacked him whilst he 
was engaged in deep study. Ippen snatched a sword from one of his 
would-be murderers and killed a few of them on the spot. 

This monk had a wife and at least a mistress, and it is related (Murray's 
Guide to Japan, 2nd edition) that once while the two ladies were playing 
Go, Ippen saw them take the form of two snakes with the heads of 

Once, when he was staying at the palace of the Daimio of Fuji, the 
wife of the Prince became instantly converted, and leaving the castle went 
to have her head shaved and became a nun. Her infuriated husband swore 
that he would kill the priest, but as he approached the room in which 
Ippen was seated (apparently teaching the nun) he was struck with awe, and 
throwing to the ground his drawn sword, he prostrated himself and was also 

IPPEN died in 1289. 

347. IPPI ^. Mythical half men from a country beyond the 
Western Sea, who walk in pairs "like fishes or birds," one being left- 
handed the other right-handed, clasping one another's arm, the sides without 
limbs being in contact (Todo Kimmo dzue, V.), or each with his solitary arm 
round the other's waist or neck. They have only one eye each, and long 
straight hair. 

348. ISETSU Ifi '|J5. Chinese Sage who resigned his office to study 
under the Taoist CHOKOSHI on Mount Kun. One day he saw a coloured 
cloud approach the mountain, and saying : " I will go up to the sky on 
that cloud," became one of the Immortals. 

349. ISHIGAMI /j Jffi. No dance player with bells and fan ; the God 
in the Rock. 


HOWO ((,.7.) 

IKKAKU (.-;.) 



JIXCO KOGO (../.) 

.H'ROJIX (.^.) 



351. ISHO ^ Jl> or YOKI. Transformation of MARISHITEN, or MARISHI 
DEVA, described as one of the sons of Benten, and often figured with a 
bundle of clothing. 

352. ISHUKU ff ^f. A young male genius carrying a Tama on a 
lotus flower. He represents the seventeenth lunar constellation. 

353. IWAGENKAI ffi fP j $$. Taoist worthy who had always 
black hair and looked young. He rode, without a bridle, a yellow mare 
which would not eat grass. His saddle was a piece of blue cloth. Upon 
her back he crossed the sea, and travelled often from Seishyu to Konshyu. 

354. IWANAGA % 7% See AKOYA. 

355. IWASHI, Sardine. See FISH. 


357. IZANAGI ffi ffi ffi (. The creative Divinity of Japan, who 
was sent by the Heavenly Deities (according to Shintoist teachings) to 
make and consolidate the drifting land, accompanied by his sister, the Deity 
IZA-NA-MI-NO-KAMI, with the help of a jewelled spear, which they used from 
the Bridge of Heaven to stir the brine thus was created the Island of 
Onogoro. After seeing to the erection of an august pillar, which is reckoned 
the centre pillar of the land, they entered into a rather indelicate courtship 
(set forth in Latin in Chamberlain's translation of the Kojiki), and finally 
gave birth to a large number of Islands and later to an equally large 
number of Deities. After giving birth to the Fire Divinity, Kagutsuchi, 
Izanami died, and Izanagi killed one of his children, from whose body and 
blood were created eight more deities. He then set forth to YOMI, the 
yellow stream (Hades), to see IZANAMI, and call her back, but he was too 
late. He took no heed of her warning not to look in as she had eaten of 
the food of Hades, and lighting the end tooth of his head comb, proceeded, 
when he saw her surrounded by maggots, and the eight thunder divinities 
were born of her body (see IKAZUCHI). She sent the ugly female, Yomo Tsu 


Shiko Me to pursue him. He however escaped after casting off his garments 
and belongings, which formed eatables for the ugly female, and he blocked 
the door of Hades with a rock which a thousand men could barely move; 
IZANAMI f^' ffi $ft H thereafter becomes one of the infernal deities. 

358. IZORA. Kami of the Sea Shore. See JINGO. 

359. IZENSHUN 2p! ^ f^. Sennin (riding a black clog.) He was 
once followed by a big black dog, which he could not shake off and had 
to feed. One day the dog became a black dragon, and took him to 

360. JAKO H ^. One of the sons of Benten. See INJAKU. 

361. JEWEL (sacred). See TAMA. Attribute of several Deities, and also 
of some Arhats. Three are often shown on a rock carried by the Minogame, 
or Tortoise of 1000 years ; they represent Horai San. See also, EMBLEMS, 
BISHAMON, DAIKOKU, JINGO, RIUJIN, HOHODEMI (jewels of the flowing and of 
the ebbing tide), HACHIMAN ; see MAGATAMA. 

362. JIDO ^ jjj|. Other name of KIKUJIDO (q.v.). The Sennin, KEUH 
TSZE TUNG, shown as a boy throwing chrysanthemum in a stream ; in 
netsuke, with chrysanthemums and a writing brush in his hands. 

363. JIGEN DAISHI H& ^C gift. Posthumous title of TENKAI who, 
like Ryogen (Jiye Daishi), was a celebrated priest of the Tendai Sect, and 
for some time head priest of NIKKO. 

364. JIGOKU iflj fjfc. The Buddhist Hades. See HELL. 

365. JIGOKU REIGAN Jflj gfc >fc ^C- Famous Hetaira of the XVth 
century, who was adopted by the poet IKKIU (q.v.) She is also called 
Jigoku Dayu, and is depicted with scenes from Hell painted on her dress. 

366. JIJIN jfa Jffl. The Chinese Earth Gods, or divinities, protective 
of the soil. See under KAMI. 

367. JIKAKU ^ ^ (DAISHI j ftp). Buddhist priest who, coming 
back from China during a terrific storm had to throw in the sea, to appease 



the waters, the image of the God of Wisdom, YAKUSHI NYORAI, which he 
had carved to obtain the cure of his own eye disease. 

The figure was brought back to land by an octopus near the temple 
of Taku Yakushi, in HIRADO, and its presence was revealed to the priests in 
a dream (during the IXth century), as a result of Jikaku's earnest prayers. 
Jikaku Daishi is said to have struck the rock at An yo In (Meguro) with 
his Yajra, and from the stone sprung the spring Tokko no taki, which never 
dries up. 

368. JIKOKU TEN $f |cj Ji. One of the SHI TENXO, or Four Kings 
of Heaven, guardian of the East. It is the transformation of the Indian 

JIKOKU supports the heavenly mountain of Buddhist fiction, Mount 
Meru. He is represented as an armed warrior, sometimes with the sword 
or the Vajra, trampling under foot a devil. 

369. JIMMU TENNO f$ ^ ^ Jl. First Emperor of Japan, usually 
depicted in the dress of a warrior, with abundant hair and beard. 

370. JINGORO. Left handed sculptor, better known as HIDARI JINGORO. 
See that name. 

371. JINGO KOGO f$ $] Jl jg 1 . OKINAGA TARASU HIME, or also 
KASHI IDAI MIOJIN, Empress of Japan. Always shown in the garb of a 
warrior, and usually with a wide band around her forehead*, often in the 
company of her son, OJIN TENNO, and of her minister, TAKENOUCHI NO 

The Deities twice ordered her husband, the Emperor CHIUAI, to conquer 
Korea, but the monarch took no heed. The Deities then inspired JINGO (or 
rather Okinaga Tarashi, as her name then was), and she transmitted the 
request to the Emperor, who said: "There is no land to the west, these 
dreams are inspired by lying Deities," and suddenly fell dead. The Empress 
was then enceinte, but decided to start herself on the conquest. She stopped 
to fish at Matsura Gawa, with three grains of rice as bait, the catch of fish 

5 The statue in the Yakushiji differs, and has no band on the forehead. See Kokkwa, 161. 


being a lucky omen. She prayed also that if she was to succeed her hair 
would part as she was bathing, and it parted. All the Kami are said to 
have come to her aid, with the exception of the Kami of the sea-shore, 
Izora, who later came clad in mud, and whom she sent to Riujin to 
"borrow the tide-ruling jewels." The Korean fleet came to her and sub- 
missively offered her their country, after which she planted her lance upon 
the door of the chieftain of Shiragi, and came back to Japan, when OJIN, 
whose birth she had delayed by attaching a heavy stone to her waist, 
was born, in the province since called Umi. She then had a meal with one 
of the Gods, since named Aguchi (open mouth), at Sakai. She is often 
shown writing with her bow the words Koku (ruler of state) upon a rock. 
See Jingo Kogo Sankan Taiji (1840, illustrated by Hokusai). 

372. JIRAIYA j& f| ili [H -Jj ,g|] or OGATA SHUME, son of the 
Lord of Ogata, in his youth was called Young Thunder. At the death of 
his father in the destruction of his castle, Jiraiya flew to Echigo, which was 
then infested with robbers. Jiraiya's retainer was killed, and the boy joined 
the robbers, soon to become their chief. Hearing of the existence of a very 
rich old man in Shinano, he started alone to rob him, but he was overtaken 
by a snowstorm, and had to take refuge in a hut inhabited by an old 
woman. In the night he attempted to murder her, but his sword was 
broken to pieces, and the woman appeared transformed into a man, SENSO 
DOJIN, who revealed himself as being the Toad Spirit, and finally taught 
him all the toad magic, which gave him power to control the frogs, but 
which had no effect upon snakes. Later, he met a girl whom a Sennin had 
advised to marry him, and to whom the sage gave the secret of the magic 
of the Snail, to enable Jiraiya to kill OROCHIMARU (Dragon Coil Robber), 
the son of the serpent, who lived at the bottom of the lake TAKURA, and was 
helping the INUKAGA clan in their war against the TSUKIKAGE. One day 
while they were resting in a temple, the snake crawled upon the ceiling of 
the room, and poured its venom upon the head of Jiraiya, carrying away 
with him his own affianced bride, the Princess TAGOTO, who had fled from 
him with Jiraiya. The Abbot of the temple was, however, equal to the 



occasion, and sent to India, on a Tengu, the retainer RIKIMATSU, to fetch the 
only available elixir. The man returned in time for Jiraiya to be saved and 
made Daimio of IDZU. He is often represented slaying the serpent, or busy 
with magical preparations with the toad spirit (see Griffis). This story 
forms the theme of a popular play of the same name. 

373. JISSHUDO "df $, ?|n), drawn in a fisherman's net amongst fishes. 
JISSHUDO went about the world to sell an elixir vitre for 120,000 cash; a 
governor wished him to bring some to his palace, but Jisshudo then refused 
to sell it for less than 1,200,000 cash, saying that a rich man could afford to 
pay that much. The governor, in reply, had him put into a basket and 
thrown into the bay. The sea currents lifted the basket from the bottom 
and carried it to Hairyo, where two fisherman caught it in their net. When 
they discovered Jisshudo inside, they thought that he was some uncommon 
individual who had been voluntarily buried alive, and struck a copper vessel 
to try and wake him. He awoke and said : " How far is this place from 
Doryo ? " After this miracle he ranked amongst the Taoist worthies. 

374. JITTOKU ^ ffi. The Chinese Sennin, Sinn TE, represented as a 
boyish figure, upon whose face are deeply marked the furrows of old age ; 
he holds a besom, and is shown either singly or with his brother Rishi, 
KANZAN (q.v.), or with the latter and the other Taoist Rishi, BUKEN ZENSMI, 
and his tiger. He had been found in the mountains by Buken Zenshi, who 
had received a divine message to the effect that his foundling was an incarna- 
tion of the Buddha. The story, however, varies. See BUKEN ZEXSHI, KANZAN, 
SLEEPERS (the Four). A Chinese sage is also depicted with a besom, 
sweeping the ground, HIANG YEN, of Ch'ing Chou, a priest, after lengthy 
studies decided to find out what Ling Yii thought of his knowledge. After 
a weary journey, he bowed before the philosopher, who, instead of asking 
questions bearing upon Hiang Yen's studies, simply said : " What were your 
duties before your birth ? " and, on receiving no satisfactory answer but a 
request for his own opinion, replied : " My opinion is but my own ; what 
good would it do you to hear it?" The crestfallen inquirer trudged back to 
his temple and continued his studies, but after a few years, comparing the 



reading of books to the painting of rice cakes an occupation which never 
allayed hunger he burnt his books and hied himself to the woods, to a place 
where Su chung once had lived. One day, sweeping the ground, he sent a 
stone flying against a big bamboo, the trunk of which gave a ringing sound. 
This reminded him of Ling Yii's reply, the depth of which he now 
understood, and " he saw truth " (Ehon Hokmi). 

375. JIUGO DOJI -f- 3JL H Ip. "The Fifteen Youths," sons of Benten 


376. JIU XI O -f* H 5E, or Jiu NI TEN ~h H 5. The Twelve Deva 
Kings, Buddhistic adaptations of Brahmanic divinities, amongst which the 
Shi Tenno, or Four Guardians of Heaven, are the best known. 

The BUTSU DZO DZUI (Vol. Ill, p. 20} illustrates them as follows : 

JITEX illi 3^.- The Earth Deva PrWivi (Sanskrit), a woman holding in 
her right hand a basket of peonies, the right hand held in a miidra. 

GWATEX /) Jfc. The Moon Deva, Tchandra or Soma, a woman holding 
in her right hand a disc emblematic of the moon. Mr. L. Gonse, in L'Art 
Japonais, illustrates a somewhat different Gwaten, from a painting in the 
Kounoji temple, in which a male figure stands on a lotus, on clouds, both 
hands holding a figure of the moon, with the crescent and moon hare shown. 
The head is surrounded by a flaming halo. In other pictures, the moon hare 
is depicted in the dress of the Deva. 

BISIIAMON J|, ^!? P^ ^C (q- v -)> Vais'ramana, Vaisvavana, the Hindoo God 
of Riches; Kuvera, one of the Shi Tenno, and as such Guardian of the North. 
Eitel says that he was canonized as God of Riches by Hiuen Tsung in 753, 
and that he plays an important part in exorcism. He was re-born as King 
of the Yakchas, and his name is derived from the fact that Shaka converted 
him and raised him to the priesthood (Eitel, C.B. 193). He also receives the 
name DANADA, as God of Riches, and is one of the Shichi Fuku Jin under 
the name Bishamon. He is depicted with a blue face, clad in armour and 
carrying a pagoda in the left hand, a sceptre in the right one (as King of 
the Rakshasas and Yakshas), or a lance, or three-pointed halberd, when as one 
of the Shi Tenno he often receives the name TAMONTEN ^ |"J ^, meaning 



"universal hearing" (Eitel). Sometimes he is accompanied by ZEXNISHI DOJI, 

An interesting figure in the South Kensington Museum shows him standing 
on a tortoise, around the body of which is coiled a snake. 

FUTEN Jill ^i (q-v.), Vasu, the Deva of the Winds, also called Vasava (Fuxo 
SHIN). An old man bareheaded, with flowing beard and garments, walking, 
holding in his left hand a banner blown by the wind. A picture presenting 
these characters was in the Hayashi collection, in which the nether garments 
were depicted as made of leopard skin, a character associated also with om. 
The more modern form, as an om carrying a wind bag, is described in the 
article FUTEN. 

SUITEX 7jC ^C (q- v -)' The Water Deva Varuna, also Guardian of the West, 
as one of the Eight Gods of Heaven in the Brahmanic Pantheon, in which, as 
God of the Waters, he had the names Jalapiti, Yadapati and Amburaja, and 
he was represented as an old man sitting upon the makara, a mythical animal 
whose body and tail were that of a fish, while it had an antelope's head 
and legs. In the Butsn dzo dztii, the figure is that of a young man holding 
in his right hand a sword, in his left hand a snake, coiled like a query mark, 
and with five snakes issuing from his hair, erect as if ready to strike. 

RASETSU TEX fj| ^Ij ^. Bearded, with upright hair, a sword in the right 
hand, the left raised in a miidra. He is the King of the Rakshasis. 

BONTEX ^ Jfc 3E- Brahma, depicted as a figure standing on a lotus leaf; 
three heads of equal size, and with three eyes each, are surmounted by a 
smaller one with two ^eyes only. One hand holds a lotus, another a trident, 
a third one a water vessel ; the fourth and last one is directed downwards, 
with open palm and fingers extended in the mudra of charity (J^ara mudra). 

NITTEN f] ^. The Sun Deva, Surya. A female figure holding a lotus, 
on the calix of which reposes a sphere, emblematic of the Sun. Anderson 
mentions a picture in which the sphere is replaced by a red disc bearing 
the three-legged crow (q.v.) described by Hwai Nan Tsze in the $j| ^ ?'] 
(Mayers' C.R.M., 235). 

ISHANA TEN ^" ^ ffi ^. Mahesevara or Siva, depicted as a fierce figure, 
with the usual three eyes, holding in the right hand a trident and in the 



left a shallow vessel containing clotted blood. The third eye, open vertically 
in the forehead, and which is often called the eye of wisdom, originated 
according to the Mahabharata when Siva was seated in the mountains 
meditating. His wife Uma, coming behind him, playfully clapped her hands 
on his eyes, when the world was suddenly cast in gloom, but, as suddenly, 
in an outburst of flame issuing from Siva's forehead, a third eye appeared, 
the radiance of which scorched everything within sight until Uma repented. 
Siva's favourite mount, a white bull, is not shown in the Japanese figure, 
nor are the eight arms usually depicted. The Butsii dzo dzui, in its short 
description, identifies ISHANA TEN with IZANAGI NO MIKOTO (q.v.), which is 
written fjP* - ^ t& [-4 "f ^ ] > J|t instead of the usual form. The fact 
is of interest, as an attempt by Buddhists to form links with the original 
Shinto belief by modifying or adapting divinities, such as happened in the 
case of the Gongen. 

TAISHAKU TEN *j^ fa| 3^- Sakra, the mighty Lord fnelra, ruler of the 
Devas, to whom no particular attribution appears to be given. He is depicted 
as a woman with the three eyes, holding in the right hand a vajra with one 
point at each end, called Dokko $jj $, and in the left a cup. 

KWATEN ^C ^C.. The Fire Deva, Agni, depicted as a bearded old man 
with four arms, holding respectively a bamboo twig with a few leaves 
attached, a water vessel, the flaming triangle emblematic of fire in Brahmanic 
symbolism, and a rosary. He stands in front of a large flame. In the Hindoo 
figure he was depicted as a red man with two heads, like a Janus bifrons, 
seven arms and three legs, riding on a ram, wearing the Brahmanical 
thread, a garland of fruit, etc., and with flames issuing from his mouth. 
He may be dressed in flowing robes or clad in tiger's skin, as in the wood- 
cut by Riokin illustrated in Anderson's Japanese Wood Engraving. 

YEMMA TEN jfc JH ^. The Deva of Hades, Yama, or more properly 
speaking the King and Chief of Ten Regents of Hell. 

The Butsu dzo dzui depicts him as a youth with three eyes, carrying in 
his right hand a sceptre terminating in a small Boddhisattva head. The 
various appearances of Yemma are dealt with in a separate article. Eitel 
says that Yama Raja was in Brahmanic mythology a Guardian of the South 



and Judge of the Dead. In Buddhist lore he is a King of Vais'ali, who, 
having during his earthly life wished to be master of Hell, had his wish 
granted in a later avatar, and is accompanied by his eighteen generals and 
eighty thousand men as judges and executioners. His sister, Yami, deals 
with the female inhabitants of his domain. The King and his associates 
are fed every eight hours with molten copper. 

The Deva Kings are all represented standing and with a halo surrounding 
the head. There are variations in the way in which they are depicted, but 
the main attributes and characteristics are rarely departed from. Besides the 
actual carvings displayed in the Musee Guimet, fine illustrations of a number 
of the Jiu ni ten have been published in the Kokkwct,, TAJIMA'S Relics, the 
catalogues of the Hayashi, Gillot and Bing collections, etc. 

377. JITRI 5J^ ^Ij. Mythical half men, with one leg and one arm 
only ; their head is normal, but their body is soft and they have no bones 
(Todo Kimmo dzue). See illustration in Hokusai's Mangwa, Vol. Ill ; see 

378. JIZO Jjjj. ^, or Jix.o BOSATSU (Chinese, Ti TSANG). The Indian 
deity, KSHITEGARBHA, sometimes thought to be a form of Kwannon. It is 
the Buddhist Saviour, par excellence, and rejoices in a number of names, 
such as the Never Slumbering, the Dragon Praiser, Diamond of Piety, 
Embracing the whole earthly nature, Countless bodied, Shining King, etc. 

He is represented as a shaven priest, holding in one hand the jewel (Mani 
or Tamo) and in the other the Shakujo, or ringed staff, the rings of which, 
knocking against one another, warn insects of the approach of mendicant 
monks. The sleeves of his dress are particularly large ; sometimes he wears 
a lotus leaf in the guise of a hat, and plays the flute. He spends most of his 
time in the Sat no Kaivara, the river of souls, with the children, helping them 
to pile stones as prayers (see HELL). He manifests himself under six different 
forms, called Roku Jizo (the Six Jizo), to the six classes of creation. As 
patron of pregnant women he receives the name KOYASU Jizo. He is also 
the patron of travellers, and as such his figure is often met on the roads, 



often with a broken nose (HANAKAKE Jizo), whilst AGONASHI Jizo (q.v.), the 
jawless, is prayed to against toothache. 

He is one of the Nure Dotoke (Wet Gods), because of his numerous 
out-of-door figures, and though representative of the utmost benevolence his 
patience appears to have limits, according to the proverb: "Jizo no Kao mo 
san do naderaba hara no tatsu." "If one passes three times before Jizo, 
he ... straightens his belly . . . " ; or less literally: "Abuse of 
people's patience puts their back up." 

According to the Taijo-Hoshi-mingyo-nembiitsu-den, quoted by Hearn, Jizo 
was a human being who lived ten thousand Kos before the Christian era, 
and who, being filled with the desire to convert all living beings of the six 
worlds and the four births, was enabled to multiply his body so as to be at 
the same time amongst them all in the six states of transient existence, or 
Roku Sho, namely, Jigoku, Gaki, Chikusho, Shura, Ningen, Tenjo, whose 
dwellers were thereby converted. Once a monk was taken by Ono no 
Takamura to visit Yemma, and in the lowest circle of Hades found Jizo 
who expressed his disgust at the lack of worshippers on earth, and when the 
monk came back to his temple he started upon a statue of Jizo which was 
miraculously finished by a supernatural being. It is now in the temple of 
Yata no Jizo, near Nara. A small image of Jizo tied in the hair of a 
murderer named Saito is said to have blunted the executioner's sword when 
Saito was sent to undergo the death penalty ; he was pardoned, and a temple 
erected in honour of the God. 

In a very curious fuchi-kachira (Alexander Collection) Jizo is shown 
arm in arm with Yemma O fishing; two oni, one "horse-headed, carry the 
picnic basket slung on the Shakujo of Jizo as a coolie pole ! 

A full article upon Jizo will be found in Hearn's Unfamiliar Japan, 
Vol. /., and also in the same author's Ghostly Japan. See also the Kan 
Toku Den ^ ffl. ffi of Hayashi Tanji. 

As a transformation of Jizo, one of the sons of Benten is called Keisho 
or Akujo. 

379. JO AND UBA U and jj [^ $> U #]. The Spirits hunting the 


JIRAIYA (r./..) 

jo (M.E.) 


JIZO (J/.CC.) 


pine trees in Takasago, in Banshu, and of Sumiyoshi, in Settsu (Tsu no 
Kuni). They are shown as an old, wrinkled couple, Jo with a rake, Uba 
with a besom and a fan, gathering pine needles. 

There is a No dance due to a priest of Asonomiya, named TOMONARI, 
and commemorating the story of KINO TSURAGUKI, who met the old couple 
(XVth century). 

The two old people are usually accompanied by the attributes of 
longevity, the crane and the tortoise. 

According to some the spirits are those of the two admirals SUMIYOSHI 
Daimiojin and SUWA Daimiojin, who were in command of Jingo's fleet of a 
thousand barges, but the more popular tradition follows the text of the 
Takasago no Utai, referred to above, as follows : At Takasago there is a very 
old pine tree, the trunk of which is bifurcated; in it dwells the spirit of 
the Maiden of Takasago, who was seen once by the son of Izanagi, who fell 
in love and wedded her. Both lived to a very great age, dying at the same 
hour on the same day, and since then their spirits abide in the tree, but on 
moonlight nights they return to human shape to revisit the scene of their 
earthly felicity and pursue their work of gathering pine needles. See KODAMA 

On weddings the Takasago no Utai is recited, and figures of JOTOMBA, 
called Shimadai, are placed in the wedding room. 

380. JOFUKU f$; j|. The Chinese wizard and physician, Su SHE of 
Tsi (also called Sii Fuh), who was sent by the T'sin Emperor, SHE WANG Ti 
(CHENG), to seek the elixir of everlasting life, and having persuaded him 
that it was to be found in the Mount Horai (Horaizan, PENG LAI SHAN) the 
wily wizard took with him three hundred Chinese couples and some of the 
most important Chinese books, sailing away never to return. These books are 
sometimes credited with being the only ones to have escaped the general 
destruction which was ordered by SHE WANG Ti, but there seems to be an 
anachronism, as the travels of Su SHE (or Su FUH) are said to. date from 219 
B.C. and the general burning of the books took place in 212. This is 
regarded as the story of a Chinese attempt to colonise Japan: Mayers says 



that although the fleet was steered within sight of the magic islands, the 
boats were driven back by contrary winds. 

JOFUKU is sometimes represented on a crane. 

381. JOGA. See MOON. 

382. JOGEN FUJIN J: % ^c A- The Chinese SHANG HUEN FUJEN, 
female Sennin, shown riding upon a Kirin. According to the Tapist books 
JOGEN FUJIN came down from Heaven with Seiobo, in the period of Gempo, 
in the first year, the seventh month, and descended before the palace of the 
Emperor Wu Ti, of the Han dynasty. She rode a unicorn, and wore a blue 
coat. Her hair was partly made up into three plaits and partly loose, reaching 
to her waist. 

383. JOKWA "$ i^. The mythical Chinese Empress, Nu KWA, sister 
and successor of FUH Hi. Her legendary story is variously told. When KOKAI 
(KuNG KUNG), the rebel, aided by the devil of the waters, flooded the earth 
with the help of the two erstwhile rivals, the generals HAKO and EIDO, and 
the assistance of the genius of fire, SHIKUYU (CHUH YUNG), who dwells at the 
North Pole, she defeated him. But the gigantic Kokai, who was twenty-six 
feet high, knocked with his head one of the pillars of Heaven, and brought 
down the "Imperfect Mountain." JOKWA repaired Heaven with stones of 
five colours, white, yellow, black, azure, and red; trimmed the corners of the 
earth with the feet of the sacred tortoise; stopped the flood by means of 
burnt reeds; created the Jade; designed the course of the River of Heaven, 
and created the dragons the yellow one to guard the Sun, the blue one to 
guard the East. 

384. JORAN CHO ^ |H J^, Sennin, found a man dressed in white 
passing through the gate of his house, and reproved him, but the stranger 
there and then transformed himself into a tortoise, entirely white. 

385. JOMYO ffi ^ (Tsu Tsui), was a priest in the Taira army. When 
the floor of the bridge of Kyoto was pulled to pieces by the Minamoto, 
during the revolt of Yorimasa, to prevent the Taira from crossing the Ujigawa, 
the cross beams were left in place. Jomyo sprung then from beam to beam to 



(Shozo Kato collection) 


challenge the Minamoto. A soldier named ICHIRAI HOSHI accepted his 
challenge, and both fought upon the beams for several hours without any 

386. JOSAKEI ^ ^ HP, Sennin (shown with an arrow), lived in Shoku 
in the Tempo period of the To dynasty. He was wont to assume the form 
of a crane, and once when he had flown over a mountain he was shot by 
the Emperor Genso (q.v.), who was hunting in the western gardens. The 
Sage came back carrying the arrow, and narrated the incident to his 
disciples saying that he had been hurt by a stray arrow, and, hanging it 
on the wall, ordered that if the owner called for it the arrow should be 
returned to him. 

387. JUROJIN Sp ^ A.. One of the Seven Gods of Luck, depicted 
as a tall old man in the dress of a scholar, with the attributes of longevity, 
more especially the deer and the crane. He wears a peculiar headdress, 
upon which is often pictured the circle of the sun. He carries a roll, or 
makimono, either in his hand or attached to his staff; he is generally of 
solemn mien, not so often playing with children as Fukurokujiu (q.v.), 
though the latter exchanges attributes with Juro. It is thought that Jurojin 
is only a variant of the ever-smiling divinity with the elongated brain pan, 
Fukurokujiu, but if so the grave and the gay must have parted company 
at an early date. Jurojin does not appear amongst the Seven Gods in 
Ehon Kojidan, (Vol. //) ; his place is filled by Kishijoten, who plays with 


389. JUSHA -$ ^, or SEMUI, or Ruui BOSATSU. One of the sons 
of BENTEN, whose attributes are the three sacred gems. 

390. KACHI KACHI YAMA fr t> fr t> \\\. See under HARE, 
page in. 

391. KAFURI UMIN t$ jg. Flying men. See under FOREIGNERS 
(mythical). They live between Kaito (East sea) and Nangai (north cliff). 



392. KAGEKIYO jp; ffi [^ -fc & Hf] (AKUSHICHIBIOYE), son of Fujiwara 
Tadakiyo and brother of Tadamitsu. He is celebrated for his strength, one 
of his noted feats being that in the Yashima battle, in single combat, he 
tore off the neck-covering (Shikoro) of the armour of Minamoto MIYO NO 
YASHIRO KUNITOSHI. This episode is called the Shikoro biki, and Kagekiyo 
is often shown hanging the shikoro on his spear. He owed his name of 
Akushibioye (miscreant Shibioye) to his murder of his uncle, the priest 
Dainichibo, in whose temple he had sought refuge, but whom he believed to 
be a creature of Yoritomo. His father and his brother were killed by order 
of the latter, and the popular legend has it that his attempt to murder 
Yoritomo in the Daibutsu temple of Nara (Todaiji) had been thwarted by 
Hatakeyama Shigetada. Afterwards, he blinded himself rather than see the 
triumph of his enemy ; since then he has been the patron of the blind. 

See also AKOYA. He is often depicted escaping from a wooden prison, 
though it is said that he was confined in a cavern at Nara and died of 

In 1689 Kagekiyo's adventures were partly embodied in a play, the 
Kagekiyo Sanddi Osaka Jum-ei, and there is another play called Mekura 
(Blind) Kagekiyo. 

393. KAGESUYE jjf; 2p. KAJIWARA GENDA KAGESUYE was a follower 
of YOSHITSUNE (q.v.), whom he accompanied, in 1184, in his expedition to 
quell the revolt of Kiso YOSHINAKA against YORITOMO. Guessing that his 
enemy would be beyond the Uji River, then in flood, Yoshitsune directed 
his men to a ford pointed out by SASAKI NO SHIRO TAKATSUNA, who knew 
that part of the country. He gave to Kagesuye his own horse, SURUSUMI, 
born of a prayer to Kwannon, and Kagesuye was the first to plunge in the 
water, but Sasaki Takatsuna, who had one of Yoritomo's horses, IKEZUKI, 
plunging after Kagesuye, called to him to tighten the girdle of Suruzumi, 
which was getting loose, and as the soldier stopped Takatsuna got first on 
the opposite bank. This is a favourite scene for artistic treatment, and is 
easily recognizable. The mon (crest) of Kagesuye is the Takanoha formed 
of the pennate end of two arrows side by side (two hawk's feathers) ; that 


of Takatsuna is called the Yotsume, and consists of two groups of four 
hollow squares, as per illustration. 

The incident is often described under the name of the battle of LJji 

KaGESUYE, at the battle of the forest of Ikuta, placed in his quiver a 
large branch of plum tree covered with blossoms, which made him an easy 
mark for the arrows of the Taira. Twice he dashed into the enemy's forces, 
finally losing his helmet and narrowly missing death. He was pulled out of 
the fray by his father, HEIZO KAGETOKI. His helmet, with the plum branch, 
form a terse representation of this episode. 

394. KAGUHANA AND MIRUME. The two witnesses. See HELL. 

395. KAI AWASE. The shell Game. See GAMES. 

396. KAIRISHI. Puppet showman, often shown with the Handa no 
Inari board, with movable top. 

397. KAI RYU O $| f| 3E- Another name for RIUGIN. 

398. KAISHO ^ J|t, of KAIKEI. Chinese sage who lived on Mount 
Gaichiku and always held in hand a branch of white peach. He kept ever 
young in appearance. 

399. KAJIWARA KAGETOKI Iffe J& jjt $f. Bosom friend and adviser 
of YORITOMO (q.v.), and principal enemy of YOSHITSUNE. He is generally 
represented with Yoritomo, or poking his bow into the hollow of an old 
tree, from which escape two doves, a manoeuvre by which he saved Yoritomo 
from his pursuers when he had to llee from Ishi Bashi Yama, in 1181, 
and, hard pressed, hid himself in the decaying trunk of a tree. His full 
name was Kajiwara Heizo Taira no Kagetoki. He was the father of 

400. KAKO fnj -^f. Sage (shown with a spade, and walking between 
a river and a rice field) who lived in the time of the Emperor GYO (YAO), in 
the fastness of Mount Sogo with three hundred of his relatives. In the 
time of the Emperor U (Yu) of the Ka (HSIA) dynasty, the five divine 


Emperors gave him an elixir in a pot, and told him to put a drop of it in 
his wine. This he did, and the three hundred folks drunk of it without 
draining the whole. Whatever remained he poured on the roof of his house, 
which rose to the sky with all its occupiers. The Ressen dzu san shows him 
squatting and laughing. 

401. KAKU BAKU. Chinese philosopher, depicted with a demon 
following him as an attendant ; identical with Hakuhaku. 

402. KAKUDAITSU f$ ^ }, or TENNENSHI. The Taoist rishi, Ho TANG| 
TUNG, depicted as an old man seated on a rock amongst a host of children, 
who have piled a pyramid of stones on his head, because, according to legend, 
being once sitting in meditation near a bridge, he ordered some boys to 
pile tiles upon his head in the shape of a tower to amuse theniselves, and 
when the tower was finished he ordered them never to touch it or damage it. 
He remained motionless for six years, even when the river overflowed. 

403. KAKKEI f$ Jf| (with an abacus) was a peculiar man who travelled 
about with a cane and an abacus in his pocket. When he stopped in a 
house he begged for fuel for the night, by the flame of which he read books. 
Placing the abacus on his knees, he divined what was going on wherever he 

404. KAKKIO i||5 M> r KWAKKIO. The Chinese paragon of filial 
virtue, KWOH K'u, usually represented in a garden with his wife, who carries 
their son in her arms. Kakkio digs a grave for the baby, as, being too poor 
to sustain his old mother and his own family, he would have buried his son 
to have more for his mother. But the all-seeing Deities willed it otherwise, 
and rewarded his piety : he found in the soil a pot full of gold, upon which 
was inscribed, "Heaven's gift to Kwakkio; let no one take it from him." 
Sometimes Kwannon is associated with this story. 

405. KAKURE ZATO g ft 4* g|. The blind old man entrusted with 
the conveyance of bad people to Hades. 

406. KAKWOKO 3[ ^ Q. Old man, shown with three others, in 


Chinese guise, and with a peculiar headgear, playing Go on Mount Shang, 
where they had retreated under She Wang Ti. As the calculating regent, 
KAU Tsui, intended to banish the Crown Prince of China in the third 
century, under the Empress LEU, of the Han dynasty, these four sages were 
appointed on the recommendation of CHORYO to defeat his ends. They were: 
KA-KWO-KO, LOK-LI-SEN-SAI, KI-LI-KI, and TOYEN-KO. See illustrations in 
Kokkiva, Vol. XII., and Tajima's Relics. 


a follower of YOSHIIYE in the war of Dewa. He was but sixteen years old 
at the battle of Oshu, in 1060, when he was wounded by an arrow in the 
left eye, but without even drawing the weapon from his eye, he shot dead 

408. KAMA ITACHI H ||. The weasel with the sickle, who flies 
about and cuts, scratches or tears people's skin without reason. Upon this 
mythical creature is usually fastened the blame for any scratch or cut, the 
cause or origin of which cannot be stated or needs to be kept secret. The 
usual formula in such a case is: Kama itachi ni kirare ta "cut by the weasel 
with the sickle." This is often used when sandal straps break (Griffis). 

409. KAMATARI $& & (NAKATOMI NO 4 1 l J53L). also called TAISHO- 
KUKWAN ^ J|f| xl, is the founder of the FUJIWARA clan. He became 
minister of the Emperor KOTOKU after exposing the disloyal ways of the 
ministers Sogo no Iruka and Sogo no Emishi. At the death of Kotoku he 
passed into the service of the Empress Seimei. His title, Fujiwara, was 
granted him and his family by the Emperor Tenchi. He died, fifty-five years 
old, in 669, leaving several sons. 

Several episodes in Karnatari's life have been seized upon by dramatists. 
In a popular play he is made to attempt the murder of the minister, Soga 
no Iruka, in 644, when he was only a retainer of Naganoe.* In this play 
his name is given as Motome. It is stated that TACHIBANA HIME, the 
daughter of Iruka, was his mistress, and she led him through the devious 

* Iruka was murdered two years later. 


passages of her father's palace by means of a thread. But Motome had 
reckoned without his affianced bride, Omiwa, who, having her own suspicions, 
had followed him by means of another thread, which she had deftly attached 
to his kimono. She thus thwarted his efforts at the cost of her own life, 
as she was caught by the retainers of Iruka, but, fortunately for Motome, 
the thread which she held snapped in the scuffle, and she proved loyal 
enough to keep his secret. 

But the legend with which Kamatari's name is most often associated is 
that of the MUGE HOJIU NO TAMA, illustrations of which are of frequent 
occurrence in art. It is said that the daughter of Kamatari had become 
the wife of the Chinese Emperor, Tai Tsung (627-650 A.D.), and that, after 
living several years in China, she desired to cause a temple to be constructed 
in Japan. To achieve this purpose she collected a number of very 
valuable objects, amongst which was a jewel the fame of which spread over 
the three Empires of India, China and Japan. She entrusted the treasures to 
a retainer, named Manko, to be carried to her native land, but the Dragon 
King of the Sea, Riujin, who had decided to get possession of the precious 
jewel, sent a host of devils to encounter Manko's ship near Chigura ga Oki. 
Manko defeated them, and proceeded as far as Shikoku, where he found a 
huge tree trunk floating on the sea, upon which he saw a beautiful woman 
standing, who suddenly disappeared. He stopped his boat and caused the 
tree to be hauled on board, when the woman was found to be hidden inside 
the trunk. Manko, after a while, felt passionately drawn towards the 
stranger, and, failing to see that she was an emissary of Riujin, obtained 
her favours by consenting to show her the treasures with which he had been 
entrusted. Soon after the siren disappeared from the ship, and the gem 
was missed. It had been carried away by Manko's charmer. 

The bereaved mariner managed to reach Japan, and after apprising 
Kamatari of his misfortune, committed suicide. Kamatari, distracted by the 
loss of the jewel, shaved his head and retired in the fastness of the Fukuzan 
(Fukusaki), where he led a hermit's life. 

He met on the shore a beautiful fisher-girl, who ministered to his wants, 
and whom he finally married. She noticed that her husband was of a 


higher station than herself, but refrained from any enquiry until, after 
several years of bliss, she bore him a son, when Kamatari informed her of 
his past history. She exhorted him to return to his previous life, and, 
knowing herself unworthy to be the wife of such a high lord (as the custom 
of the period forbade a noble to marry so far below his rank), she decided 
to commit suicide, despite all entreaties. 

She wished, however, before dying, to attempt to wrest from Riujin 
the precious gem and return it to Kamatari. To this end, she swam away 
from the land for many thousands of ri, so fast that Kamatari and his 
followers could not head her in a boat. She carried with her a dagger, 
and finally reached the gates of Riujin's palace, the guardians of which 
were taken unawares and slain.* 

Several times she attacked the Dragon King, and at length she appeared 
floating to the surface near Kamatari's boat. She was picked up dying 
from the poisonous wounds made by the dragon's claws, and Kamatari 
noticed a sharp cut in her breast, evidently self-inflicted, from which issued 
a dazzling light. In it was concealed the precious gem which the courageous 
woman had succeeded in wresting from the dragon. 

It was put as an attribute in the hand of the statue of Buddha in the 
Kifukuji temple. 

The episode is sometimes depicted with Kamatari standing in a boat 
on a stormy sea, beholding the jewel which has just been rescued ; but 
more often with the woman holding the jewel and fighting the dragon. 

410. KAMI jji$. Generic name of the numberless legions of Shinto 
deities, for extensive lists of which the Kojiki and Nihongi should be con- 
sulted.! The soul of every man becomes Kami after death. 

KAMI SAMA shoots once a year an arrow into the thatch of a house to 
give notice that he wishes to eat a girl, failing which he will destroy the 
crops and cattle. 

e In Anderson's version, the woman fails at the first attempt, and Kamatari resorts to the use of 
musicians in a boat to draw from Riujin's palace its faithful attendants. The diver then attacks the dragon 
whilst his retainers are away. In most cases, however, the boat filled with musicians is not represented. 

t See also Aston's Shinto and Hearn's works. 


Several of the Kami are protective deities of the soil : 

UGA NO MITAMA NO MIKOTO is the spirit of food. 

SUKUNA IIIKONA NO KAMI, the scarecrow god. 

SUIJIN SAMA is the god of the wells. 

KOJIX, of the kitchen fire, assisted by the deities of the cauldron, O 
KITSU HIKO (Kudo no Kami), and of the saucepan, O Krrsu HIME (Kobe no 
Kami), and the god of the rice pots, O KAMA SAMA; while the ponds chief 
deity is IKE NO NUSHI NO KAMI, the god of trees, KUKUNOCHI NO KAMI. The 
goddess of grasses is KAYANU HIME NO KAMI; another god of trees is AMANOKO. 
The moon has her deity, JOKWA; the divinity of fever is KARU, depicted 
astride a fish with a yellow toad on her head. 

Some of the Kami are black; they have ghostly faces with pointed 
mouths. They come from the starving circle of Hell, and are the gods 
of hunger, of penuriousness, of poverty (Bimbogami), of hindrances and 
obstacles, of small pox (Hoso no Kami), of colds (Kaze no Kami), of 
pestilence (Yakubiogami). 

Lightning was forged by ISHI NO KORE, TAJIKARA is the god of the 
dragons, and SARASVATI is the goddess of language, borrowed from the 
Indian pantheon. Each god has three spirits: the rough Aramitama, the 
gentle Nigi mitama, and the bestowing Saki mitama. See Hearn's works 
and Satow's Revival of Pure Shinto. 

Kami ovoshi is a sort of ecstatic trance, perhaps of an auto-hypnotic 
character, which is considered to be a union with the divinity. 

411. KAMI GASHI HIME jji$ Jlf ?f| JJ was a woman of the time of 
KEIKO Tenno who killed a huge spider in Sumo. It is generally agreed 
that she killed many, but that these spiders, seven feet long, were robbers 
in ordinary human shape, whose natures had been altered to suit the general 
love of legend. 



413. KANAYE KABURI $& fr & ty . See SUKUMAMO. 




KAN NO KOSO (r./..) 

KANF-KO (./.) 

KAKUDA1TSU (ir.l..K.) 

KANSHIN (7K/..S.) 


414. KANEKO ^ -f 1 (KUGUTSUNE). A strong woman, often depicted 
in one or other of the following incidents : Once she stopped a runaway 
horse by treading on the tether which he dragged on the road (see Hokusai's 
Mangwa and Ehon Hokan). 

On another occasion a man attempted to strike her as she was carrying 
a basin of milk on her head, but she held him captive by grasping his 
arm under her own without spilling a drop of the liquid, despite her 
assaulter's wrigglings. 

415. KANJIA ^ ^. One of the comic personages in the Suye-hiro- 
gari (Kiogen) interlude in A T o dancing. Kanjia is the new servant from the 
country, raw and frolicsome, whose dialect his master does not understand ; 
nor does Kanjia understand the niceties of the latter's polished speech. 
When asked for one thing he brings another, dancing about with the wrong 
implement until he induces his master to join him in a comic pas de deux. 

416. KANKO. Drum of the palace. See COCK. 

417. KAN NO BUTI g| ^ ^. Wu Ti (HAN), fourth Emperor of the 
Han dynasty, and one of the most famous of the Chinese rulers. He died 
in 87 B.C. after a reign of fifty-four years. His armies were engaged in 
victorious wars in the surrounding provinces, in central Asia, in Yunnan, 
whilst Wu Ti indulged in superstitious celebrations and in extensive travels to 
the shrines of numberless mountain deities. At first a diligent adept of the 
Confucian doctrines, he leant later towards Buddhism and the black arts of 
the Taoist sect. Finding it impossible to get any priests for his Buddhist 
temples, he liberated a number of felons on the condition that they should 
embrace the priesthood. He is said to have had a tower over a hundred 
feet in height erected in the palace gardens to support a bronze figure, in 
the hands of which was a precious vase, intended to receive the dew from 
the stars, which he drank in the belief that it would keep him ever young. 

Wu Ti's sensual passions were beyond control. He was told once by 
his eunuch and musician, Ri in Nen ^ $ ^, that in the north of China 
was a beautiful woman, but one glance of her eyes was enough to destroy 


a castle, and if she looked twice she could ruin a kingdom. Although 
greatly elated by the description of the lady, Kan no Buti's enthusiasm was 
chilled by the unpleasant prospect of losing his kingdom if he secured her 
favours, and he had to be content with a substitute introduced by Eiyokoshu, 
the sister of Ri in Nen, who, although she was not capable to wreck cities 
and kingdoms, yet became the favourite of the monarch, who called her 
RIFUJIN ^ ^ A.- She was, however, but mortal, and died young; the 
Emperor could not master his grief at her loss, and he had her portrait 
placed in one of his palaces. One day, however, the wizard, Ri SHO Ko 
??S ^b ;|j (or Li SHAO KUN), who was instructing the monarch in the magic 
arts, placed in front of a screen some candles and an incense burner, in 
which he threw some magic incense (Hangonkd). As the smoke arose it 
assumed the form of a woman, and slowly the radiant figure of the favourite 
appeared smiling to Wu Ti. This performance was afterwards often repeated 
by the wizard (Ehon Kojidan, VII.}. Rifugin's brother fell into disgrace 
after her death and was beheaded; another lady, CHAD (Kow Yin Fu Jin), 
became the Emperor's favourite, and after causing by treachery the execution 
of the heir-apparent, she herself was unmasked and condemned to death. 

Wu Ti was then deeply engaged in astrological and magic studies, 
watching the stars in his high tower, where he died after a complete fast 
of seven days' duration. It is said that tears were seen flowing from the 
eyes of the bronze figure when later, at the fall of the Han dynasty, the 
tower was thrown down by the usurper. 

Kan no Buti's journeys to the palace of Si Wang Mu (SEIOBO, q.v.) and 
her visit in return, coupled with the story of TOBOSAKU (q.v.), are well- 
known legendary traditions, often illustrated, and derived from the Taoist 
inclinations of the Emperor. 

418. KAN NO KOSO ^ igj |R, or KAO Tsu; also called Liu PANG. 
Founder of the HAN dynasty of China, though from very low birth. He 
was supported by CH'EN PING (Chimpei), CHANG LIANG (Chorio), FANKWAI 
(Hankwai), and HAN SIN (Kanshin), and after seven years of small wars he 
rose from his self-assumed title of Duke of Pei to the Imperial throne, 



which at his death passed to the ill-famed Empress, Lii, his consort. See 

After some years of wise government he gave way to licence, and is 
credited with having spent long periods of time in his palace amongst his 
women and eunuchs, much to the disgust of Hankwai (q.v.), who upbraided 
him and was condemned to death. 

KAN NO Koso is sometimes depicted killing a dragon. 

419. KANSHIN ^ j|j. The celebrated Chinese, HAN SIN. The most 
popular representation of Kanshin shows him crawling between the legs 
of a coolie. In netsnke the carver's fancy sometimes leads him to increase 
the number to two coolies, or warriors, or to show five or more boys 
standing in single file "playing at Kanshin," dressed like Chinese, and one 
of them crawling between the legs of the others. KANSHIN was the son 
of a prince of Han, and after being dispossessed by SHE WANG Ti (Shin 
no Shiko), of Tsin, was reduced to fishing in the moat of his father's castle, 
until some poor woman took pity upon him. A braggart once challenged 
him to creep between his legs, in a public place, and Kanshin consented to 
this humiliating performance rather than create a disturbance or fight a 
man of low birth ; but later, when he became a general and Prince of Tsi, 
he caused the man to be found and attached him to his person. He also 
caused the old woman who had supported him in his youth to be presented 
with a large sum of money. He was twice accused of treason by Kan 
no Koso, and later by the Empress Lii, who, forgetting the services he had 
rendered to her late consort, had him beheaded. The Chinese classify 
Kanshin amongst the three Heroes of Han, with Ch'eng Ping and Chang 
Liang. It is sometimes said that the old woman was a dyer by trade, 
and that it was she who compelled Kanshin to pass between her legs 
before he could leave her service to become a soldier. 

420. KANSHOSHI $f $H -f . The Chinese immortal, HAN SIANG TSZE, 
usually shown playing the flute or floating on a hollow tree trunk. He 
was a pupil of RIOTOSHIN (Lu YEN, or LU-TUNG-PING), and having been 
carried to the top of the magic peach tree growing near the palace of 


Seiobo, he dropped from it through the breaking of a bough, entering 
immortality as he fell. He is reported as having during his life magically 
filled with wine an empty tub, and in the same way caused flowers to 
grow out of an empty pot, with golden poems written on their leaves. 

421. KANSHUSAI If 5| ^ was the son of MICHIZANE. After his 
father's downfall in 890, he was sent to one of his retainers, Genzo 
Takebe, who, with his wife Tonami, kept a school near Kyoto. The chief 
of the Fujiwara clan, Shihei, heard of it, and sent two of his men, Gemba 
and Matsue, to kill the boy. Matsue alone knew Kanshusai, and he was 
therefore relied upon to identify the head which Genzo had been commanded 
to give him. Genzo was in a sore plight, but as it happened that a new 
boy had just been brought in whose features were almost identical with those 
of Kanshusai, he determined to kill this boy and even, if need be, the boy's 
mother to save his late master's son. After he had handed the head to 
the retainers of Shihei, the boy's mother came in with a box, and with it 
she managed to parry the blow with which Genzo tried to fell her. A 
shroud falling from the open box, Genzo saw that there was something 
amiss, and, according to the legend, his fears were allayed by the return 
of Matsue, who, having been one of Michizane's retainers, had sent his 
own son to the school, trusting to Genzo's loyalty to kill him and thus 
save Kanshusai. This forms the subject of a play called Sugawara denjiu 
tenarj kagami, which was partly translated in English some fifteen years 

422. KANZAN ^ ll|. The Taoist rishi HANZAN, shown in company 
with JITTOKU (q.v.), to whom he apparently expounds the contents of a 
scroll. Both lived in the kitchen of the monastery of Kuo Ching Ssu like 
madmen, and speaking a language unknown to everyone else, resenting 
visitors, to whose greetings they replied with insults, and making friends 
only with Bukan Zenshi and his tiger. The four, shown together in a 
cavern, form the group known as the Four Sleepers (q.v.). 

423. KAO TSU. See KAN NO Koso. 

1 60 



Walter I.. Rehreui Collection 



424. KAPPA vfij" jjf', or KAWAKO. Child of the river: mythical 
amphibious goblin living in the rivers of the Island of Kiushiu. It has 
the body of a tortoise, the limbs of a frog, and the head of a monkey, with 
a hollow at the top of the skull, in which is contained a fluid which gives 
the animal its strength. This goblin attacks and devours human beings, 
but there is an easy way to thwart its attack: be very polite and bow 
to him; the creature is very civil though ferocious, and will bow to you 
in return as deeply and as often; in so doing it spills its life fluid and 
loses its strength. 

The Todo Kimmo Dzite gives it the name KAWATARO (compare the 
Osaka form, Gataro), and describes it under the name Snik~> (water tiger): 
"It is like a child of three or four years, with scales all over its back. It 
lies on the sand, looking like a tiger; it has long claws which it hides in 
the water, and it will bite little children if they touch it." 

In the river of Kawachi Mura a Kappa was caught by the belly-band 
of a horse, and after being rendered harmless, as above described, was made 
to sign a bond not to attack thereafter any man, woman, child or beast. 
As netsiike, sometimes the whole creature, but more often its head, with 
lanky straight hair, are met with; some carvers even disdain the traditional 
features, and simply depict a child with gnarled limbs and a saucer-shaped 
hollow on the top of its head amongst rough hanging hair. It is often 
shown with a cucumber under the name Kappa ni Kittri. 

See also the story of ROKI'SUKE. 

425. KARASHISHI J|f $jp -fv ;: or simply Siiisin. Buddhist stone lions, 
of Chinese origin, freely scattered about the gardens or placed at the gates 
of temples, like the Koma Inn. They are characterised by their fierce 
expression, large eyes and curly mane, their bushy tail and curly locks of 
hair on the legs. They show traces of the influence upon their first designer 
of the curly dogs which are the pride of the Chinese Imperial family. 
Karashishis are an ever-recurring subject in art treatment, with the regal 
peonies, or with the sacred jewel, which often takes the shape of an 

* Literally Chinese (Kara) Shishi. 



intricately pierced ball, perhaps because emblematic of the Buddha ; some- 
times with a small ball in the mouth, or leaping a waterfall, or several shishi 
playing or fighting, are but a few of the presentments of this Sinico-Korean 
import. They are usually associated with rocks, waterfalls and peonies. 
On such a lion rides Monju Bosatsu, whilst the same creature crouches at 
the feet of the "Sennin with the Shishi." Legend has it that the shishis 
tested the vitality of their progeny by throwing the young ones from the 
top of a cliff (shishi no saka otoshi). Should the animal survive it was 
certain to live long. This is often illustrated. 

Shishi masks are worn in the dance named Kappore, Dai Kagura lion 
dance, and also by new year dancers, under the name of Shishi mai. Such 
performers are often met carved as uetsuke, with the lower jaw of the 
mask movable, disclosing the laughing face of a boy, finished with an 
exquisite perfection of detail. There are shishis with one or even two 
horns, partaking of the appearance of the Kirin (q.v.), or carrying the 
Tama on the head. 

426. KARIYOBIXGA $to %g $ff Ufl. See GARIO. 

427. KARU. The goddess of fevers, with a yellow toad on her 
shoulder and mounted astride a fish. 

428. KARUKAYA DOSHIX )flj ^ }j| g. It was popularly believed in 
olden times that jealous women appeared with hair like snakes, and Ippen 
Shonin, as seen above, sometimes suffered from such delusions. Another well- 
known personage, Kato Sayemon Shigeuji, Daimio in Kyushu (Tsukushi), 
who was also a much-married man, fled from his house one day because 
the hair of his wife and mistresses took the shape of writhing serpents. 
He took refuge in the mountains, where he lived an hermit's life under the 
new name Karukaya Doshin. 

There is a story relating how he met wandering in Koyasan a young 
man named Ishidomaru ; struck with the adolescent's face, he asked him 
various questions, and found that Ishido was looking for his father. 
Karukaya then became aware of the fact that the boy was his own son, 



but worldly matters were for ever forgotten by the hermit, and telling the 
boy to return home he passed on his way. 

429. KARU NO DAIJIN $g ^ g. The popular legend has it that 
he was sent as ambassador to the Emperor of China, who caused him to 
be tortured, to be made a mute, to be painted and exposed naked in 
the Imperial gardens, carrying a candle on his head. He was then called 
the Demon Candlestick. In 656 his son, HITSU NO SAISHO HARUHIRA, came 
from Kawachi on an embassy. As he passed through the Imperial gardens 
his father recognised him, bit his finger, and with his blood wrote a poem 
on his skin, thus causing his son to recognise him. Hitsu then petitioned 
the Emperor to allow his father to return to Japan, offering to take his 
place if needed, and the Emperor granted him his request (compare Abe no 

The foundation of this legend appears to be the story of FUJIWARA 
HARUHIRA, who, in 656 (Saimyo, 2), brought back his sick father to Japan. 
The old man died, on his way home, in the island of Iwo in Satsuma, and 
was buried in another island called KIKAIGASHIMA. 

Haruhira is one of the twenty-four Japanese paragons of filial virtue 
(Shaho Bukuro). 

430. KASENKO [ft] fll] 1$. The female rishi, Ho SIEX Ku, shown as a 
young woman clothed in mugwort, holding a lotus stem and flower and 
talking to a phoenix, or is depicted carrying in a basket loquat fruits, 
which she gathered for her sick mother. 

She was a woman of the time of Wu, of the To dynasty, who, having 
been promised immortality in a dream, fed on mother-of-pearl, and there- 
after moved as swiftly as a bird. She may be confused with KOSENKO, 
%$z 1Hj I& w h learnt Taoism in the mountains of Ko, and after she had been 
there eighty years she had no friends left. One day a phoenix with blue 
wings came to her from the fairy NANGAKU JIFUJIN, and said that he had 
come to fetch her to be married to him at the altar of the fairy near by 
her residence. In the period of Keiryu, whilst journeying to the Court of 



the Empress, Wu How, she ascended to Heaven in broad daylight, and 
occasionally came back, hovering in the clouds above her native place. 

431. KASENYO H fti] j|j. The wizard Ho SIEN WENG, who could 
take a mouthful of rice and change it into live bees, which, when called 
back, entered again his mouth and became rice grains again. Compare 
Hokusai's Mangwa, Vol. X., page 6. 


433. KASHO $N Iff. One of the disciples of Buddha (KASYAPPA), 
whose body became as brilliant as burnished gold after he had swallowed 
both the sun and the moon. 

434. KASUGA DAIMIOJIN ^ B j< ^ ft- Posthumous title of the 
first of the FUJIWARA clan, Nakatomi no Muraji, or Ama no Kayane, with 
temple in Nara. 

shown born on the waters by a sword. He went to sea with the lord of 
Go, but their ships were wrecked in a storm, and no one knew what had 
happened to him, but he was seen the following day walking on the 
waves like a drunken man. 

436. KATSUYU H &. The Rishi HOII Yiu, depicted as a wild- 
looking man riding on a goat. 

KATSUYU lived in the time of SEI, of Shyu, and sold carved images of 
sheep. One day, when he was coming back riding on a sheep from a 
voyage to Shokuchu, some people followed him, and those who went with 
him to the top of the Mount Tai never came back because he taught them 

437. KAWAI MATAGORO M 'P* X 3l. |H- Kawai's father was a 
friend of Watanabe Kinemon, to whom he had promised that, after his 
death, his own precious katana would be given him by his son. Kawai 
did not fulfil his father's wish until Watanabe's death, when his son, 
YUKIE, claimed the sword. Kawai then gave it, but with some reluctance, 



KATO'S BANNER (.l/.t.) 


KAl'I'A (M.i;.) 


which incensed Yukie, whose son, KAZUMA, advised him to return it, saying 
that a blade given in such a way was dull, and not creditable to the giver. 
Yukie, following this advice, returned the sword, with which Kawai killed 
him on the spot. But Kazuma avenged his father after a few years. This 
is the theme of the play Igagoye dochn sugoroku. 

438. KAWAKO. See KAPPA. 

439. KAWAZU NO SABURO SUKEYASU ypj ^ H M l& ^- Cele- 
brated wrestler, usually shown lifted by his loin cloth by his opponent 
and neighbour, MATAXOGORO Kuxi HISA (Kawazu throw). 

440. KAZE NO KAMI. Divinity of Matsue; also called Kamiya san 
no I nar i san. He is the god of coughs and "bad colds" (Hearn). See 


441. KEHAYA ^ Hpjt jjg| }|| (TALMA xo), who took his name from 
Kern (kick) and Haya (fast), ran all over the country giving himself out 
as the strongest man in Japan, challenging others to light, and disposing 
of them by smart kicks. The Emperor Suixix TKXXO heard of the trouble, 
on the seventh day of the seventh month of the seventh year of his 
reign (23 B.C.), when Kehaya was in Taima sending challenges to all and 
sundry; therefore, on the advice of Nagaochi, he sent to Idzumo for the 
strong NOMI xo SUKUXE, who kicked Kehaya so smartly across the ribs 
and loins that the champion dropped dead to the ground. Another version 
says that he caught Kehaya by the belt and threw him so hard upon the 
ground as to make his ghost depart from him on the spot, and the place 
was called Koshi ore da, "the village of the broken loins." 

442. KEN EN SHYU ijtf |J| JH, throwing small coins to poor people 
whilst on his travels. Kenenshyu was an old sage who did not fail in 
complexion, and had a long beard and hair trailing to the ground ; he 
was said to have lived several centuries. He was summoned to the court of 
the Emperor SEXSO, of the To dynasty, and when he returned to the 
mountains he took coins from his cloth bag and gave them to people. He 



distributed many thousands before reaching Koryo, but his supply was 
inexhaustible. (See 299). 

443. KENGIU SfB *%, or KINGEN. The herdsman who was chosen by 
the sun to wed his daughter SHOKUJO. On the wedding day the bride 
gave herself up to so much frivolous enjoyment that her father repented 
and exiled Kengiu to the other side of the milky way, while Shokujo 
became the weaving Princess (Chih Nu). They may only meet once a 
year, on the 7th day of the seventh month, when the milky way is spanned, 
according to the Chinese HWAI NAN TSZE, by a bridge of magpies (according 
to some by maple leaves, called Ushaku Koyo no Hashi). The Chinese 
name of the herdsman is K'IEX Niu, and there are several different versions 
of this legend, two of which are given in Things Japanese. According to 
one, the two lovers were wedded when respectively fifteen and twelve years 
of age, and they lived to 103 and 99 years of age, after which their spirits 
reached the heavenly river; but the Supreme Deity bathed daily therein, 
and only on the seventh day of the seventh month were these human 
spirits allowed to pollute its waters, while the supreme divinity went to 
listen to Buddhist chants. Another version has it that the spinner was 
entrusted with the making of garments for the son of the Emperor of 
Heaven, and pined for a lover, one may suppose, for the heavenly Emperor 
gave her as husband the herdsman who lived on the other side of the 
river. She then paid scant attention to the proper performance of her 
duties, and the Deity, getting angry, forbade her husband to cross more 
than once a year. 

These yearly meetings are celebrated in Japan with due accompaniment 
of poems attached to trees, in a festival called the TANABATA (q.v.). The 
story is frequently illustrated, either by both personages having their usual 
attributes and being separated by the milky way, perhaps spanned as 
indicated above, or by the mere cryptic presentment of three stars and 
weaving implements suggesting the whole story. 

One emblematic representation of the Tanabata festival was a familiar 
theme of tsuba decoration used by the Umetada: upon an inkstone lies 

1 66 


a leaf, and perhaps a brush ; on the reverse a poem and sometimes a 
shuttle are also wrought in the metal. This composition alludes to an 
old Chinese ceremonial which was copied and enlarged upon by the 
Japanese Court : on the seventh day of the seventh month, at the hour of 
the tiger (4 a.m.), a court lady, sheltered under an umbrella, took to the 
palace the compulsory presents of the courtiers seven inkstones, an equal 
number of Kuzu leaves (see the story of Kuzunoha : the plant is the 
Puevaria Thunbevgiana) and of paper slips, besides some vermicelli : with 
each stone were presented two brushes and a bunch of Yam leaves 
(Dioscorea balaias). 

The inkstones, carefully washed, were placed on Kuzu leaves, and the 
bunches of Yam leaves placed on them to gather the morning dew, which 
was poetically called the drops from the heavenly river. Near the stones 
were placed upon trays suitable offerings, under a rope taut between two 
stems of bamboo, and to which were attached coloured slips of paper, 
generally of the five mystic colours attributed to the Tanabata stars; 
and as the day came everybody wrote poems with the ink freshly prepared 
upon the new stones with the drops of the Ama no gawa. 

To the Tanabata Festival and the poems recorded in the Alanyoshiu 
which it inspired in olden times, the late Professor Lafcadio Hearn has 
devoted a charming essay, under the title The Romance of the Milky 
Way (Constable, 1905). Therein the reader will find the various aspects 
of the legend, and a description of the Izumo custom called Nemu nagashi, 
followed by young people, to throw into a stream leaves of the mimosa 
(nemion] and of the bean (mame), the latter expected to remain as emblem 
of vigour, the others to drift away with the current, as should all laziness. 

See also the story of CHANG KIEX. KENGIU is also called HIKOBOSHI. 

444. KEN-RO-JI-JIN. One of the Earth Gods, usually depicted with 
a vessel in one hand and a spear in the other. 

445. KENSHI '/^ ^. Taoist Sennin shown hooking a fish whilst 
angling from a boat. 



He lived three hundred years cultivating his spirit; he wrote forty- 
eight volumes of the book Tenchi jinkyo (the philosophy of Heaven, Earth 
and Man, constituting the three powers of Nature) while living in Sai. 
He took to angling, and one day caught a carp with a charm in her belly. 

There is also easy confusion with Taikobo, who fished with a straight 
pin and no bait from the shore. 

KENSU was a priest of Keichofu, whose other name, Kensu Osho, the 
prawn priest, was descriptive of his tastes: legend has it that his staple 
and daily diet consisted of prawns only. He is sometimes identified with 
KENSIII, but holds a prawn on his shoulder, his name is written j!|J| -p. 

446. KESA Q Jg was the wife of Watanabe Watura, who, rather 
than wrong her husband and cause his death, laid her own life under the 
sword of his would-be murderer, ENDO MUSHADOKORO MORITO (q.v.). 

Her proper name was AZUMA ; her nickname, Kesa, means priest robe, 
and was given her after the name of her mother, KOROMO GAWA. Her 
story forms the subject of a drama, and of Sir Edwin Arnold's romance, 

447. KEZORI KUYEMON ^ $lj jl ffi ffi. Great pirate who lived 
at Akata, in Tsukuchi (Chikuzen). He spent an adventurous life in China 
and Cochin-China, whence he brought home considerable riches. He is 
depicted in prints with a dress of Chinese brocade, and he is the hero of 
a play, the strange music of which is said to symbolise the various episodes 
of his daring career. 

448. KIBIDAIJIN ijj Df ^C [5. Posthumous title of SHIMOMICHI NO 
MABI, credited with the invention of the Kata-kana syllabary. He went to 
China to seek the secrets of the Chinese calendar, and came back to Japan 
in 754 without having achieved his purpose, but with the art of embroidery, 
the game of Go, the musical instrument called Biwa, and his syllabary. 
Whilst in China he was submitted to numerous trials, such as piecing 
together the jumbled letters of a classical inscription purposely mixed up 
to puzzle him. He was then assisted by a friendly and learned spider, 

1 68 



KIKUJ1DO (.!/.<;.) 



KARASH1SHI (.l/.i'.J 

KIO\U (j.) 


which went from character to character in the proper sequence of the 
inscription. A more trying ordeal was yet in store for him, the Emperor 
inviting him to play a game of Go, of the rules of which he was ignorant, 
the stakes being the secrets of the calendar against his own head. His 
partner, GENTO, one of the ministers, was helped by a clever wife, but 
legend (though it commits an anachronism), makes the ghost of Abe no 
Nakamaro stand by Kibidaijin's side and guide his hand till the game 
ended with one piece on KIBI'S side. His partner's wife swallowed this 
piece, making the game appear a draw, but on counting the stones it was 
found that one was missing, and witli the aid of the magic mirror (Ts'in 
King) it was shown in the woman's body.* The Emperor ordered her 
execution, but on KIBI'S entreaties he consented to let her live. However, 
a plot was being hatched to kill Kibidaijin, and he would have been 
murdered but for this woman, who showed her gratitude by warning him 
and helping him to escape. He became minister of the Empress SHOTOKU 
(KOKEN), and died in 775, at the age of 83. 
He is also called KIBI NO MABI. 

449. KICHIBEI ^ & ftf. There was once a rich but miserly 
merchant of Tokyo, named Kizosaburo, who to save money used to go and 
sit outside the shop of his neighbour, the eel-broiler, Kichibei, eating his 
rice to the smell of the cooking fish. But the latter, finding out Kizaburo's 
game, one day tendered him a bill for the smell of his eels, which the miser 
took with many thanks, to discharge the day after by jingling near his 
neighbour's ears (but presumably at a safe distance from his hands) a bag 
full of gold Kobans. It is interesting to compare this tale with the French 
fable of the sweep and the rotisseur, already old at the time of Rabelais. 


451. KIDOMARU Jfe. jjr ^L. One of the followers of the SHUTENDOJI, 
who tried to kill Yorimitsu, but failed, and was done to death by the 
companions of Raiko. See Usui SADAMITSU. 

* In Ehon Kojidan a picture is given of the Magic Mirror ot the Tan dynasty, which enabled one to 
behold the inside of a man's body. The drawing shows the heart, lungs, and part of the abdomen reflected in 
the mirror. 



452. KIGA 2f: 1p|, also railed CHOKITSU. Chinese worthy who died 
at the early age of 27, but when he was seven years old his fingers were 
a foot long and he was acquainted with literature. When he was about 
to die, a genius dressed in crimson and riding upon a crimson dragon, 
alighted before him from above with a book, and said, "Our Emperor 
has summoned you!'' He bowed, and replied, "I have an old mother, 
and do not like to leave her." The angel laughed, and said, "Heaven 
is all pleasure, and pain is unknown there." Riga's eyes were filled with 
tears, which wetted his collar, and he soon expired. 

453. KIICHI HOGEN ^ $ 0$ (YOSHIOKA ^ p6)) was a strategist, 
and the inventor of the Kyoryu, or Horikawaryu, style of fencing. It is 
said that Yoshitsune, when a boy educated at the temple Kurama, ardently 
wished to see Kiichi, and to borrow from him a work on the arts of war, 
the Tora-no-maki, which was handed from father to son in the Kiichi 
family. Legend has it, and a play has been written on this story, that 
Yoshitsune went on foot to try and reach Kiichi's house, but was set upon 
by some evil-minded people and rescued by Kiichi himself, who took him 
to his home, after which he showed him the book ... on the request 
of his daughter, Minazuru Hime, with whom the young Minamoto had 
fallen in love. Kiichi is often seen in prints, talking of the olden times 
with the young man. 

454. KIKAZARU ^ #* Ht One of the three mystic apes who hears 
no evil, covering its ears with its hands. 

455. KIKU ~$$. The chrysanthemum. The sixteen petal variety forms 
the Imperial badge. It is thought that Hideyoshi used this crest. A 
chrysanthemum flower partly hidden by waves was the crest of Kusunoki, 
and is called Ktkusui. 

See also under Fox and KIKUJIDO. 

456. KIKUCHI JAKWA passed once on horseback before the temple 
Kushida; his horse shied without apparent reason, and Kikuchi, who was 
a very daring soldier, shot an arrow straight at the temple. A dragon 



thirty feet long was killed by his arrow, and fell on the steps of the 
temple, a terrific earthquake duly following. 

457. KIKUJIDO ^J % H (see also JIDO). The Chinese KEUH TSZE 
TUNG, sometimes shown as a boy throwing chrysanthemums in a stream, or 
reclining with a chrysanthemum twig clasped to his breast. He was an 
attendant and favourite of the Emperor Men WANG (BOKU O), and once 
passing near the monarch's couch he touched inadvertently a cushion with 
his foot. Some rival reported the fact to the Emperor, and obtained the 
exile of Keuh Tsze, but Muh Wang, before sending him away, taught 
him a sentence of Buddha (sic, in 940 B.C. ! !), ensuring safety and longevity. 
Keuh Tsze went away to a valley where chrysanthemums grew in profusion, 
and from morning till night painted on their petals the sacred characters 
for fear of forgetting them. The dew washing them away became the 
elixir of everlasting youth : Furo Fushi no Kusuri. 

Kikujido is usually shown painting on the chrysanthemum the magic 
words, and is included amongst the Sennins. 

458. KIKWAHAKU ftl] fO *H (with a dwarf) lived in the Mounts 
Shyunan, where many disciples sought his tuition. One day he warned 
one of his disciples to have dinner ready for a stranger who would arrive 
on a subsequent day, and forbade him to observe them through cracks in 
the walls. The stranger came; he was five feet high, of which the head 
occupied half; he was three feet wide at the waist; he wore a red robe 
and stroked his long beard, bursting the while with great laughter. He 
had a sceptre, and when his lips opened his mouth seemed to reach his 
ears. He was jocular, but his language was not human. See FUKUROKUJIU. 

459. KILILI $jjf J| *p (see also KA-Kwo Ko). One of the four "recluse 
grey heads," who retired to the fastness of the Shang mountains under She 
Wang Ti, but were taken as councillors by the Empress Lu, widow and 
successor of Kan no Koso. 

51 This article is a literal translation from a manuscript work on Chinese Sages and Sennins in Mr. P. M. 
Saltarel's colleceion. The same subject appears in Elwn Shalio Bukuro (ix., 20), where the name is given as 
31^ !U 7 HI* YAWABOKU in the drawing, and J^V < l> ^> < KIKWABOKU in the text. The Dwarf is called 
_K TO SHOTEI and the disciple 4fe 8|f SAISHO. 



460. KILIN. The Chinese unicorn. See KIRIN. 

461. KIMOX ^ f"j, or DEMON GATE. A gate placed in gardens on 
the north side, and through which the spirits of evil are supposed to pass. 
A Shinto shrine is erected in front of that gate. Compare this custom with 
its Chinese prototype: the wall erected in front of houses to keep the evil 
spirits from coming in. 

462. KINKO ^ i^5 (KINKAO). Sennin shown on a fish, or even several 
fishes. His usual presentment is in the shape of a smiling old man, bearded, 
and with a small Chinese cap, mounted astride a large winged carp (Koi); 
sometimes ascending a waterfall. 

KINKO was a Chinese recluse of Clio, said to be skilled on the lute, 
and who strolled about in Takugun practising the incantation of the sage, 
KENHYO. He lived near a stream called Takusui, and spent the best part 
of his long span of life (two centuries) in painting fishes. One day as he 
bathed, the King of the fishes came to him and said that he would like 
to lead him through the river world for a short period; he agreed, and 
informed his disciples that he would be away for a few days under the 
water and then return. After a month he came back for a little while, 
on the back of a carp, the event being witnessed by more than 10,000 
people and by his disciples, who had awaited him on the banks, spending 
the time in purifications. After enjoining his disciples never to kill any 
fishes, he dived in the river and disappeared for ever. 

463. KINRYO ^j f|. "Golden Dragon." Chinese name given to the 
reflection of the moonlight on the waters when it presents a wavy appear- 
ance of motion. 

464. KINTARO & -fc J$- The golden boy; also named SAKATA 
SHUME ^ H J|, GORO 3t IB, No KINTOKI & 1$. The child of the 
forest, found, according to some, by the wife of Sakata no Tokiyuki in a 
dismal corner of the Ashigara Mountains, while another version has it that 
the boy, son of the ronin Kurando, was lost in the mountains by his mother, 
Yaegiri, and picked up by the mountain nurse, the YAMA UBA, who adopted 



him and named him KAIDOMARU U ]|f ^L. This latter version is generally 
adopted. Kintaro grew to an enormous strength, wrestling in the mountain 
with all the beasts and goblins, including the monkey, the stag, the bear, 
and the Tengu, and he is frequently represented fighting one or other of 
the last two. His usual companions are the deer, the hare, and the 
mischievous "red back," the monkey. His weapon is an enormous axe, and 
on children's kites he is often depicted carrying it. 

One of his celebrated feats was the uprooting of a huge tree, with 
which he made a bridge over a foaming torrent for himself, his three 
followers, and the female bear once when they had been surprised by a 
storm on their way home. One day, when YORIMITSU (Raiko) was in 
need of a squire, he noticed a curious cloud over a mountain, and sent his 
retainer, Watanabe no Tsuna, (some versions say Sadamitsu), to investigate 
and report. The warrior found in a hut the Yama Uba with Kintaro, 
who, the witch said, was longing to become a warrior. The strong boy 
was brought to Raiko, who attached him to his person, and thereafter let 
him share his exploits against the goblins, ogres, etc., which appear to have 
been very numerous around Kyoto in the eleventh century. See RAIKO; see 
the Quest of the SIIUTENDOJI. 

In some cases the young Kintaro could be easily confused with another 
strong child, Momotaro (q.v.), the little peachling. 

Under the name Kimbei, he is the hero of the drama Kimbei Kashima 

465. KIOSHI ^ g^f. The Chinese paragon of filial virtue, KIANG SHE, 
who with his wife, CHOSHI (CHANG SE), supported his old mother. The old 
lady was rather fond of the water of a certain lake and also of raw fish, 
and for many years the couple used to go a long distance to procure her 
the water and the food of her choice, praying that they might long have the 
strength to do so. One day the Gods took pity upon them, and as a reward 
for their piety caused a spring to suddenly burst in their garden, and 
every day two carps came to the surface to be captured. 

466. KIOSHIGA ^ ^ 3f, or TAIKOBO (% !g). The Chinese sage, 


KIANG TSZE YA, also called KIANG Lu SHANG, who, according to legend, 
lived in the Xllth century, and with whom storytellers have been very 
busy. He is reputed to have been one of the advisers of the Emperor, Si 
PEH, who once was told by a wizard, as he set out for a hunt, that ' he 
would bring back neither boar nor deer but a virtuous councillor. He met 
Kioshiga seated on the bank of a river, fishing with a straight pin and no 
bait, and understood from him that he was awaiting to catch a big fish, 
that many fishes had already fastened themselves to his implement, though 
he was not anxious to catch them but to be alone, thinking of scientific 
matters far from his wife, who thought him a fool and abominably reviled 
him. The Emperor took him away with him, and after he had. served some 
twenty years at court the sage returned loaded with honours to his native 
province. On his way home he met two outcasts, who prostrated them- 
selves before him and begged for his forgiveness. On inquiry he found 
that they were his wife and her husband, as the woman, after deserting 
him whilst he was fishing, had married a scavenger and fallen to the 
deepest depravation. He called for a cup full of water, and throwing it to 
the ground, said: "It is no more possible for man and wife to be reunited 
after such a separation than for the water spilt on this road to be replaced 
in this broken cup." Then he departed on his way, and died a few years 
later at the age of ninety, in 1120. His past wife and her mate hanged 
themselves to a tree by the roadside (compare Shubaishin). 

The story varies somewhat ; lie is also said to have been a subject of 
CHU O (CHOW WANG), and to have emigrated to Hankei, in the dominions 
of BUN-O (WEN WANG), to escape the tyranny of his previous King. BuN-5 
gave him his name of Tai Rung Mang (Taikobo), meaning grandfather's 
expectation, and made him governor of Sei. 

He is usually shown with a fan, leaning on a writing-table or upon 
a jar, but more often fishing with his straight pin. Compare KEISHI 

467. KIOYU f\ : fjj, or KIYOYU. The legendary Chinese sage, Hi) YEO, 
adviser of the Emperor YAO in the semi-mythological ages of China, circa 



2360 B.C. When his master suggested abdicating in his favour he ran to 
the nearest waterfall to wash his ears from the defilement they had incurred 
by listening to such a temptation. His companion, SOFU (CH'AO Fu), on 
hearing the reason of Kioyu's hurried ablutions, felt compelled to go one 
better, and washed his ears and eyes of the taint of ambition which was 
spreading upon him; further, noticing his ox drinking from the brook below 
the waterfall, he rushed to lead the animal away from the contaminated 
water. This story of extreme virtue is often illustrated. 

Another story of Kioyo is to the effect that some charitable person saw 
him drink water from the palm of his hand, and gave him a shell, but the 
recluse simply strung it up to a neighbouring tree, until he noticed that the 
wind caused the shell to vibrate in a pleasant way, when he broke it, as 
even that rude music reminded him of the outside world (Shaho Bukuro). 

468. KIRI ^jjjj $, or KIRIMON. Imperial badge formed of three leaves 
and racemes of flowers of the Pawlonia Impen'alis, the central one having 
seven buds and the two outers five; but the court "mon" differs from the 
Emperor's own crest by having five and three flowers respectively on the 
upright racemes. It was used by Hideyoshi. 

469. KIRIN $$t $$JL The mythical Chinese monster, K'ILIN, combining 
the male animal, K'l, and the female, LIN, into a compound name. Its 
body is that of a deer, its legs and hoofs like those of a horse, its head 
like a horse or a dragon, its tail like an ox or a lion. It has one horn on 
its head, the end of which is fleshy; its colour is yellow. The Li Ki book 
makes the monster twelve Chinese feet high, and of five colours. Some 
representations endow it with scales, but it is more usually hairy; in fact, it 
is the chief of the three hundred and sixty hairy creatures. This mythical 
monster is a paragon of virtue, filial and otherwise, treading so lightly as 
to produce no sound, nor hurting anything living, so just that it was 
appealed to in difficult cases by the Emperor Kao Yu, living alone, and 
appearing only under wise rulers as a lucky omen. It appeared to the 
mother of Confucius and to Confucius himself. 

The Kirin is fairly often met with in Japanese art. In its squatting 



position it has served as a model for netsuke, with the horn resting on the 
back and the body shown with scales, or with protuberances, perhaps 
intended to make it appear like a piebald horse, and often surrounded 
with flames. Its horn and flames are sometimes added to the Karashishis. 

It is interesting to note that the writer Picard, of the Xlllth century, 
describes a race of men with a horn on the forehead, who live in the deserts 
of India and fight Sagittarii. This tradition may be based upon the lost 
Maha prajna paramita saslra, the Chinese translation of which (Ta chi tu 
Inn) says that a creature with a human face and body, but with the feet 
of a stag and a horn on the forehead, was born from the intercourse of a 
hermit and a doe, but received from its father remarkable magic powers. 
One wet day the creature slipped and broke a water jar; in its anger it 
commanded the Gods to stop all rain for ever, and the land suffered greatly 
from the drought. But the King of Benares promised half his kingdom to 
whoever would cause the unicorn to lose its magic power over the elements. 
A courtesan attempted the task, and succeeded in tempting the creature, 
who succumbed to her charms, and the rain fell. The courtesan then 
mounted upon the back of the unicorn and went back to Benares. This 
story is also said to be the origin of the legend of Ikkaku Sennin (q.v.), 
upon which is based a No performance, translated into German by Muller. 

The fall of Ikkaku Sennin is in accordance with the usual Aryan myth 
of the unicorn, which in the classical and mediaeval mythology is emblematic 
of chastity. In fact, the symbolical meaning has been taken by Robert 
Brown in The Unicorn (iSSi) as a proof that the unicorn is an emblem of 
the moon. 

Several varieties of Kilins without horn, or with one or more horns, 
are met with in Chinese art, and as the Japanese artists have freely 
drawn from such sources, it may be well to summarise the characters of a 
few from Mr. Deshayes' lecture, delivered at the Musee Guimet in April, 

The LUNG MA (dragon horse), Riu ma, resembles a horse and is hornless; 
round spots in regular sequence are found on its back. 

The HIAI-CHI is the Japanese Kaitshi. It is figured with a head akin 


Kakutan Sui sei 


SUISEI (/;'./..) KIRIN STANDING (sl.B.) 

HAKUTAKU (1I'.I..K.) SINIU (u'.I-.K.) 


Si- niit 

KIRIN (li:/..B.) 


to that of a dragon, a single horn, a bushy tail, even with the curly mane, 
tail, and locks of a Shishi. 

The KIOTOAN (Japanese, Kaktitan) is figured in the Hsai Tst'ng Ku Kien, 
chapter 38, p. 34. It is more akin to the tiger in shape, although Morrisson 
describes it as a creature with the shape of a pig and a single horn. 

The TIEX LUH (Tenroku] has the head of a goat, with one or two horns; 
the Pin TSIEH (Hakutakii) has an elongated Shishi head, sometimes with 
two horns, bushy tail, strong forepaws with claws, and flames surrounding 
its body. This creature could talk, and appeared to Huang Ti. It is also 
called Kaichi (one horn Shishi) and Shinyo (God's goat) in the Kumozui, 
Taisei, which says that it devours all that is evil. 

The PIH SIE is described by Hirth in the T'oung Pao (1895), and its 
pictures vary somewhat, the head taking intermediate shapes between the 
goat and the shishi. 

The Liu, or Liu mi horned ass, is illustrated with a tiger's head in the 
Kuyutoupu, and in the usual way in Gould's Mythical Monsters. 

The POH, is a horned horse credited with enough strength to kill and 
devour tigers ; the HOANSU affects practically the same shape. 

The TOUNGTOUNG is a unicorn goat ; the KUTIAO, a horned leopard ; 
the Si appears to be a cow with single horn ; the Si NIU is long necked, 
but hardly enough to be a giraffe : it has only one horn and is surrounded 
with flames. The SZE is the Indian or Malay rhinoceros. The CHUI si 
(Japanese, Suisai) is the rhinoceros "living in rivers"; it has often two 
horns, and sometimes three ; it is embellished by some artists with a 
carapace like a tortoise. The LUH appears to be a deer pure and simple. 
Gould gives also the TOOJOUSHEN, from stone figures of the Ming tombs. 

470. KISEGAWA KAMEGIKU # $& )\\ H If. The Joro who led the 
Soga brothers to the tent of their father's murderer, Kudo Saemom. See 

471. KISHIDJO TENNO ^ jjj 5t (probably an adaptation of LAKSHMI 
or SRI DEVI). She is depicted with a very beautiful face, erect, with one 
red arm and a white one, holding in her left hand the sacred gem or 

177 - 


scattering gems about. She is the Goddess of Luck, and in the Japanese 
Pantheon the sister of BISHAMON. 

KISHIJOTEN in some works take the place of Fukurokujiu amongst 
the Seven Gods. She is also called Kudoku Niyo, or Tai Kudoku ten. Sri 
Devi is one of the titles of Mahesvara (Siva), said by the Sogenjigo to be 
a son of Takchaka (King of the Naga) and of Haritei (Kwei tzu mu, 
or Kishimojin). 

472. KISHIMOJIN Jl, =^ -HJ: 1$, or KARITEI Bo. Sanskrit, HARITI or 
DAITJA MATRI ; Chinese, KUEI TSZE Mu CHIN. She is represented as a 
comely woman holding a naked baby on her left arm, the right hand 
grasping a pomegranate, a peach, or a lotus blossom, the first " fruit of 
happiness" (jakuro, or Sanskrit, Siphrala] being the most usually depicted, 
and, according to legend, because Buddha, to stop her cannibalism, gave 
her pomegranates to eat, their flavour being reputed similar to that of 
young human flesh. KISHIMOJIN was a cannibal woman, mother of a 
thousand children, the youngest of which, BINGARA, was converted by 
Buddha, who afterwards converted the mother. She became a Rakchasi in 
Hades, and was condemned to give birth to five hundred children in 
extenuation of her bad deeds, and she is accordingly often called the Mother 
of the Demons. According to another version she was sent to Hades and 
re-born in the shape of a ghoul to give birth to five hundred devils, of 
which she was to eat one a day, because she had once sworn to devour all 
the children living in the town of Rajagriha. She was converted during 
her second existence. In Japan she is the deity of women in childbirth, 
prayed to for offsprings, but she is also honoured as protector of the 
Buddhist world and of children in particular. She is also called Kishimojin 
the Maternal in the Nichiren's Sect. 

473. KITSUNE &. See Fox. 

474. KITZUKI JJ?f ffS. Temple (OHOYASHIRO) of Daikoku, which was 
rebuilt in the third year of Tennin (mi.) from a tree trunk two hundred and 
fifty feet long, found stranded on the coast of Minayoshita, and in which 



was a god in the form of a dragon. See Hearn's Unfamiliar Japan, Vol. 1, 
p. 193-5. 

475. KIYOHIME :Jff $ was the daughter of an innkeeper at Masago, 
at whose house the holy monk ANCHIX, of the monastery of DOJOJI }| $ ^p, 
used to stay when on the pilgrimage of Kumano. The monk was wont 
to pet the child, and gave her a rosary and some charms, never thinking 
that her childish affection would one day develop into fiery love. But the 
maiden's immodest advances soon became the bane of his life, getting more 
and more pressing till the monk's refusals changed this girl's passion into 
the deepest wrath. She begged the help of the infernal deities against him; 
she performed the Ushi Toki mairi, or envoutement at the hour of the ox, all 
to no avail. The Namii Amida Biitsu of the priest preserved him from evil, 
but not from the importune visit of the incensed woman, who pursued 
him right into the temple, when to try and escape her Anchin hid himself 
under the great bell, ten feet high and in weight more than a hundred men 
could move. Kiyohime, as she approached the bell, lashed herself into a 
fury, and as she nearly touched it the superstructure of the bell suddenly 
gave way, and the bell fell with a dull sound over the monk, imprisoning 
him. At the same moment the figure of Kiyohime began to change, her 
face grew like the witch mask of Hannya, her body became covered with 
scales, her legs joined and grew into a dragon's tail, and she wrapped 
herself around the bell, striking it with the T-shaped stick, and emitting 
flames from all parts of her body. Her blows rained upon the bell till it 
got red hot and finally melted, Kiyohime falling in the molten mass, from 
which was heard in a whisper the last Namu Amida Biitsu of Anchin, 
whilst the horrified monks unremittingly prayed around the scene. From 
the debris only a handful of white ash could be found, remains of the 
body of the monk. Of Kiyohime there was no trace. She is also said to 
have changed herself into a dragon on crossing the Hitakari gawa before 
reaching the temple. 

This legend has given rise to the No play or dance called Do-jo-ji. A 
versified account of the story can be found in Hearn's Kotto. 



As a subject for netsuke and okimono, the story of Anchin affords the 
carver a theme for skilled treatment which is fairly often met with, Kiyohime 
coiled on the ball, or partly so, sometimes in the same material as the bell 
itself, but often in a different one, taking the most fantastic and weird 
shapes. The Kiyohime of the No dance is pretty before the event ; netsuke 
masks are met with in which the graceful face on one side and the horned 
Hannya on the other. A curious Kiyohime is even found, in the shape of 
an octopus, dressed in a kimono and holding a bell in its tentacles, or as 
an imp on a bell-shaped inverted lotus leaf. 

476. KIYOKU SUI NO EN g] ?K > ^ The picnic on the winding 
stream. This is a Chinese recreation for literati, who take seats on the 
banks of a very winding river and make poems. From the higher part of 
the river wine cups are set floating upon the waters, and picked up by the 
players with the exception of those who could not compose a poem. These 
could not take any cup until one stopped at their feet naturally. This 
curious proceeding took place regularly every year in the gardens of the 
Chinese court on the third day of the third month. See GAMES. 

477. KIYOMASA iff JH (KATO #n j&). One of the celebrated generals 
of the sixteenth century, usually shown bearded and on horseback. Under 
the rule of Hideyoshi he directed the Korean war (1592-8) with such 
impetuosity as to earn for himself the surname of devil warrior (KJsho 
Kwaii) from the enemy. He became one of IEYASU'S chief adherents at the 
death of Hideyoshi, at which time he was master of the whole province of 
HIGO; but the shogun had no liking for ambitious captains, and he is 
credited with having encompassed the death of Kiyomasa, in 1614, by 
causing one of his retainers to poison him at a tea ceremony least he might 
join hands with his rival, Hideyori. There is a fine equestrian statue of 
Kato Kiyomasa in the South Kensington Museum. 

Kato Kiyomasa is said to have had a helmet three feet high. He 
carried on his back a banner with the invocation, Namu mio ho renge kyo, 
of the Nichiren sect, who have honoured him with the name SEI SHOKO, 
and have dedicated two temples in Kumamoto to his memory. 

1 80 

K1VO.MORI (a.^/.) 
KOAN (O.C.K.) 


KOKO (x.M.) 
KUMASAKA (../.) 

KIYOMOKI (A'..l/) 

DOJOJI (./.) KOAX (II'./.K.) 

KUDAN (ir.L.S.) 





His crest (man) is a large circle with the centre cut out, and easily 

Kato Kiyomasa is sometimes shown killing a tiger with a spear 
(Kiyomasa no Toragari). Kato Kiyomasa had a small monkey, and one 
day he was greatly amused, on entering a room, to find it with a book in 
its hand, apparently imitating its master. 

478. KIYOMI HARA NO TENNO ^ JjL Jjg Jfc J| played the harp 
in Yoshino with such skill that the angels came down from Heaven to listen 
to him, and danced in the courtyard of his palace five times, turning up 
and down their sleeves. 

From this legend are derived the dances of the fifth of May. 

479. KIYOMORI :jpf - (TAIRA ^) was, according to popular tradition, 
the son of a concubine of the Emperor Shirakawa Tenno, who gave her 
to Taira TADAMORI. He became governor of IGA, under the name Iga no 
Kami, supported the Shirakawa in the Hogen war, and being victorious 
became all-powerful at court. He fought and defeated the Minamoto, 
sent YORITOMO to exile, took as a mistress YOSHITOMO'S wife, the TOKIWA 
GOZEN, whose three sons, Imawaka, Otowaka, and Ushiwaka, he sent 
to a monastery, his clemency being requested by his stepmother, Ike- 

Elevated to the dignity of Dajo Daijin in 1167, he distributed the 
important places in the government to his relatives, and became the real 
master of Japan. According to legend, he desired a certain temple to be 
completed on a certain day, but although the number of artisans engaged 
on the task was immense the sun began to set on the horizon before the 
last touch was put to the work. The imperious minister climbed to the 
top of the roof, and with his fan kept beckoning back the sun until the 
work was completed. To this rash enterprise is ascribed the terrible burning 
fever (Hi no Yamai) which seized him in 1168 (and of which he died in 
1181). He then took the robe of a monk, shaved his head, and adopted 
the name JOKAI, but without altering his dissolute life. To go more easily 
to the shrine of Itsukushima, he caused a canal to be made in Kure, but 



neither his devotions nor the exertions of troops of servants continuously 
filling his bath with the iced water from Mount Hiyeizan, or fanning his 
half-naked body, could allay the tortures which the fever inflicted on his 
wasted frame. Having married his own daughter, TOKOKU, to the then 
Emperor, TAKAKURA TENNO, he obtained from the latter his abdication in 
1180, in favour of the offspring of this union, the child Antoku. 

During the same year the Yamabushis of Mount Hiyeizan became 
boisterous, and, relying on the help of Yoritomo, entered into open revolt. 
Kiyomori decided to reduce them, and sent a force against them, which 
found the Yamabushis' skill as warriors greatly above their piety as monks. 
One of the monks defended the Ujigaxva bridge alone, against three hundred 
horsemen of the general KIYOTADA, and returned to his monastery after 
receiving no less than seventy- two wounds. 

The famous Benkei was amongst the Yamabushis. But all this resistance 
was of little avail ; the Hiyeizan was stormed and its temples burnt. After 
his retreat to the palace of Fukuhara, in Settsu, in 1181, Kiyomori was 
beset by the idea that the ghosts of the Genji haunted the place. Once he 
saw his garden filled by numberless skulls, jumping about like grasshoppers, 
which suddenly coalesced into a hillock a hundred and fifty feet in height, 
with a ghostly warrior, dressed like Yoshitomo, standing on the top of it 
(Zoho Ehon Issaoshi gusa, Vol. V., and also Hokusai's print). 

KIYOMORI died in 1180, his last request being that the head of the 
exile, YORITOMO, should be laid upon his grave. But Yoritomo was not 
caught, and, indeed, he was to take a full revenge in 1185, when the whole 
Taira family was destroyed at the battle of Dan no Ura, the widow of 
KIYOMORI, the Nn NO AMA, jumping into the sea with her grandson, ANTOKU, 
rather than fall into the hands of the victorious Minamoto, Yoritomo and 

KIYOMORI is usually shown corpulent, with hard-set face, small bristling 
moustache, shaven head, thin lips and high forehead, and clad in the robes 
of a monk. Mr. Bertin, in Les grandes guerres civiles du Japan, gives a fine 
reproduction of the painting in the Bibliotheque Nationale of Paris, showing 
the servants of Kiyomori fanning him during his illness. 

(By courtesy of Messrs. Yauinnaka) 


480. KIYOTAKA fjf jlrj. A presumptuous courtier of Go DAIGO TENNO, 
who, knowing the Emperor's secret opposition to the advice given him in 
1336 by Kusunoki Masashige to abandon Kyoto for the Hiyei/an, strongly 
opposed Kusunoki's proposal. Masashige accused him and the "curtain 
government " of being the worst enemies of the Emperor, and subsequent 
events fully justified his opinion. After the disaster of Minato gawa, when 
Go Daigo and his court flew to Yoshino, Kiyotaka was ordered to commit 
seppuku. His ghost haunted the palace gardens, heaping curses on the 
imperial family and its advisers, until the princess, IGA-NO-TSUBONE, carrying 
a lantern filled with fireflies, went to argue with the yurei; she convinced 
him of his wrong and obliged him to cease his nocturnal visits. 


482. KO-AN j|; T. The Chinese rishi, HWAN NGAN, usually represented 
naked or semi-naked and riding on a horned tortoise. He is identical with 
Lu NGAO or ROKO, of Hokusai's Mangwa. The Taoist books say: "KoAN 
was ten thousand years old, but childish in his appearance. His body 
was covered with red hair, and he rarely wore any clothes. He used to 
ride upon a sacred tortoise three feet long." 

483. KO AWASE ff ^ . The perfume game. 

484. KOBITO /J^ A.. Pigmies figured in Hokusai's Mangwa, Vol. 3, 
p. 67. They lived in Yezo before the Ainu, who call them Koropokguru. 

485. KOBODAISHI j& &- ^C 8P- Title conferred in 921 by DAIGO 
TENNO upon the Buddhist priest, KUKAI (774-834), wizard and caligraphist, 
to whom is attributed the invention of the Hira-gana alphabet of forty- 
seven sounds and the disposition of these syllables into the Iroha poetry. 
Born at Biyobu-ga Ura, near Kompira, in 774, he became a monk when only 
nineteen years old. He went to China in 804, and came back to preach 
Buddhism, founding the Shingan sect and various temples. Many stories 
are told of his caligraphic talent. Having once painted some characters on 
the name board (Gaku) of a palace gate, he noticed on coming down that 
he had forgotten one dot, but, throwing up his brush, he finished the 



character accurately without climbing up again. On another occasion he 
painted with five brushes, one in each hand and foot and one in his mouth, 
according to caricatures, and this performance brought him the nickname of 
Go hitsu Osho (the priest with the five brushes). Once, in 806, in a 
discussion with the Emperor Saga, he propounded the theory that one can 
attain Buddhahood while in the flesh, and on the Emperor dissenting from 
him, he at once gave him visual proof thereof by transforming himself into 
the appearance of the Buddha Maha Vairocana. (For his praying-for-rain 
sword, see AMAKURIKARA-KEN.) He once made the pilgrimage of the eighty- 
eight places in Shikoku, or Hachi ju hakka sho Mairi, wearing straw sandals 
(warajt), and to these days the pilgrims who undertake this lengthy journey 
carry small waraji suspended to their neck in memory of Kobodaishi. 

Kukai is also credited with a sculptor's ability, which only his magic 
powers could have insured. He is said to have carved unaided, and in one 
single night, twenty-two out of the twenty-five Bosatsu in the hard rock 
near Ashinoyu (though Murray's Guide dates it 1293), near the tomb of the 
Soga brothers, and, further along the same road, also in one night, a huge 
Jizo Bosatsu. An image of himself which he had carved while in China, 
and thrown into the sea with a prayer that it might be cast on some shore 
the inhabitants of which were in need of Buddhist teachings, was found in 
the twelfth century by a pious Buddhist of Kawasaki, and enshrined in the 
Yaku joke Daishi do. 

Kobodaishi is also said to have thrown his brush at a black rock in 
the pool of Kammanga fuchi, near Nikko, and the brush wrote the sacred 
characters, HAMMAN. His specimens of caligraphy and drawing were 
considered highly valuable relics, and, like the relics of Western saints, 
number so many as to cause wonderment at the phenomenal activity of their 
author. Many stories are told of Kukai in Hearn's works and in the Guides 
to Japan. 

486. KOBU. See Moso. 

487. KODAMA KURA NO JO fa 3s. ft jfc & was a leader of the 
seamen of Mori. After the battle of Ishiyama with Nobunaga, he camped 



on the beach of Takasago, and ordered his men to cut down a certain tree. 
They resisted, and he compelled them to obey his order, but at the first 
stroke of the axe against the tree trunk smoke issued from the cut. Kodama 
then desisted. This esprit fort was a good soldier, but irreverent when 
dealing with the Buddhist faith. One day, in the lake of AWA, when 
returning from Ishiyama, his ship was heeling over frightfully amongst the 
whirlpools, and he feared death. He then remembered a Buddhist charm 
given him by a friend, and offered to it a hurried prayer; the hurricane 
abated and he returned to land, thereafter to become very religious. Before 
he died he had a dream in which the whole of the Buddhist Pantheon 
appeared to him. 

488. KODOKWA m jf| =lp. On top of a pine, looking at a crane, is 
one of the Taoist worthies. It is written of him : " Kodokwa used to 
climb in dangerous places and stand on steep rocks as if he were on 
level ground, fearlessly, like a lunatic. Later in his life he got a 
mysterious medicine named Tan, and climbed upon the top of a pine, 
whence he soared in the sky with a crane. This verily took place in the 
fifth year of Taichyu, in the reign of Senso, of To." 

489. KOGEN JL 7C was an old Chinese sage, 170 years of age. One 
day he was invited to drink wine, and did so like a dog, head foremost, 
and supporting his body with his cane. He is sometimes confused with 

490. KOGO NO TSUBONE /h ^ JBJ. Inimitable musician, favourite 
of the Emperor Go SHIRAKAWA (Xllth century), but hated by the Empress 
Hatsu, who, by her intrigues, succeeded in compelling her to fly from the 
palace. For three years the Emperor caused her to be sought for all over 
Japan without being able to discover her retreat. At last a courtier, the 
poet NAKAKIMI, also celebrated as a musician, who had boasted that he 
could recognise her playing amongst ten thousand hidden performers, was 
sent to find her. He located the favourite in the village of Saga, near 
Kyoto, where he heard her playing the Koto in a closed house. See 
NAKAKIMI (Shako Bukuro). 



491. KOHAKU t J|L. The Chinese paragon, KIANG KEH, scholar 
and official of the fifth century, whose claim to celebrity consists in having 
once rescued his mother from a band of brigands by carrying her for a 
long distance on his back. 

KOHAKU SENNIN $ H ftlj A, was wont to visit Mount Bui, 
accompanied by a crane, and there to read fairy books. He is usually 
shown with a book and a yellow crane. His Chinese name is HWANG PEH. 

492. KOJIMA TAKANORI Jf ^ jt$ ffj. Noble of the fourteenth 
century, whose popular title is BINGO NO SABURO ("Off ^ 3l J}|$). He is as 
a rule depicted standing near a cherry tree, on the trunk of which he writes 
the following verses, allusion to an episode of Chinese history : 

" Ten Kosen wo munashiu sum nakare 

Toki ni Hanrei naki ni shimo arazu." 
"O Heaven, do not destroy KOSEN whilst HANREI lives." 

When Go Daigo was exiled Kojima attempted to rescue him, but in 
vain. He then rode in advance of the deposed Emperor, by a different road, 
and stopped at an inn where Go Daigo was expected to stay, tore the bark 
off a cherry tree, wrote in Chinese characters upon the trunk the verses 
quoted above to assure the late monarch of his lasting fealty. This story 
was originally mentioned in the Taiheki only, and modern historians 
discredit it altogether. He entered into a plot against TAKAUJI, was 
discovered, and had to take refuge in the Shinano, where he died 
(circa 1350). 

493. KOJIN 5nL !$ Shinto God of the Kitchen. 

494. KOKEI ^ )y. Mythical human being with crooked legs. See 

49j. KOKEN ) Hfc. Sennin ; is shown with a divination book. 

496. KOKO j|f Q. Sennin; the Chinese Hu KUNG, the old man in the 
pot. Wizard and leach, who, according to legend, lived in China about 
the third century A.D., and who at night used to retire into a gourd-shaped 
pot, much to the bewilderment of his neighbours, who could not discover 

1 86 

KOJIMA (.!/.(;.) 

KicHijori;x (7..v. 


KOMEI (..;.) 
KOKEMOCHI (j/.t;.) 


his whereabouts after sunset. One FEI CHANG FANG (HICHOBO) discovered 
the gourd hanging from a rafter and the old man in it, shrunk to a suitable 
size. He became the disciple of KOKO and adopted his practice, hence the 
confusion which often arises between the two and with Mei So Gen (q.v.). 

497. KOKO ]H; ^, or BUNKIO. Celebrated Chinese paragon of filial 
virtue who, being left motherless when only seven years old, ministered to 
the wants of his father, fanning him during the summer nights and warming 
his father's couch with his own body in winter, before his parent retired. 

498. KOKUSENYA @(] *J4 stfT Famous pirate of the seventeenth 
century. Son of a Chinese father, CHENG CHE LUNG, and a Japanese mother, 
and called by the Jesuits Coxinga. He seized upon the island of Formosa, 
and his daring acts, set forth in Chikamatsu's play, Kokusenya Kassen 
(1715), have raised him to the popularity of a gallows hero. A humorous 
presentment of him shows him as a small man leading away a tiger or a 
large elephant, or carrying it away. See synopsis of the Kokusenya Kassen 
in Aston's Japanese Literature. 

499. KOMACHI /J> PJf (Oxo NO /]> iff). Often spelt KOMATI by French 
writers. One of the Six POETS (Rokkasen). She lived in the ninth century, 
and her name is almost synonymous with beauty, followed by disappointed 
love and the most appalling decrepitude. Nothing accurate is known as to 
her history, but legend has it that she was the daughter of DEWA NO KAMI 
YOSHIZANE, and that she was remarkably beautiful, given to great luxury 
and unduly proud whilst in the spring of life and the height of her glory. 
In 866, when the land was parched, the magic of her verses brought forth 
the rain which prayers had failed to obtain. On the occasion of a poetical 
competition at the Imperial palace her rival, OTO.MONO KURONOSHI, accused 
her of having taken from the Manny o Shiu a poem which she recited as 
her own composition, and in support of her allegation brought forth a copy 
of the book with the poem in it. Komachi called for some water, and, 
washing the book, the fresh ink disappeared, leaving the rest of the texts 
uninjured. Kuronoshi had listened to Komachi reciting the poem to herself, 
and had written it in the old book thinking to encompass the downfall of 



his rival. This is a scene of Komachi's life which is often depicted, and 
forms the theme of a No dance, the Soshiarai. The poem reads: 

Makanaku ni 

Nani wo tanetote 
: (< Ukikusa no 

t J Nami no une une 


i Oi shigeruran. 

" You who have never been sown, from which seed did you grow Ukikusa 
(Alguae), tossed by the waves; how did you germinate and live?" 

She is sometimes represented as a court lady with a female attendant, 
and writing verses, but the fancy of the artists seem to have more specially 
run upon the later stages of her life, when toothless, her face furrowed with 
the deep lines and decrepitude of old age and poverty, clad in rags, her 
hair short, unkempt and matted, she was reduced to beg and starve by the 
roadside. An iron okimono in the British Museum and hosts of netsukes, 
depicting her squatting with her large dilapidated hat and a stick, vie with 
each other in the presentment of the aged poetess as a destitute hag. Old 
age and misery had overtaken her swiftly if one judges by her own poem : 

p ;r Hana no iro wa 


*> utsun ni kenna, 

- * 

T , *> Itazura ni 

Wagami yo ni furu 
Naga me seshimani. 

" The flowers have faded without my knowing it, while a long storm kept 
me indoors." 

The various presentments of Komachi have been set into a numerical 
category, under the name Nana Komachi, the seven Komachi. 
These seven forms are as follows : 
Soshi arai Komachi, washing the book (see above). 
Seki dera Komachi, entering a temple. 

Kiyomidzu Komachi, from the Kiyomidzu dera temple in Kyoto. 
Kaiyo Komachi, visiting, with an attendant whilst still young. 
Ama koi Komachi, praying for rain. 

1 88 

T , > 
> 7 ,A 


Omu Komachi, or Parrot Komachi, because once, when old, she received 
from the courtier Yukiuye a poem sent her by the Emperor Yosei, and she 
sent it back to the monarch with only one character altered. 

Sotoba Komachi, so called because she is depicted seated on a sotoba 
(wooden post set at the head of a grave, with the name of the dead written 
on it, pending the erection of a suitable monument). This last phase of 
her existence, when old, is said by some (amongst whom M. Bertin) to have 
been a self-inflicted penance, as the impossible tasks which she imposed on 
her lover, Fukakusa no Shosho, caused his death, and, seized with remorse 
she became a mendicant. 

Komachi's remains are said to be buried in the Fudarakuji temple, at 
Ichihara, near Kyoto, but many other temples also claim that distinction. 

500. KOMAN '] Ji?J was, according to a romance, the widowed 
daughter of the peasant Kurosuke, living near lake Biwa, and to whom 
the Genji leader, TATEWAKI YOSHI KATA had entrusted his wife, Aoi NO 
MAYE, and the white banner of his clan after his defeat. The two separated 
to escape the pursuit of the Heike, but Koman was surrounded, and the 
only resource left to her was to jump in the lake with her burden. She 
caught sight of some barges and swam to them to try and get across the 
lake, but found too late that they were owned by Munemori, the son of 
the Shogun KIYOMORI, leader of the Heike. The warriors, knowing that 
she was carrying the Genji banner, attacked her fiercely, but her arm was 
cut, and it dropped to the bottom of the lake with the silk ensign, to be 
soon after joined by her dead body. Four days later her own little son, 
Tarokichi, fishing in the lake, brought back her arm with the hand tightly 
clenched on the banner, and took it to his grandfather, in whose hut the 
lady, Aoi NO MAYE was awaiting confinement. 

Kiyomori had heard of the escape of the lady, and sent two men, 
Kaneuji Seno and Sanemori Saito, to inquire into the sex of the child at 
the very moment of his birth : if a boy, he was to be killed, if a girl, she 
would escape with her life. Saito had been a Genji man, and his learning 
and ingenuity, coupled with the unexpected interference of Tarokichi, saved 



the Genji heir. The boy entered the room with the arm of his mother 
wrapped in a cloth, and handed it to Saito, saying: "This has just been 
born to the lady." Saito thereupon wondered upon the ways of the Deity, 
and quoted the classics, to the surprise and anger of Seno, who accused 
him of being party to a plot to deceive Kiyomori. Nothing daunted, Saito 
said: "It is written that in the days of old the consort of a King of Chu 
gave birth to a mass of iron, presumably because she was wont to use a 
rod of that metal to keep down the temperature of her bed in summer; 
and from that mass of iron the learned astrologers ordered the sword of 
KAN TSIANG Mu YE (Kanshoba Kuya) to be made. Strange and unknown 
to men are the ways of the Gods; why, therefore, should not this woman 
give birth to an arm?" He was ready to back his learning with his sword, 
and succeeded in taking away Seno. The young boy who was thus saved 
lived to avenge his clan and drive the Taira from Kyoto, under the name of 
Kiso YOSHINAKA (q.v.). See Takenobu's Tales. 

501. KOMEI JL Pf. The celebrated Chinese sage and general, Cnu-Ko 
LIANG j^f Jj|J ^, said to have been eight feet high. He was so famous for 
his wisdom that the Emperor Gentoku (Liu Pei) went himself in the middle 
of winter to find him in the fastnesses of the mountains to ask him to 
become his councillor. When he arrived he found the hermit in a hut of 
reeds, deeply engrossed in reading, and he waited six hours without saying 
a word for fear of disturbing him. Even then Komei could but with 
difficulty be persuaded to accept the Emperor's offer. He became, however, 
a clever generalissimo of the troops of Gentoku and of his son. He went as 
far as the Yunnan to subdue the rebel tribes of the south, and later 
attempted to conquer Wei. He was then opposed by SzE-MA-I, who steadily 
refused to engage in battle till Komei, who was then old, sent him the 
headdress of a court lady with the intimation that such a headgear befitted 
such a cautious warrior. 

Komei is usually shown with the Three Heroes of Han. 

Amongst other stories it is related that he stopped the sacrifices made 
of forty-nine human victims to dissipate the fogs of the river Lu Shui, in 



Pegu, and instituted instead the use of clay figures. He is credited with the 
invention of mechanically propelled figures, the attack in eight lines in 
battle, the stratagem of the empty city when the walls were deserted and 
the gates left open, a man sweeping outside the walls and Chu Ko Hang 
playing the guitar within the gate, to mislead the army of the enemy, Tsao 
Tsao, as to his whereabouts.* It is also said that during the war between 
Wu and Wei he used magic to alter the wind on the twenty-first day of the 
eleventh month from N.W. to S.E., which suited his plans better, and since 
then the wind is always south-east on that day. 

In A.D. 234, seeing his star declining, he resorted to magic to try and 
delay his impending death by lighting forty-nine candles to burn for seven 
days on a heap of rice. But Wei Yen came to inform him of the defeat 
of the enemy, and in his eagerness to meet him Komei kicked the candles, 
fell, and died, at the age of fifty-three. Before expiring lie ordered that 
seven grains of rice should be put in his mouth so that his body might keep 
unchanged for ever, and to sew in his sleeves two live pigeons, then to lay 
his corpse on the battlefield. The enemy were afraid when they saw his 
sleeves moving, and they flew, giving his successor time to retreat to a more 
favourable position. 

He had no confidence in Wei because he had high cheek-bones, and 
he instructed his lieutenant Matei to kill Wei so as to prevent him from 
turning rebel. 

502. KOMPIRA ^ jfc HL The Indian divinity, Kumpira, one thousand 
feet long, with a thousand heads and as many arms, personified in India 
by the crocodile, and having for attribute in the Japanese Pantheon the 
tortoise. It is also identified with the Shinto God KOTOHIRA, or even with 
Susano-o-no Mikoto, or with Kanayama Hiko. Its name has been given to 
one of the twenty-eight constellations or followers of Kwannon. 

Kompira is also the name of a temple in Shikoku, celebrated by its 
pilgrimages, to which as many as nine hundred thousand worshippers muster 
every year. 

9 This stratagem is sometimes attributed to CHOHI (q.v.j. 


Kompira, reduced in height to nine feet two inches, and with a terribly 
red face, plays the principal role as a demon-queller in the play, Kompira 
Eon, of Oka Seibei and Yonomiya Yajiro (Aston's Japanese Literature). 

503. KONGARA DOJI & $H $1 H ^ One of the attendants of the 
god of the cascades, FUDO Mio O (q.v.), shown as a weird male individual 
with an iron club. His companion is SEITAKA DOJI. 

504. KONOHA TENGU ^v CD ^ ^ $J. A Tengu dressed in leaves; 
he has a very long nose, and shows himself amongst people in the guise of 
a Yamabushi priest, with narrow clothes and the small characteristic cap. 

505. KONSAI ^ $, or SHOJO. One of the sons of Benten, shown with 
a balance for weighing money. Adaptation of BAICHADJYAGURU and trans- 
formation of YAKUSHI NYORAI. 

506. KOREIDJIN g ft \. The Taoist Sennin, Ku LING JIN, whose 

attendant is a white tiger (Shaho Bukuro VII). 

507. KOREMOCHI ^P $f j3| (TAIRA NO, 883-953), also called Yogo no 
Shogun, went one day to Taka-o-san (Toka Kushi Yama), in Shinano, to 
see the maple trees. He met there a party of young girls, and, as they were 
picnicing, not only did he accept their invitation to join them but he soon 
became intoxicated. He was awakened from his drunken slumber by a 
strange noise, and saw above him a huge oni coming to devour him, but 
he killed it with his sword. The No play of Momijigari (maple picnic) is 
based upon this legend (Ehon Kojidan). 

508. KOREMORI $| $& (TAIRA NO) was defeated by Yoritomo at the 
battle of the Fujikawa . because he was frightened by the noise made 
overhead by a thousand ducks and geese, and in his fright forgot his 
knowledge of strategy. 

509. KOSEI ^ fre- O ne f tne sons f Benten. See HIKKEN. 

510. KOSEISHI J|f $ ~7* was a sa S e ld man living in the time of 
the divine Emperor KEN-EN in a cave of Mount Koto. The Emperor Ko 
heard of him nineteen years after his accession to the throne, and went to 


KONGARA DOJI (jlf.ct.) 




consult him. He did so again three years later, when he found that the 
old man had turned round with his face to the south, he therefore advanced 
in front of him, bowing low and repeatedly, and asked his advice upon 
important points of dogma. 

511. KOSEKIKO ^ ft . The legendary Chinese, HWANG SHE KUNG, 
whose shoe was reluctantly picked up by CHANG LIANG. See CHORIO. 

The episode of Kosekiko on his mule, with the roll in his hand, whilst 
Chorio picks up the shoe under the bridge and tenders it to the old man, 
is treated by artists in a great variety of ways, Kosekiko is even jocularly 
shown riding on a huge fish and Chorio wading in the water (modern!!). 

512. KOSE ]=? *. Family name of a series of celebrated painters. 
Amongst them, KOSE xo KANAOKA ^j [5j, who lived in the nintli century, is 
said to have painted a horse for the temple of Ninnaji, near Kyoto, which 
left its canvas to browse in the neighbouring fields, until one of the monks 
added a tether and a peg to the picture. Another of his horses was guilty 
of the same practice until its eyes were blurred in the kakemono. KOSE xo 
KANAOKA is sometimes shown under a tree, throwing away his brush in 
despair of doing justice to the landscape before him, on the slope of Fuji- 
shiro-saka, near Yuasa, in Kishiu. This has passed into a proverbial 
sentence meaning that something is so beautiful that even Kanaoka could 
not have painted it. His fourth descendant, KOSE xo HIROTAKA, had a 
presentiment of his coming death as he began a picture of the Buddhist 
hell. He died as he was putting the last stroke to his signature on the 


514. KOSH1 JL ~P> or MoNSEX-O. The Chinese philosopher, K'UNG 
Kiu, called in Europe CONFUCIUS, from the Latinised sound of his title, 
K'UNG FU-TSZE, of the fourth rank of nobility, which he had received in 
his lifetime. See CONFUCIUS. 

A humorous presentment of KOSHI is fairly common in the group of 
the Three Sake Tasters, when he is shown in company with SHAKA and 



ROSHI (Lao tsze) drinking sake from a jar, the varied expression of the three 
faces conveying the meaning that the same doctrine can be appreciated 
in various ways. 

Some of his works have become highly popular in Japan, where 
Confucianism, and especially the modified doctrines of Wang Yang Ming 
(Oyomei) were followed by the Samurai class. Amongst some of these 
works which were published with numerous illustrations and a running 
commentary giving examples drawn from history or legend, may be 
mentioned Ehon u'a Kongo (Lun-yu) ; Daigakit (Ta-hio). The Ehon Chukio 
and Ehon Kokio (Hiao King) both illustrated by Hokusai deals with filial 
piety and loyalty of retainers respectively. 

5I4A. KOSHI ^ jj^ was a Taoist hermit of Mount Ko, and he used to 
go about upon a blue cow, and with a small basket in his hand. 

515. KOSHI-DOSHI 3 fob all it, Sennin, had a shuttlecock in the 
shape of a chanticleer. He used to keep it in his pillow so as to be 
awakened by the crowing of the magic bird. He also had a monkey no 
bigger than a bull frog, which was attached to a silk string and was 
allowed on the table to clear away the crumbs. He also possessed a small 
tortoise the size of a cash, which he kept in a small box. 

516. KOSHIX Hi |2 ^ (|f| ^). God of the roads, to whom is sacred 
the Enoki tree. He is also called Saruta Hiko no Mikoto, and his attendants 
are the Three Mystic APES (q.v.), Sambiki Saru. KOSHIN* is sometimes 
represented with many arms; dolls are offered to his shrines in memento 
of departed folks. Lafcadio Hearn, in Unfamiliar Japan (/., p. 100), describes 
an old statue of Koshin showing signs of Hindoo inspiration, in which the 
God is shown with three eyes opening vertically in the middle of the 
forehead, six arms holding respectively a monkey, a serpent, a wheel, a 
sword, a rosary and a sceptre; serpents are coiled around his wrists and 
ankles. At his feet is the head of the demon Amangako (Utatesa, sadness); 
three apes are carved on the pedestal, and one on the high tiara, in the 
shape of a mitre, placed on the God's head. 



The name Koshin is applied to the " day of the monkey," the Kano e 
Saru, recurring every two months at the coincidence of the Ka-no-e term 
(seventh) of the decimal cycle with the ninth term, Saru, of the duodenary 
cycle, when festivities in honour af Saruta Hiko regularly take place; and 
offerings are set before the rough stone images of the three monkeys or of 
the God himself along the roads. 

517. KOSHIN. Chinese female sage who lived in To, shown riding 
the back on of a huge bull frog, upon which she crossed the sea. 

518. KOSHOHEI ^ |fl ^p. One of the Eight Sennins, the Chinese 
HWAXG Cn'u-P'ixc, sometimes described as an incarnation of the rain priest, 
CH'IH SUXG TSZE ifc ^ ^, who lived in the Kwenlun mountains at the 
court of the Fairy Queen Seiobo, after leaving the Chinese Emperor 
Shennung (SniNxo), whose daughter followed him later and became one of 
the Genii (Mayers' C.R.M.). 

KOSHOHEI, when fifteen years old, led his herd of goats to the Kin H\va 
mountains, and, having found a grotto, stayed there for forty years in 
meditation. His brother, Shoki, was a priest, and he vowed to find the 
missing shepherd. Once he walked near the mountain and he was told of 
the recluse by a sage named Zenju, and set out to find him. He recognised 
his brother, but expressed his astonishment at the absence of sheep or goats. 
Koshohei thereupon touched with his staff the white stones with which the 
ground was strewn, and as he touched them they became alive in the shape 
of goats. 

This story is frequently illustrated, but Koshohei is usually shown 
alone, without his brother. 

519. KOTAIRO Jl ^ ^ and her daughter lived on "yellow spirit," 
and could produce the rain and wind at will. They were beloved of the 
people of Shin, and travelled often on a cloud. 

520. KOTEIKEN ^ |i ig, or SANKOKU Uj Q. The Chinese HWANG 
T'IEN KIEN, celebrated as a poet and official, lived from 1045 to 1105, and 



although he attained a high official rank was so devoted to his mother 
that he washed her chamber vessels. 

Hokusai pictures him emptying an urn over a balcony. 

521. KOTEI ^ fff. The Yellow Emperor HWANG Ti, also called 
ijff H| HIEN Yi'AN. He was the third of the five legendary rulers of China 
circa 2697 B.C., and is credited with over a century of life. See SHINANSHA. 

522. KOTORO-KOTORO =f- flfc /> = ^ ^ . " Catching the child." 
A game of Chinese origin, in which a child agrees to act as father of the 
party, whilst another one becomes the oni. The "father" and his party 
form a single file, grasping one another's obi, and he swings the file so as 
avoid the oni touching the last boy of the line. When this occurs he 
changes place with the oni, who then goes to the tail of the file. 

523. KUBI-KUBI Hf k (KuBi HIKI), or KUBIZURI. A game or trial of 
strength by neck pulling. The two players squat opposite one another, with 
an endless rope joining their necks, and pull in opposite directions. See 
the trial of strength between ASAHINA SABURO and the ONI. 

524. KUDAN. Fabulous animal who always tells the truth. It is 
shown with the head of a man and the body of a bull, generally with 
three eyes on its flanks and horns on the back.'* 

525. KUDARA KAWANARI ^ ffi ffif fa later called KUDARA NO 
ASOMI, was a Corean painter who attained the rank of Harima no sake at 
the courts of Nimmio and Montoku. Once one of his servants was lost, and 
he painted from memory a portrait which enabled the missing boy to be 
found. He wrangled with the architect, HIDA NO TAKOAMI, about the 
respective worth of their arts, and the architect invited him to decorate the 
walls of a pavilion which he had just built. Kudara accepted, but he -could 

* It is interesting to compare with the Kudan the three-legged ass with six eyes, nine mouths, one horn, 
and a white body, which, according to the Bundahis, stands in the middle of the sea (E. W. West, Palhlavi texts, 
Bundahis XIX,). Its eyes are distributed equally in the usual position, on the top of the head and on the hump ; 
its mouths are three in the head, three in the flank, and three on the hump. This animal is righteous, and eats 
spiritual food ; it cleanses the ocean of all corruption. It is associated with a divinity named Tistar, who had 
three forms : that of a man, a bull, and a horse. Can this curious type of unicorn have affected the appearance of 
the Kudan ? 



not get inside as the walls were so contrived as to swing round like doors 
and put him out every time he touched them. As a revenge, he asked the 
architect to his house, and when at last Hida came he almost flew back at the 
unexpected sight of a putrid corpse stretched across the room. It was, however, 
merely as an exhibition of his host's skill painted on the sliding panels. 

526. KUFUJIN -H ^C A was the wife of the paragon of filial virtue, 
OcENSEN 7 , ^ JC f[Jj> who was a very poor man. She weaved cloth to 
support him, his mother and herself for ten years, after which she ascended 
to heaven in the form of a blue cloud. She is represented weaving. 
Compare TOYEI. 

527. KUGANOSUKE ^ |f 2. &J AND HINADARI $| J|. The 
heroes of a dramatic story which took place in the seventh century. 
Kuganosuke was the only son of the governor of Kii, Daihanji Kiyozumi, 
and the ex-page of the consort of the deposed Emperor Kogyoku. The 
minister, Iruka no Omi, who was practically master of Japan at the 
beginning of Kotoku's reign, suspected the father and his son of being 
secretly allied with Nakatomi no Kamatari, the founder of the Fujiwara 
family, and his own enemy. The same suspicion attached to another 
family, then in possession of the province of Yamato, the head of which 
was Sadataka, the mother of Hinadari. The t\vo provinces are only separated 
by a small river, but there was an ancient feud between the two families. 
Iruka commanded the youth to come to court, thinking to wrest from him 
the knowledge of the hiding-place of the deposed Empress, and he sought 
to get also Hinadari sent to Kyoto to marry her. The two offsprings of 
the rival families, sooner than break their tryst, both committed suicide, 
the father acting as Kaishakunin (second) to his son. The two hillocks 
on either side of the river, where the two youths lived, are still called 
Imoyama and Seyama. The boy and girl were buried as manand wife. See 
Takenobu's Tales. The play based on this story is called Imoseyama. 

528. KUKOKU ffi] Hcj. Mythical creatures with a dog's head on a 
man's body. They live in the dogs' country, Inu no Kuni. See FOREIGNERS. 



529. KUMAGAI NAOZANE ffi Q y| ^. Minamoto general who lived 
in the twelfth century. He is frequently depicted in the episode of the 
battle ICHI NO TANI (1184), where he killed Taira no ATSUMORI (q.v.). He is 
usually on horseback, with a fierce appearance, a quiver full of arrows, a 
black beard, a two-horned helmet, and a war fan in his hand. 

The story of the episode is given in Griffis' Mikado s Empire, page 145 
and seq., and another version under ATSUMORI. Bertin's theatrical version 
(Guerres civiles du Japori) is to the effect that Kumagai, when an officer at 
the court of Kyoto, had seduced one of the palace maids, Sagami, and that 
the FUJI NO TSUBONE secured the escape of both. His son, Kojiro, was born 
on the same day as Atsumori, the son of the Fuji no Tsubone. At Ichi no 
Tani he was separated from his son, and seeing a warrior who had a 
similar appearance wading in the water on horseback, he rushed after him, 
found that the man was an enemy, but very much like Kojiro. He began 
to inquire into the youth's story, and, recognising the son of the Fuji no 
Tsubone, would have let him go but for the taunt of his companion who 
had then come up to them. Atsumori gave him his flute. Filled with 
sorrow, Kumagai gave up his calling, shaved his head, and became a monk, 
under the name Renshobo, in the temple Kurodani at Kyoto, where he died 
in 1208. 

Amongst miracles attributed to him, it is related that once he borrowed 
some money on the security of ten Namu Amida Butsu. On repaying the 
loan he demanded the return of his deposit, and as his friend repeated the 
prayer he was stopped short by his wife, who explained that, when the 
monk borrowed the money, ten lotus flowers appeared in their garden, but 
that they were fading away as her husband returned the "security." The 
couple transformed their house into a monastery. 

530. KUMASAKA CHOHAN gR Jt. IB- Famous robber who was 
killed by Yoshitsune. He is usually depicted in a peculiar dress, hiding in 
a pine tree and scanning the neighbourhood. As a weapon he carries a 
huge halbert. He is often seen as a No character, in the play of the same 
name, in painted Nara netsuke. 



See the story, Tsukt no Kumasaka (1790), illustrated by Hokusai (signed 

531. KUME NO MAI ^. %. 0) |!|. Dances which commemorate the 
treacherous slaughter of the Aino chief YASUTAKERU, of Yoshino. During 
his wars Jimmu Tenno found it impossible to subjugate him; he therefore 
had him invited with his suite to some festivities, and when the Ainos got 
intoxicated his men killed the whole party on a pre-arranged signal, a song 
of Jimmu. 

532. KUME NO SENNIN #. % 0) fll] A- Rishi shown falling from 
the clouds whilst looking at the reflection of a girl in the stream. He is 
the only Japanese Sennin ; the Kume family was the oldest warrior clan. 

533. KURUMA $. Vehicle. See HOTEI (KARUMA SAN). 

A common enough design, especially on metal work, consists in a 
peculiarly shaped barrow filled with flowers, peonies and chrysanthemums; 
it is called Hana Kuruma the lucky flower cart. Sometimes a dilapidated 
waggon, like a house on wheels, is also met with, representing the chariots 
used in war by Chinese Emperors or Generals. Another vehicle called 
j^ If! Kiu Sha or dove carriage consists of a pigeon on two wheels, 
often with a smaller bird standing on the first one, it is described as a 
toy in Wakan sansai zuye and as an implement of war in Todo Kunimo Zue. 
A common object called Buri Buri, consisting of an octogonal piece of 
wood mounted on two wheels, is a very ancient toy which was pulled 
at the end of a string. Kioden says that it was derived from the Roku 
Doku fl|l m, a sort of corrugated roller used by Chinese peasants. A 
figure standing on the front part of a vehicle, with the left arm extended, 
pointing forward is the Shinansha (q.v.). 

A broken wheel amongst weeds, or a wheel and a praying mantis are 
a common subject, the wheel of the law is often meant in such repre- 
sentations, and the wheel of drums of the Thunder God is of frequent 

534. KURUMA ^C C7) ^ (Hi NO). Flaming wheel propelled by three 



devils, one red, one green, and one black, which rolls amongst flames and 
fetches bad people to Hell. Sometimes a hideous head figures in the centre 
amongst the flames. "To roll the Hi no Kuruma" proverb "To be penniless." 

535. KUSUDAMA ~jj^ 3L Hanging bouquet made of paper or cloth 
of five colours, in the shape of artificial flowers, and hung in houses on the 
fifth of the fifth month (Tango no Sekku, or boys' festival). See also CHARMS. 

536. KUSUNOKI MASASHIGE 7|$f IE J$. Often called the "Bayard 
of Japan," this warrior remains in history as the type of loyalty and unselfish 
devotion coupled with a deep knowledge of military science. Born in 1294, 
son of Kusunoki Masazume, he was given the name TAMONMARO, and was 
educated until fifteen years old at the monastery of Hinozan, in Yamato. 
He became very proficient in the military knowledge of his time, and 
obtained the loan of the thirty volumes on strategy which had been bought 
from the Chinese Emperor by Oye no Koretoki in 697, tradition says, at the 
huge cost of thirty thousand gold taels. He devoured these books, and his 
learning became so great that his superior attempted to have him murdered 
at night in the woods of Kagada. In 1331, Go Daigo Tenno was badly in 
need of a general, and his adviser recommended Masashige; the etiquette 
of the court was however respected, by the Emperor declaring that he had 
had a dream in which the Gods ordered him to take shelter beneath a tree, 
the branches of which stretched to the south. This agreed with the 
description of a camphor tree (Kusu-no-ki), and was interpreted by Fujifusa 
in accordance with his own desire. 

The ability of Masashige was soon put to practical use. TAKATOKI 
deposed and exiled Go Daigo, sending his general, OSARAGI SADANAO, with 
twenty-eight thousand horsemen against Masashige, who was entrenched in 
a hastily constructed fort at Akasaka. After several successful sorties the 
latter got blockaded, and, lacking provisions, he had to resort to stratagem. 
A wood pile was built and covered with corpses of dead enemies. Masashige 
and his troops then escaped one night, leaving only a few men in the fort 
to fire the pyre and spread the false news of his suicide. 

SADANAO was deceived by this ruse, and after capturing the fort went 


< D 





away, leaving only a handful of men to guard it. Later, Masashige sent 
one of his retainers, ONCHI SAKON, disguised as a monkey showman, to 
inquire into the affairs of the enemy. Onchi found that a convoy was 
expected; Masashige intercepted it, and hiding men and weapons in the 
waggons, effected an entrance to the fort, the garrison of which took service 
with him. 

Later, he fortified himself in Chihaya, and having inserted a spurious 
roll in the temple of Tennoji, amongst the prophetic writings of Shotoku 
Daishi, Masashige went with his army to consult the oracle. The spurious 
roll was, of course, opened, and in it he was cryptically compared to a big 
bird which would overcome the huge fish whose presence would cause the 
country to be Hooded during the reign of the ninety-sixth Emperor, whilst 
the sun would not be seen for seventy days. The oracle once interpreted, he 
led his army to battle against the besieging forces of Takatoki, whom he 
defeated (1333). His next exploit was the siege and capture of Kioto during 
the Ashikaga revolt (see SUGIMOTO), when he used another ruse against 
Takauji. But the revolt of the Akamatsu then taking place and the 
re-organisation of the defeated Ashikaga forces being rapidly effected did 
not leave any chance of peace. Masashige advised Go Daigo to leave 
Kioto for the Hieizan, which could easily be fortified, whilst Nitta 
YOSHISADA and himself would protect the surrounding country. His advice 
was set at nought by the intrigues of the courtier KIYOTAKA (q.v.) and the 
obstinacy of the Emperor (1336). 

Masashige then left Kioto, and sent all of his retainers back to his own 
family, keeping with him only his brother Masatsuye, and his son Masatsura. 
At the posting station of Sakurai', where they stopped, he refused to allow 
his son to follow him any further, and presented him with a book on 
strategy. He also gave him some loyal advice, and exhorted him to defend 
at all costs their own castle of Kongozan. The boy was to prove himself 
worthy of his father, and although the episode above related is not credited 
by modern critical historians it is still kept in the elementary Japanese 

Masashige gathered together some seven hundred men and set out for 



the Hiogo coast, where the Emperor, hearing of his decision, sent him an 
order to come back to Kioto; but it was raining, his men were tired, 
and Masashige decided to delay till the morrow. The army of Yoshisada 
was near by to defend the coast near Minatogawa, and he would have 
returned, but in the morning mist the fleet of Ashikaga Takauji was sighted 
near the land and the army of Tadayoshi closing behind at the same time. 
Yoshisada faced the lleet, leaving Tadayoshi to Masashige, who inflicted 
upon his opponent a slight defeat. On the second day his followers were 
reduced to four hundred; on the third there remained only seventy- three, 
and Masashige had been wounded eleven times. Surrounded by the army 
of Tadayoshi and that of Takauji, under Ko no Moronao, they retreated 
into some houses, and Takauji, moved by their valour, sent a messenger to 
Masashige offering to let him pass through his lines unharmed. The hero 
replied that if he needed a road he was still capable of cutting it himself, 
but that he would avail himself of the courtesy of his opponent to send 
Chikudo Maru to his castle of Kongozan to apprise Masatsura of his father's 
death. He then assembled his men, and ten times made them take a solemn 
oath to send their ghosts unto the seventh generation of their descendants 
to excite their hate against the Ashikaga, praying himself that he might 
have seven lives to lay for the service of the Emperor,'* after which they all 
committed seppuku. Masashige's head was taken to Kioto to be publicly 
exposed, where it was seen by his widow and his son (1336). 

Masashige is generally shown in full armour, with a fierce expression 
on his face. The two most common episodes are his separation from his 
son and the battle of Minatogawa, when he is depicted beneath his standard 
seated on a folding seat by the sea coast, the big drum being beaten to 
assemble his followers. 

His crest is a chrysanthemum flower half dipped in the waves. A 
curious netsuke, once in the Gilbertson collection, shews him seated on a 
coil of rope with a mariner's compass in his hand. Many popular histories 
of Masashige have been published, amongst which the History of the Three 
Kusunoki and the Nanko Seichu Gwaden (1815). 

* Hirose, in 1904, composed a poem embodying the same wish. 





537. KUSUNOKI MASATSURA $f IE ft was the son of Kusunoki 
Masashige. He was eleven years old when his father sent him back home 
before the battle of Minatogawa. After seeing the severed head of Masashige 
he went into a room full of Buddhist figures in their castle of Kawachi to 
commit seppuku, but was prevented by his mother. In 1348, when only 
twenty-three years old, he raised an army against Takauji, and with a 
thousand men forming the garrison of the castle of Chihaya, he defeated the 
attack of thirteen thousand men under the command of Hosokawa AKIUJI. 
He was then rewarded by Go Murakami with the title of Sacmun no Kami. 
In Kyoto he attacked Takauji, who ran away, his wife was killed, and his 
brother Tadayoshi escaped by an underground passage. In 1349, Ko no 
Moronao and Moroyasu attacked him with six thousand men, he went to 
Yoshino, and the Emperor told him that he trusted him as his elbows and 
thighs; he wept, and with his men worshipped at the tomb of Go Daigo, 
upon which they cut their names with their swords, and with an arrow he 
inscribed upon the door of the temple the poem: 


Kanete kakugo no* 
Azusa yumi 

Naki kazu ni iru 
Naozo todomeru, 
which is still on the door now, and means: 

" I could not return, I presume, so I will keep my name among those 
who are dead with bows" (allusion to his having written it with an 

With three thousand soldiers only he met the enemy on the road 
"between rice fields" (naivaie), at the battle of Shijo Nawate. He was 
fatally wounded, and committed seppuku with his brother Masatoki. 

Once, on his way to Yoshino he rescued the court lady, BEN NO NAIJI, 

6 Also read Kanete omoye ba. 


from the attacks of Moronao's servants, and the Emperor suggested that she 
should become his wife, but he refused the gift, replying: 

"Totemo yo ni 
i Nagaro bekumo 


Aranu mi no 

Kari no chigiri wo 


> Ikade musuban." 

- \ 


can I promise a short marriage who would by no means live long in 
this world." 

538. KUYA SHONIN |g & A- Old priest who, when on a 
pilgrimage, suspended from his waist a metal gong and struck it every time 
he had said ten prayers. He is depicted with that implement, the necessary 
hammer in the right hand, a staff in the left, and a sprig of bamboo in his 

539. KUZUNOHA U 0) ||. The fox wife of ABE xo YASUNA (q.v.), 
depicted nursing her child, or as a white fox giving ABE the key to her 
disappearance in a dream. She has usually a writing brush in her mouth. 


541. KWANROKU US ]AV The Corean priest, KWAL-LEUK, who, in 
602, brought to the Court of the Empress Suiko the books of the Calendar 
and treatises on astrology and magic. He was rebuked by the Imperial 
Prince Shotoku, who was afraid least occult practices might prove fatal to 

542. KWANNON H "|f (the Chinese KWANYIN, Sanskrit AVALOKITE- 
SEVARA). This Boddhisatva, Deity of Mercy, spiritual son of AMIDA, is 
represented in a feminine shape because in China its worship got confused 
with that of a deified daughter of a semi-legendary King of Chow, of 
whom it was said that, when she refused to marry the man selected by her 
father and was sentenced to death, the executioner's sword broke on her 
neck. Kwannon is said to have visited Hades, and when at the bottom of 
the last circle she took such compassion upon the damned that she exclaimed, 



Amitofo! and a rain of lotus suddenly fell, the foundations of Hades were 
shaken, and the damned released, after which, the Regent of Hell sent her 
to the Lotus Paradise Island of Poo Too on a lotus flower. The Butsu dzo 
dzui (II., p. 12) gives the eight varieties of Kwannon as: 

Senslriit, with a thousand hands, of which some forty are shown, with 
various attributes, gems, lotus, willow, wheel, begging bowl, shakujo, 
halbert, etc. 

Bato, the horse-headed, with three faces and a miniature horse amongst 
her hair, with eight arms grasping the sword, axe, wheel, sceptre, and rope. 

Jiuichimen, with eleven small faces upon her head, probably as a relic 
of the association of Avalokitesevara with Manjusri (Monju) and Vajrapani; 
her left hand holds a lotus and her right is extended downwards. 

Shokwanze-on, the Holy, her right hand blessing, the left (lower down) 
holding a lotus. 

Niorin, the Kwannon with the wheel of the law, the omnipotent, with 
four arms only, carrying the wheel, a lotus, three jewels, and the last one 
supporting the right cheek. At her temple of Kwan-non-ji, in Tsu, an 
image found by fishermen in 709 is enshrined, and festivals called Oni Osaye 
are held on the first days of March to ensure the prosperity of the fishing 
craft. See Satow and Howes. 

Juntei. Kwannon with nine pairs of arms and a tiara of pyramidal 
shape, truncated and bejewelled. 

Fiiken, with eight arms and a similar headgear, she carries the shakujo, 
lotus, hosso, and rope. 

Gorin, with the left hand horizontally extended on a level with the 
heart and the right one carrying upright a willow. Besides which, there are 
thirty-two more presentments of the Goddess, also given in the Butsu dzo 
dzui, amongst which Riugu seated on a dragon, Anoku on a rock near a 
waterfall, Gyoran standing on a carp are the most popular forms of this 

There is in Nara a figure of Kwannon called Hito Koto Kwannon, to 
which it is unlawful to pray more than once because she Answers only one 
prayer from anyone. 



Thirty-three places are particularly sacred to Kwannon. Kwannon is 
considered as an incarnation of the last Buddha Shaka, who manifests himself 
in the thirty-two incarnations to propagate the understanding of his doctrine 
amongst human beings, and as such his name signifies: the Master whose 
gaze is lowered upon the earth. 

An image of Kwannon was once found in the Arakawa (Sumida Gawa) 
by a fisherman named HAMANARI, who caught it in his fishing net, and 
with his two brothers, Tomonari and Takenari, he enshrined the image in 
a small straw hut at AGASA, from which originated the temple of ASAKUSA. 

The image is now called ICHI NO GONGEN, and the three brothers have 
been deified as SAXSHA GOXGEN. 

The version, however, varies, and it is given in Satow and Howes' as 
follows: In the reign of Suiko Tenno there lived on the Golden Hill, north 
of Tokyo, where the Asakusa temple now stands, a noble named HASHI NO 
NAKATOMO. Banished from court, he sank to such depths of poverty as to 
become a fisherman, in which occupation he was helped by two of his old 
retainers. One day every haul of the net brought back a small image of 
Kwannon, about one inch and eight-tenths high, no matter how often 
they threw it back into the water. Finally, Nakatomo carried it to the 
top of the hill and built a shrine for it. 

better known under his posthumous title of TENJIX SAMA, or Temmangu. 

blind priest who founded the Toshodaiji temple at Nara. 

545. KWANTAI IT ^. One of the sons of Benten, also called SEKION; 
transformation of Fugen Bosatsu (Samantabhadra), shown with a girdle 
emblematic of magistrature. 

546. KWANYU P 33 (HI *ffif)- Celebrated Chinese general, canonised 
as an immortal in 1128 by Kao Tsung, deified as God of War under 
the name KWANTI in 1594 by Cheng Tsung, and further, in 1878, raised 
to the same level as Confucius as chief object of national worship, the 








promotion being duly recorded in the Peking Gazette (Lyall, Oriental Studies, 
Vol. 2). 

Kwanyu began life as a seller of bean curd, but spent his spare time 
in study, and a chance meeting with Liu PEI (GENTOKU) gave him the 
opportunity of his life. He entered into an oath of brotherhood with the 
latter and with Chohi, the blue-eyed red-haired butcher, in a peach orchard 
belonging to Chohi. He then became a general (184), and followed the 
fortunes of Gentoku and the Han dynasty. T'sao T'sao, having made 
prisoner the two wives of Gentoku, tried to incite Kwanyu to sin by sending 
him to guard the two ladies at night in their room. But Kwanyu vindicated 
his loyalty to his friend by staying the whole night standing in a passage 
leading to the apartment, with his drawn sword in one hand and a lantern 
in the other. He was killed in battle by Sonken (Sux K'TAX) in 219. 

Kwanyu is a very popular though ferocious figure, depicted in Chinese 
dress, grasping in one hand his long black beard (to which he owed his 
nickname: the Lord of the splendid black beard) and in the other a Chinese 
halberd, or spear. Once, T'sao T'sao gave him a brocade bag in which to 
keep his beard, and Kwanyu is shown receiving it on the end of his halberd 
(Ehon Tsithoshi). Sometimes he is accompanied by some retainer of fierce 
aspect, his squire Tcheou Tsang or by his own son, Koan Pin, but more 
often shown in company with the other two heroes of Han, Chohi and 
Gentoku (q.v.). He is also depicted guarding the wives of Gentoku (some- 
times reading while his enemies watch him, hidden behind hangings), or 
reading a message from T'sao T'sao. 

547. KYOCHI |H ^f, of Choan, went to Mount Ro with his nephew 
TAIRO, and later was led to Mount Gi by a divinity disguised as a wood 
cutter. He built an altar and learnt Taoism. One day he saw a fairy 
coat drop at his feet from the sky, and as soon as he shouldered it clouds 
bore him aloft. 

548. KYOSEIGAN ff ffi ^- A sage tying needles in the mane of a 
wild horse. He bought a wild horse in Choan and rode it to the abode of 
the female Rishi, TAI ITSU-GENKUN ^ } 3a- 



The latter said: "This horse is a dragon under my care, useless to 
mankind; let it loose to go to the sea of Isui"; and her page said: "when 
the horse comes back some needles must be sent me from a place named 
Baku, where they are kept by a man named Denba." 

Kyoseigan did as he was told, and tied the needles to the horse's mane, 
and went to Isui. When the horse reached the water it was at once 
transformed into a dragon and went away. 

549. KYOSENHEI fp ^ (offers a peach to a page). He lived in 
Mount JOYO the whole of the period Kuun of the reign of Eiso ^ ^ 
of To. His neighbour, KYOMEIJO iff- t^J %*, came to live in the same 
mountain a century later, in the twelfth year of Kanto, under the rule of 
Tokuso. This latter sage had a hundred and one female attendants to 
gather wood, and once one of them met Kyosenhei seated on a rock, who 
told her that he was the ancestor of her master and gave her a peach. 
Kyosenhei is sometimes depicted as a woman. 

550. KYOSHINKUN jvj : jit ^. The Chinese Hi) SUN ff- jg (Kyo son), 
one of the Taoist patriarchs, who died at the age of one hundred and 
thirty-six years, and was followed to Heaven by the whole of his household, 
including his dog and cock (compare RYUAN). His early days were spent 
in amusement, but once he shot a fawn with an arrow, and the sight of the 
doe licking her dead progeny led him to reform and to enter a career of 
study and religious practices. He was able to cure diseases, make gold 
from lead, and a pine tree which he had painted in a house protected the 
inmates against fire and flood. 

551. KYOYO HI fg lived in the time of Bu of Shyu. He had six 
brothers, and they all learnt magic, built a hut, and became fairies. When 
he ascended to Heaven he left his hut on the mountain, which is therefore 
called the Hut Mountain, ROZAN. 

552. KYUSHOKI Jr J|l ^ was a Chinese sage of the time of the 
Emperor Taiso of Gen. A dead tree stood in the Emperor's gardens, and 
the sage revived it by running round and whipping the trunk. 





553. LAO TSZE. See ROSHI. 


Name usually given to a Chinese story, frequently illustrated in pictures, 
showing two old men taking leave of a third one at the end of a bridge, 
the three laughing heartily. 

There are two versions of it. One says that an old philosopher retired 
to an island and swore never to leave it. Two of his friends used to visit 
him, and tried every time to make him break his vow, but in vain. Once, 
however, that they had whiled away the time with a more copious series of 
libations, the two beguiled the old man over the small bridge connecting 
his island with the rest of the world, and then the three made fun of it. 

A more dignified version is given in Taj i ma's Relics. In the time of 
Hsiao Wu (373-396) there lived a Chinese priest named Hui YUAN, ^ ^ 
ljj, Kei Yen Hoshi, who had a thousand pupils in the temple Tung Lin 
Ssu, on the mountain Lu Shan. This worthy never left the mountain for 
thirty years, but used to descend to Hu Hsi, halfway down, and then take 
leave of his visitors. Two friendly literati, Tao Yuan Ming (Toyemmei, q.v.), 
and Liu Hsiu Ching, (Riku shu sei) |? $ ^, often visited him, and one 
dav, in the ardour of conversation, he walked with them further than usual. 

J * 

They stopped and laughed when they became aware of it. See Wakan 
Meigwa yen, IV; Ehon Hokart, II., 12. 

555. LI PEH (Li TAI PEH). See RIHAKU. 

556. LITERATURE (Gon of). See MAO-CH'ANG. 

557. LIU PANG. See KAN NO Koso. 


559. LOK-LI-SEN-SAI (Kio Li SIEN SHENG). One of the Four Recluse 
Greyheads. See KAKWOKO. 

560. LOST CASH (Story of the). AWOTO SAYEMON FUJITSUNA dropped 
once at night ten cash in the waters of the Nameri Gawa, and sending for 



men and torches had them picked up from the bottom of the brook, spending 
fifty cash in the operation. 

Some of his friends chided him upon this apparently unprofitable 
expenditure, and he replied that any way the ten cash would have been lost 
if he had not spent- fifty, the fifty benefited someone else besides himself, and 
therefore none of the total expenditure of sixty could be called unprofitable. 
This has been illustrated by Hokusai in the Awoto Fujitsuna-moryo-an of 
Bakin (1875 Yedo, 5 vols.). 

For another trait of Awoto Sayemon see OTA FUJITSUNA. 

561. LOVE (Goo of). See AISEN Mio O. 

562. LU TUNG PING. Sennin. See RIOTOSHIN. 

563. LU WEN. An old man who fell asleep while watching the 
Sennins playing at Go in the mountains, and woke up after several centuries. 

Compare OSHITSU (Wang Chung) and the Chinese tale of YUAN CHAO 
(Genkei) and his friend Liu CH'EN (Ryushin). This story will be found in 
extenso in Greey's Golden Lotus. 

564. MAGATAMA &) -fe. Comma-shaped stones associated with the 
fabulous history of Japan in the times of Amaterasu and Susano O. They 
are sometimes made to serve as netsuke. As jewels they decorated the 
weapons of the Gods, and were used as necklaces. One may wonder 
whether their shape and use were derived from the custom followed by 
hunters of wearing the claws and teeth of the wild animals they had 

565. MAITREYA |Jjg fjlj (Japanese, MIROKU). The next expected 
incarnation of BUDDHA, depicted sitting in the Western fashion instead of 
squatting like the Buddha Shaka. See HOTEL 

566. MAKO j$t $j (also MAKU). Female Sennin of the Taoists, sister 
of OYEN (Wang Yuan or Wang fang-p'ing), who bad been made by Lao 
Tsze, the ruler of fifteen thousand Genii. She acted as his handmaiden and 
assistant. She is represented throwing to the ground grains of rice which 
became transformed into Cinnabar, in presence of her brother's disciple, 



Ts'ai King (Saikio), minister of Sung Hwei Tsung. She is said to have 
had very long nails, and the back scraper in form of a hand is called in 
Japan Mako no te (hand of Mako). 

Hokusai's Mangwa shows the three engaged in conversation. 


568. MANDARA 3| P $j|, or MANDALA. Circle or assemblage of 

569. MANZAI jUj |||. Word of congratulation ; curtailed form of 
Senshiu Manzai, wish of ten thousand years, used about the New Year. The 
name also applies to the dancers or mummers, who go about the streets in 
groups of two, called Mikawa Manzai (a custom introduced under the 
Tokugawa dynasty) ; when three or more, the most popular masks used being 
the lion's (Shishi mai), they are called DAI KAGURA. The masks of 
Hiottoko, Uzuine, and O Kina are also used. 

Groups of dancers form a very common theme in netsuke, often one 
Manzai dancer accompanied by a Saizo performer. 

570. MAO CH'ANG ^ j|. Chinese God of Literature, shown as a 
slender figure in flowing robes standing upon a monster's head, and holding 
a brush in his extended hand. One foot touches the ground. He lived in 
the second century B.C., and wrote the Book of Odes. 

571. MARISHITEN ^ ^Ij ^ ^. Deity of martial aspect, represented 
mounted on a boar. It is of Brahmanic origin, being a transformation of 
Marichi Deva Boddhisattva, offspring of Brahma and Goddess of light. It 
is depicted with eight arms, carrying respectively the sun, the moon, a 
spear, a bow and arrow, a sword, a war fan. Marishiten has three faces, 
and is the patron of those who learn to trade. The Deity resides in a star 
of the big Bear, and her husband, the Deva of the dipper with her nine 
sons, in Sagittarius. Marishiten is also called Queen of Heaven, and some- 
times receives the dragon as a further emblem. 




573. MASAKADO $f H (HEISHIN NO ^ Q)} was, according to legend, 
a warrior who rebelled in the tenth century (Tenkei no Ran), and who was 
enabled by magic to create about his person ghostly retainers identical with 
himself in appearance and deportment so as to make it impossible for him 
to be detected. TAWARA TODA (q.v.) decided to kill him, and getting 
amongst this crowd whilst they were asleep he felt the wrist of each to find 
a pulse. None had any but Masakado, who was forthwith despatched to 
the realm of shades, when the whole of his apparent retainers immediately 
disappeared. The historical version is, however, as follows: 

Taira no Masakado formed a court at Sashima, in Shimosa, and called 
himself Heishin No (Taira Prince) in open revolt against the Kioto govern- 
ment of the Fujiwara Shoguns, pushing his cruelty so far as to slay his 
own uncle, Taira no Kunika, who had refused to recognise him. The latter 
was avenged by his son, Taira no Sadamori, who led the Fujiwara troops 
and defeated Masakado. The Story of Masakado's rebellion goes on to 
the effect that Hidesato (better known as Tawara Toda) had thought to 
enlist with Masakado, but on the occasion of his audience the latter, who 
was dining, picked up some rice which had dropped from his bowl to the 
mats, and Hidesato, thinking him a miser, left to seek service with the 
Fujiwara. Masakado, who knew his skill as an archer, was grieved, and 
fearing that he might become an easy victim to Hidesato's arrows 
he caused several (some say five) of his retainers to be dressed exactly 
like him, arid to imitate his movements on the battlefield so as to 
baffle Hidesato. -The stratagem was successful until Hidesato had killed 
three pseudo-Masakados, when he began abusing roundly the real one 
in such a way that he had to reply, and thus betraying his identity 
lost his life. 

M. Bertin, in his Guerres du Japan, identifies this arrow with the one 
wetted with saliva which killed the centipede of the legend, and he sees in 
that centipede, Mukade, a figure representing the army of the rebels, which 
went seven and a half times round the mountain Mikami Yama. Of the 
bag of rice and other presents the explanation is simple: they represent the 
lands and goods given to Hidesato by the grateful Fujiwara. Masakado's 



castle (Sowa no furugosho) was for a long time believed to be haunted by the 
ghosts of his soldiers. 

574. MASAKO *jfc -$-. Daughter of Hojo Tokimasa by his first wife. 
She married Yoritomo, and there is an amusing legend to the effect that it 
was by mistake. Yoritomo was afraid of the jealousy of Masako's stepmother, 
and wrote asking as a wife her sister, who was very plain of face; but his 
retainer, Morinaga, destroyed this letter and wrote another, asking for 
Masako's hand. Hojo Tokimasa was determined to marry his daughter to 
a Taira, and wedded Masako to Taira no Kanetada, but she eloped on her 
wedding day with Yoritomo. In a dramatised version the two sisters are 
made to dream of Yoritomo's letter, and Masako buys the dream of her 

Masako, however, remained Hojo to the core, and after the death of 
Yoritomo, although she retired from the world and became a nun, her 
influence, combined with that of her father's, secured for the Hojo clan the 
first place in the government of Japan. 



577. MASKS were greatly used for No dances and other theatrical 
performances to cover the face of the performer and represent the classical 
face of certain individual, hero, deity, devil, ghost, legendary animal, etc., 
as the case might be. Small masks were used as netsuke, whether alone or 
in groups, the masks of animals having often a moveable jaw. 

War masks were made of iron and lacquered in red internally. 

Masks appear to have been introduced from China about the seventh 
and eighth centuries A.D., perhaps in connection with Buddhism. Deshayes 
mentions some old masks with four lozangular eyes,' :i; such as were used on 
New Year's Eve by the twenty demon expellers of that period within the 
palace, in the eighth century, but the oldest forms mentioned in the Shuko 
Jisshu and the Itsukushima Znye have only two eyes. Most of these ancient 

''' The Chinese say that the pupil of the eye becomes square in people who reach the age of eight 
hundred years 

2I 3 


masks, dating from the Xllth and Xlllth century, have strong hard features 
and remarkably large noses. They were used in the early dances of military 
or religious character: Sambaso (VHIth century), Shirabiyoshi, Sarugaku (Xllth 
century), Gigaku, and Dengaku, which preceeded to No GAKU, or No dance 
as it is now called. But few of these old masks have come to Europe: they 
have been religiously kept in temples, like the Okame of the Horyuji temple 
(VHth century, Kokktva, 29), although a large number of No masks, perhaps 
not the best pieces but nevertheless beautiful specimens of the mask maker's 
art, found their way to the Occidental world in the early seventies. Mr. 
Gonse tells us that they were sold a vil prix, and only a few collectors, 
chiefly on the Continent, with true insight, secured the finest specimen. 
There does not appear to be any representative collection of masks in 
England. Dry goods stores for a long time made a feature of Japanese 
masks for decorative purposes, and of late years, the genuine pieces being 
rare, worthless imitations made of paper pulp and plaster have become a 
standard trade article. 

Too many see in masks the element of grotesque only, and this may 
account for the small number of mask collectors. But even those who do 
not admire the full-sized masks can hardly fail to wax enthusiastic over the 
smaller mask netsuke, in which the wood, either bare or lacquered, has been 
treated by the artist with such consummate skill as to impart to the small 
mask as much life, energy and caractere as if it were of natural size. 

In small netsuke masks groups are common, often representing the 
various figures of a same No dance, as for instance in Dojoji, the mask of 
Kiyohime as a young girl, coupled with the witch mask of Hannya. 

Netsuke masks are sometimes carved out of a material called Honen, 
with pink fleshy tints, varying in depth with the thickness, as in a cameo. 
The red layer has a substratum of creamy colour, and this material was said 
to be derived from the skull of the Howo bird: it appears to be from the 
crane. The names of large No masks are generally written inside, often in 
red and in Kana, but Japanese dealers' marks are apt to be found written in 
a similar way. 

Few comprehensive illustrated lists of masks are available; Muller's 



exhaustive essay in the Toung Pao gives a hundred and three names and a 
list of the No in which they were used, but only twenty-three figures. It 
has therefore been thought advisable to devote to this subject a fairly 
large space, and to give a list based upon a number of works, indicated 
further on in a bibliographical note, in the hope that such a list may prove 
of some use to collectors. 

1. AYAKASHI, man's mask (illustrated in the KOKK\VA). 

2. MITAMA AYAKASHI, variant of i (K). 

3. AKOBU, and AKOBUJO (W and T). 

4. AKUBO, wicked priest with coarse beard (G). 

5. AKUJO, wicked old man usually bearded (T). 

6. HANAKOBU AKUJO, same as above, with wart on the nose. 

7. KOBU AKUJO, variant of 5 (K and M). 

8. MEIKA AKUJO, variant of 5. 

9. WASHIHANA AKUJO, variant of 5, with "eagle" nose (HoK. MANGWA). 


11. ASAKURA, see KOJO. 

12. AYAKIRI, Gigaku mask (S-J). 

13. BATO, Gigaku mask with long hair and big nose (S-J). 

14. BESHIMI, demon's mask (T, W, Sun, HM). 

15. CHOREI BESHIMI, variant of Beshimi, chief Oni (Mu). See also 

1 6. BOSATSU, mask of a Boddhisattva (S-J). 

17. BUAKU, very bad but plucky old man. 

18. BUGAKU, perhaps a variant of 17 (HM). 

19. CHIJI NO Jo, old man's mask (B-I, M). 

20. CHOJA, Gigaku mask of a thin smiling man's face , with hooked 

21. CHUJO, or WAKA OTOKO, young man, an officer (Sun, T, M). 

22. DAI HECHI, inscribed ;/C^*2 L, Dai Hetsu shi, a devil's mask (HM). 

23. DAI KASSHOKU, smiling female mask (K). 

24. DAI DOJI, great mask of DOJI (young man). 

25. DEIGAN, from Dei, mud and Gan, eye, woman mask (K, T, M). 

2I 5 


26. EMMEI KWANJA, perhaps Daikoku (Muller, Berlin Museum fur Volker- 
kunde). See JOMEIKANJA. 

27. FUDO, God of waterfalls (q.v.) (M). 

28. FUKAI, also FUKAMI, SHAKUMI, or Zo, young woman (Sun, T, Mu). 

29. FUKUJIN, lucky man (HM). 

30. FUTEN, wind god (q.v.) (M). 

31. FUKAKUSA OTOKO, man's mask with anguished face (K). 

32. GEDO, demon's or heretic's mask (H, M). 

33. GENJORAKU, Gigaku mask (S-J). 

34. HAKUSHIKI, "white coloured" (Sun), identical with Okina as a 
Sambasso mask. It is of the same shape as Kokushiki, which, however, is 
all black. 

35. HANNYA, mask of a female demon, of frequent occurrence; used in 
the No, Adachigahara, Dojoji (Kiyohime) Aoi no ue, Momijigari, in the 
representations of Watanabe no Tsuna, Omori Hikohichi, etc. (Sun, K, M, 
T, Mu). 

36. HASHIHIME, the Bridge maiden (Sun, K, M). 

37. HEIDA, man's mask (Sun, K, M). 

38. HEMI Jo, old man's mask, very similar to Sanko (Sun). 

39. HIOTTOKO, man's mask with the mouth brought far forward in 
tubular shape, or merely pouting lips, sometimes with a moustache, perhaps 
derived from the octopus. Commonly met with on Manzai dancers as a 
comic mask and used in Kiogen (HM). 

40. HOKWANSANTE, Gigaku mask (S-J). 

41. IKAZUCHI, other name of the Thunder God KAMINARI, or Raiden (q.v.) 
(M, Mu). 

42. IKKAKU SENNIN (q.v.), man's mask with a single horn on the fore- 
head. Chief personage of the A T o of the same name by Motoyosu. 

43. IMAWAKA, man's mask (Sun). 

44. JAGUCHI, "Snake's mouth" (BMfV). 

45. JIDO, boy's mask, the chief performer in the No Kikujido (Sun). 

46. JISUNGAMI, "Ten feet Kami" female mask (BI, M). 

47. Jo, generic name for masks of old men (HM). 


BUAKU (././;.) 

KIJO (U.T.) 

SAMBASO (./.) 

OX I (.-/..) 
hEIKKO (./..) 

nr.ic.AX (H.I.) 

BOSATSU ("././.'.) 
SOJOHO (n:i..ii.) 
KAMIXAK1 (/(./.) 

RlUJIX's ATTKX1IAXT (ir.C..l.) 


KITKAI (.-;./;.) 

ROCO (./..) 


48. JOMEI KANJA, mask of old man with smiling face and chin beard 
apparently identical with 26 (BI, M). 

49. JIUROKU, "sixteen" man with restful expression, perhaps Kikujido 
when older. 

50. KACHIKI, "Hungry" female mask (K). 

51. KAGEKIYO (q.v.), mask of a blind old man hero of the No of same 
name (T). 

52. KAMINARI, see IKAZUCHI, Thunder God (M). 

53. KANTAN NO OTOKO, man from HANTAN (Chih lih, China), hero of a 
No translated in Chamberlain's Classical Poetry of the Japanese (Sun). 

54. KANYAZU, frog mask used in the No, JIRAIYA. 

55. KATSUJIKI, man mask, a Glutton (T, Mu). 

56. Kuo, female demon's mask, smaller than HANNYA. 

57. KIOKUMI, female mask (M). 

58. KITOKU, Gigaku mask (S-J). 

59. KITSUNE, fox mask (H, M). 

60. KOBESHIMI, small HESHIMI, demon's mask, sometimes bearded (T, K). 

61. KOJA, "Fox-Snake" (BMfV). 

62. KOJI, perhaps identical with Katsujiki (HM). TOGAN KOJI ; JINEN KOJI. 

63. KOJO, "Small old man" (T). 

64. KOIGUCHI KITOKU, Gigaku mask (S-J). 

65. KOKUJIKI, the Black Sambasso mask. 

66. KOOMOTE, small female mask (HM, Sun, K, T). 

67. KONKWAI, mask of fox transformed into an old priest. 

68. KOTOBIDE, "Small Tobide" (Sun). 

69. Ko OUCHIJO, see OUCHIJO (Sun). 

70. KOZURA, small maiden (M). 

71. KUMASAKA, see KUMASAKA CnoiiAN the robber (Sun). 

72. KUROHIGE, black bearded man (Sun). 

73. KUROKAMI, black haired man (BMfV). 

74. KWONIN, Gigaku masks (S-J). 

75. MAGOJIRO, female mask (Mu, K, M). 

76. MAIJO, or BUJO, dancing old man (K). 



77. MAMBI, " perfect eyebrows," conspicuous by their absence (\V, 

78. MASU, or MASUGAMI, girl's mask (K). 

79. MOKO, "furious Tiger" (BMfV). 

80. NAKIMASU, Weeping girl (K). 

Si. NAMAXARI, Demon's mask with shorter horns than Hannya, used in 
the No Shekkoseki (sec Tamamo no Maye), and depicted on the Oni caught 
by Koremochi (HM, W, Mu). 

82. NANJA, "Man snake" (BMfV). 

83. NIAKUXAX, identical with Chujo (HM). 

84. NIUDO, same as Mitsume Niudo, three-eyed goblin. Niudo means 
"retired to religious life." 

85. OBESHIMI, "great Heshimi," hornless demon's mask with mouth 
tightly closed (Sun, T, K). 

86. OKA.ME, see UZUME (M, HM, Gillot). 

87. O KINA, Sambasso mask of old man, with tufts of hair on the 
forehead and at corners of mouth, very similar to a comic Roman mask 
illustrated by Floegels (Munsterberg). 

88. OMOXI (BMfV). 

89. ONI, generic name for demon (HM). 

90. OTOBIDE, Great TOBIDE, devil's mask with open mouth, black beard, 
no horns (Sun, HM, Mu). 

91. OTOKO and ONXA, old people, man and woman, Gigaku masks. 

92. RAIDEN, see Kaminari, Ikazuchi (M). 

93. RASHOMON, mask of devil, the oni of Rachomon, see Watanabe no 
Tsuna (Mu, Gillot). 

94. OUCHIJO, old man's mask (Sun). 

95. RAN Rio, mask of the Sea King Riujin, also called Riu-O. Gigaku 
mask (S-J). 

96. ROJO, smiling old woman (T). 

97. Roso, smiling old priest (Gillot). 

98. SAISORO, Gigaku mask (S-J). 

99. SAMBA, or SAMBASSO (q.v.), (HM, Mu, Shoken Kisho), see the masks 



SHO-JO (/l.f.) 

MASU (B.I.) 

.MAMBI (f.A..V.) 

RANKIU (../.) 
CHICHI NO JO (*./.) 

JISUNGAMI (/.'./.) 
YACE O.NNA (('.,/. .I/.) 




HASHIJIME (C..-/.^/.) 

SHISIII (/.'./) 


DEVI I. (f..-l.M.) 


1 ' 


of Kokushiki and Hakushiki and Okina. Also as a comic figure with tongue 
pulled out. 

100. SANKO, or SANKOJO, mask of old man originated by the carver 
Sankobo (T, K, M). 

101. SARU, Monkey (HM), there are several variants, amongst which 
SARU BESHIMI and SARU TOBIDE, both monkey devils. 

102. SARUTA, Gigaku mask of Saruta Hiko no Mikoto with the long 
nose, easily confused with the Tengu (S-J). 

103. SEMIMARU, man mask of the famous flute player (q.v.). 

104. SHAKA, mask of the Buddha (S-J). 

105. SHAKUMI, female mask, see FUKAI (K). 

1 06. SHI KAMI, man's mask frowning (Sun). 

107. SHINJA (W, T). 

108. SHINSOTOKU, Gigaku mask (S-J). 

109. SHINTAI, man's mask (K). 

no. SHIOFUKI, the salt wind, the mouth extended in a long spout (HM). 
in. SHISHIGUCHI, Lion's mouth, mentioned in the Sun (M). 

112. SHIWAJO, frowning wrinkled old man (Sun, W, T). 

113. SHOJO (q.v.), sake drinker (Sun, T, K). 

114. SHOJO, old man's mask with bearded face and painful expression 
(K, M). 

115. SHUNKWAN, mask of the priest Shunkwan, hero of the No of the 
same name (q.v.) (M, p. 211, mention in Sun). 

116. SUIKO, Bugaku mask with flat ears, pointed eagle nose, coxcomb 
on top of the head which is covered with tiger's skin. See KAPPA. 

117. SUMIYOSHI OTOKO, young man with raised eyebrows (K). 

118. TAKO, or HIOTTOKO, or IGO, often with one eye open, the other 
closed, and with the classical spout in place of mouth. Comic mask. 

1 19. TENKO, fox mask (HM). 

1 20. TENGU (q.v.), the old Tengu masks have the Karasu Tengu type 
of head, the Tengu with long human nose is also met with, and very 
similar to Saruto, but painted red. SOJOBO'S mask is often identical with 
OTOBIDE, but to which is added a wig (B-I). 



121. TOKOUKA, old man's mask with a broad smile, and with half-closed 
winking eyes (Gillot). 

122. TORU (BMfV, see Owada Tateki, vol. 4). 

123. TSURIMANAKO, slanting eyed man's mask, hornless devil (T, Gillot). 

124. DBA, old woman (HM, Sun, M). 

125. UOBIYOE (BMfV). 

126. UZUME, see OKAME. 

127. WAKA OXXA, young woman; WAKA OTOKO, young man (Sun, T). 

128. WARAIJO, laughing old man identical with Sanko Jo (Sun). 

129. YACE OTOKO, thin man (T, Sun, M, Gillot). 

130. YACE OXXA, thin painful woman's face (T, Gillot). 

131. YAKAN, see Kitsune, fox mask (BMfV). 

132. YAMA NO KAMI, Lord of the Mountain, sometimes three eyed (HM, W). 

133. YAMA UBA (q.v.), female mask, sometimes with white hair painted 
on, but also used with a huge wig (K, M, T). 

134. YASHA, mask of a Goddess, with a laugh verging upon ferocity 

135. YORIMASA (q.v.) (K, T, Gillot). 

136. YOSHISADA NITTA (q.v.), teeth biting the lower lip, an arrow cut 
across the forehead. 

137. YOROHOSHI (also YO\VA HOSHI), infirm priest (Sun). 

138. Zo, or Zo OXXA, see FUKAI. 


T. F. W. K. MULLER, Einiges nebev No Masken, T'oung Pao, March, 1897. 

This essay contains a list of No dances with the names of the masks 
used, and gives all the names in Japanese characters, with an index under 

M. Dr. O. MUNSTERBERG, Japanische Ktinstgeschichte, Westermann, 1906 

G. Catalogue of the Gillot Auction, Paris, Byng, 1904. 

BMfV. Berlin Museum fur Volkerkunde, quoted by Muller. 

S. The Sun ^ $%. Vol. i, part i and 3 Tokyo Hakubunkwan, 1895. 


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S-J. The SHUKOJISSHU ^ ^j ~f* fj|, parts i, 3, 5 of the Gakki section 
(musical instruments, inventories of the treasures of various temples) gives 
some seventy masks, of which thirty are named. 

T. The encyclopaedia, Tokivai Settsu Hyakka Tsu (1835), quoted by 
Muller (plate reproduced in the T'oung Pao). 

K. The KOKKWA, parts 28/31, gives thirty named masks, with names of 
artists and a short note on the development of the art. 

HM. HOKUSAI'S MAXGWA, vol. 2, pages 9 and 10. Thirty-two masks 
named in kana. 

W. Wakan hon Seki sho gen shi ko, translated by Siebold, 1835, quoted 
by Muller. 

Gashosha, Magazine of Japanese art, 1898. 

Mu. Dai Nippon Eitai setsuyo mnjinzo, 1849 (Encyclopaedia), Nihon 
Bijitsu Givaho, 1898. 

KONGO, Bitei Ippan f| % $. 

OWADA TATEKI, work on the No dances, in 8 vols., 1892, index to which 
is given by Muller. 

Owada Tateki, popular article upon the No in the FAR EAST, 24/25, 

GOMSE, L'Art Japonais, both the large and small editions. 

Gonse, an Article in the Monde moderne, Vol. I., 1898. 

L.MIGEOX, Les Chefs d'oeuvre de 1'Art Japonais (three plates of masks out 
of a hundred Collotypes), Paris, 1905, D. A. Longuet. 

Ch. de KAY, Magazine of Art, October, 1898. 

BROCKHAUS, Netsnke, 1905. 

E. DESHAYES, Conference, Musee Guimet, 1897. 

Catalogue of the Tokyo Museum. 

Itsnkushima Zuye. 

Histoire de I' Art Japonais public par la Commission Imperiale, Paris, 
1900 (privately issued). 

. Kamenfu, "The book of masks." 

Men Mekiki sho, Expert treatise on masks. 

Kamen Oboyegaki, also a treatise on the subject. 



578. MATAHEI J ^ (DoMO NO, ^ f X the Stammerer), founder of 
the Ukiyoe's School, was a pupil of the celebrated painter, SHOGEN, and 
jealous of his co-pupil, MITSUZUMI TOSA, to whom SHOGEN had granted this 
name. Despairing of ever getting on, and being continuously chided upon 
his stammering, he was led by his wife to paint his own image upon a stone 
slab, part of a garden trough, requesting that the trough might be used as 
his tomb. So much concentrated energy did he put into his work that the 
image showed through the stone, and Shogen, perceiving this, granted him 
the privilege of using the family name of TOSA. This, however, is legendary; 
Takenobu, who gives the story, states that Shogen died long before Matahei's 
birth. Like most celebrated painters, Matahei is credited with pictures which 
became alive: a devil from his brush caused so much trouble that one of its 
horns had to be deleted by a priest, and a host of his personages once rose 
from the paper, much to his astonishment. The latter scene lias been 
pictured by Yoshimori. Matahei is believed to have lived at the beginning 
of the seventeenth century, and his genuine works are very rare. 

579. MATAXO XO GORO J$ |f ft Jjfc (KAGEHISA f; ffr). Strong 
wrestler depicted throwing a stone at Sanada Yoichi, or wrestling with 
Kawazu no Saburo. He was named after the village of JNIatano. 

580. MATSUO KOTEI. It is related that during the construction of 
the artificial island of Tsukijima, near Kobe, the blocks of stone of the 
infrastructure were repeatedly washed away by the waves. Kiyomori then 
consulted the necromancer Abe no Yasuuji, who explained that the site 
selected for the island was above the lair of a dragon, who required to be 
propitiated before the undertaking came to success. Thirty men were to 
be buried in the sea, and upon their bodies pillars were to be set bearing 
Buddhistic inscriptions. It was, therefore, decided to take the victims from 
travellers to Hiogo, but such an uproar was raised by the people that the 
propitiating ceremony was postponed. Matsuo Kotei, then a young man, 
volunteered to be buried alive instead of the thirty others, and thanks to his 
sacrifice the building was completed (1161). Compare GENSUKE BASHIRA. 

581. MATSUYAMA NO KAGAMI | \1] 0) $%. The mirror of Matsu- 



yama. One day a man from Echigo was called to the capital, and as the 
journey was then a very long one he parted sorrowfully from his wife and 
his little daughter, promising that if he returned safe from Kyoto he would 
bring them some uncommon present from the great city to console them. 
Several months elapsed, and at last the father returned to his home, 
bringing to his daughter some toys and to his wife a metal mirror, which 
excited her wonder, for never had such a thing been seen before in their 
village. Eight or nine years later the mother began to ail, and in a few 
weeks the illness became so grave that she felt the approach of death, and, 
calling her daughter to her bedside, gave her some last advice. As a 
parting gift to her child, she gave her the mirror and told her that if ever 
she felt lonely after her mother's death to look in the mirror and she would 
behold the face of her late parent. 

After a year of mourning the widower married again, and his new wife 
soon began to treat unkindly the lonely child. The daughter consoled 
herself by watching in the mirror what she thought to be the spirit of her 
dead mother, and her frequent retreats to her own room seemed suspicious 
to the stepmother, who accused the girl to her father, of working charms 
against her. The father one day lightly stepped into her room whilst she 
was watching the mirror, and as she saw his face reflected in the polished 
metal she hid the mirror in her sleeve. Her father thought that her con- 
fusion was a proof of some guilt, and severely questioned her. She then 
related to him how she was comforting herself by watching the face of her 
dead mother, and when her stepmother heard of it she realised how unjust 
she had been and mended her ways. 

582. MEI SO GEN. A Chinese sage, depicted with a large hat on 
his back and a large jar in his hands. 


584. MIKENJAKU J|j frU X.. The representations of this legend are 
characterised by the presence of two or three heads boiling in a cauldron. 
A King had two masses of iron of which he desired a sword to be made. 
He sent them to a smith, who, instead of making one sword, made two, one 



male the other female. He sent one to the King but buried the other, 
telling his wife to keep the hiding-place secret and to give the sword to 
their son, MIKENJAKU, when of age if he died before that time himself. He 
guessed that he would be found out, and in fact, the King's sword being 
always covered with moisture, the astrologers said that it was weeping for 
its mate; thereupon the smith was sent for, tortured, and killed. His wife 
flew to the mountains with her son, and remained there till the boy reached 
manhood, when he fetched the sword. At that time the King had a dream 
that he would be killed by a man whose eyebrows (Miken) were separated 
by a distance a foot (Shakit) wide. His confident, HAKUCHU, who had a 
grudge against him having heard of it, took it as a token that Mikenjaku 
would avenge his father. He repaired to the mountains to tell Mikenjaku 
this tale, and the boy, deciding to trust to fate and his inspiration, bit off 
the point of his sword, and after requesting Hakuchu to take his head to the 
King, beheaded himself. When the latter saw the head he was so terrified 
that he ordered it to be boiled in a cauldron for twenty-one days, at the 
end of that period the appearance of the head had not changed, and 
Hakuchu told tlie King that the head wanted to talk to him. The King 
reluctantly assented, and as he stood over the cauldron the mouth of 
Mikenjaku opened, and the point of the sword flew out and cut off the 
King's head; Hakuchu seized it and threw it into the cauldron, where the 
two heads began to bite each other. Thinking that the King's head might 
overpower that of Mikenjaku, he leaned over the kettle and beheaded himself 
so that his own head might insure the defeat of the King's. Hence the 
representation of three heads in a cauldron. See MORINAGA. 


586. MIKOSHI $|J JlL. Sacred car without wheels, carried upon the 
shoulders of the devotees with a dummy image of the Deity inside; it is 
followed by the Yatai, or Dashi, on wheels. This custom, which prevails 
at the festivals, originated in the time of Go Toba (1108-1123). 

587. MIKOSHI-NIUDO j& A it- Bald-headed Bakemono with a 



lolling tongue, whose favourite amusement consists in looking over screens 
and frightening people. 

588. MIKUNI KOJORO H M >h ~& S|5- Depicted as a Joro attacked 
by a monster. This is an episode in the drama, Shisanm Monogatari. The 
lord of Kyushu had a violent enemy in the person of a witch named 
Shiranui, who tried to ruin him and his family. With her magic she caused 
him to fall in love with Kojoro, whom he redeemed from her condition. As 
she went to meet him in his palace the witch sent a monster to kill her, 
and then personate her. In this guise the monster became the favourite 
concubine of the Kyushu lord, whose death it caused in a short while. 

589. MIMIDZUKA If j|. The Ear Monument at Kyoto, erected on 
the spot where some thirty thousands ears were buried after being removed 
from the pickled heads of the Coreans defeated in the war of 1592-98 by the 
troops of Hideyoshi. It stands in the gardens of the temple of Daibutsu, 
near the Sanjiii san gendo temple. Its shape is that of the mystic pillar 
used for stone lanterns, and on its four sides are the Sanskrit letters standing 
for Cha (ether), Ka (wind), A'a (fire), Wa (water), .4 (earth). 

590. MINAMOTO $jl See GENJI. 


592. MING HWANG. See GEXSO, Chinese Emperor. 

593. MINOGAME f| |jf|. The tortoise (Kame) of a thousand years, one 
of the four supernatural animals (Tiger, Dragon, Howo, Tortoise) of Chinese 
mythology (the Kirin takes sometimes the place of the tiger). One of the 
tortoises presents some of the features of the dragon, generally the head, but 
the most common presentment of the sacred animal has a long tail, said to 
grow when it is over five hundred years old, and the origin of which is 
probably due to the fact that tortoises kept in ponds become covered with a 
parasitic growth of vegetable origin the resemblance of which to the M/no, 
or rain coat of the peasants, was too irresistible a chance of punning to be 
left unnoticed. The hairy tortoise is often shown carrying on its back a 




MOSO (M.T.) 




huge rock, with the three or more jewels, or even Mount HORAI 
itself, perhaps as a modification of the Chinese custom to show the 
tortoise as a pedestal for inscribed tablets, in itself a likely treatment of 
the Hindoo legend which places the world on the back of an elephant, 
standing on a gigantic tortoise. The feet of the tortoise were, according 
to the Chinese, used to consolidate the world by he Empress JOKWA 
(q.v.) after KUNG KUNG had shattered the pillar of Heaven. The tortoise 
is emblematic of longevity, and as such found as one of the constant 
attributes of Fukurokujiu, Jurojin, and of the various legendary patriachs, 
Sennins, or other personages who were endowed with particularly long 
spans of earthly existence. See EMBLEMS, KOAN, URASHIMA, MONKEY. 

A blind minogame, with an eye instead of navel flj| 0) fjfj, dwells 
at the bottom of the sea. It can never see the sun but once every three 
thousand years, when it rises to the surface, and even then it must find 
on the waves a plank with a hole in it, place its eye over the hole and 
await some friendly gust of wind to turn upside down both tortoise and 
board. This Buddhist parable from the Hoke Ryo has passed into a proverb 
applied to unlikely events. The story is given in Ehon Hokan, IV., 23, in 
which are also found the story of the monkey and the tortoise, and of 
the tortoise and the two cranes. A minogame whose pond was drying up 
fast, begged two cranes to take her to some other lake, and they tried 
to do so by means of a reed, which both cranes held in their bills, and 
to which the tortoise hung by her jaws ; but the minogame wished to 
speak whilst in mid air, and it dropped to the ground where it died, 
(//., 22). See UMI Bozu. 

The terrapin is another tortoise which has its place among proverbs. 
Tsuki ni Suppon means: "The moon is not the only round thing," and is 
often illustrated. One sees sometimes a drawing of one or two tortoises 
dangling from a string above the parapet of a bridge, this represents 
the small tortoises sold by pedlars, and which people buy to liberate in 
ponds. This custom is called Hojoye, or setting free ; and the tortoise-sellers 
adopt as a mark the characters ^ ijfj Hanashi Kame: "tortoises to be let 



594. MIRRORS, or KAGAMI. For magic mirrors see Chamberlain's 
Things Japanese, also Ayrton and Perry's Royal Society Paper. 



KAGAMI BUTA, netsuke, the face of which is a disc of metal fitted in a 
box-shaped piece of wood, lacquer, or ivory; at the back of the disc is a 
ring or hoop to receive the cord. \Yhen there is no metal disc and the 
netsnke is turned to a circular flat shape, in one or two pieces, it is called 
Manju (rice cake). 

KAGAMI ONXA xo TAMASHI, proverb, "A mirror is the soul of a woman." 

mirror is dull the soul is unclean." 

Mirrors used to be given by women as offerings to temples to be melted 
and made into bells. Hearn, in Kollo, gives a legend of a woman who, 
after giving her mirror to a temple, where it was left amongst myriads tf 
others thrown in a heap to await melting, rued her deed, and wished to 
have the mirror back, but she could not afford to buy it back from the priest 
as she was too poor. She died without getting it and when the heap of 
mirrors went to the foundry her Kagami resisted the fiercest blast, because 
metal, the gift of which had not been made to the divinity with a whole 
heart, could not be received unto the bell. 

MIRROR or TSURAYUKI. In the diary Tosa Nikki, of the court noble, 
Tsurayuki, the author relates how one day his ship passed Sumiyoshi in the 
Osaka river, and a sudden gale threatened to send all hands to the bottom. 
To appease the god, Nnsa (cut paper) was thrown into the waves; but the 
storm increased, and the captain suggested that some different offering was 
needed. Tsurayuki thought: I have a pair of eyes but I have only one 
mirror, therefore will I give the God my mirror; and as the Kagami touched 
the water the waves disappeared and the sea became smooth. 


596. MIRUME. See HELL. 

597. MITSUKUNI ffi [U. MITO NO Ko MON, 7jC f* ^ H> or MlTO NO 



GIKU, second Daimio of Mito, was a grandson of leyasu. He is credited 
with having caused the base of the Kaname Ishi (see EARTHQUAKE FISH) to 
be dug up. But he has more solid claims to fame, however. He caused 
the Reigi riu Ten, (a work of over five hundred volumes, dealing with 
Imperial ceremonial), to be published, and also fostered the compilation 
of the Dai Nihon shi (two hundred and forty volumes). The cost of these 
enterprises was such that he yearly devoted 30,000 koku of rice to their 

598. MITSUME ~EL @ 'h tH"- Three-eyed goblin, with one eye in the 
centre of the forehead; also shown amongst Mythical Foreigners in Hokusai's 
Mangwa, under the name MITSUME Kozo. It may be of interest to compare 
this ghostly creation with the Tibetan deity, PALDEN LHAMO, which, 
according to Percival Landon (Lhassa), the Tibethan found re-incarnated in 
the late Queen VICTORIA. This infernal divinity is a female with eye teeth 
four inches long, painted dark blue, with three eyes, and sitting on a 
chestnut mule. Her scanty garment consists in a girdle made of the skin 
of a recently flayed man ; her mule, the girth and cropper of which are 
living snakes, tramples under foot the mangled remains of human bodies. 
The female devil in question quenches her thirst in human blood, drunk 
out of a skull. Altogether, a creation to which the outward appearance of 
the Japanese goblin is highly preferable. 

599. MITSUNAKA $f ffl (TADA ^ B9 NO MANJU), whilst hunting on 
his estate of Nose, in Setsu, fell asleep under a tree. He dreamt that a lady 
came to ask his help against a huge snake, and told him that she was the 
daughter of the King of the dragons. He promised to give her his 
assistance, and as a token of her gratitude she presented him with a perfect 
horse. He awoke to find the horse standing near him, awaiting his pleasure; 
he then spent a week praying at the shrine of Sumiyoshi, and killed the 
snake with an arrow (Ehon Shaho Bukuro). See also NAKAMITSU. 

Mitsunaka was the son of Rokusonno Tsunemoto. His own son, Genkei, 
objected to the hunting and fishing proclivities of his father on religious 
grounds, and he obtained the conversion of Mitsunaka. One day Tada no 



Manju wanted two swords made, but although the most renowned masters 
of the art attempted to satisfy him, none succeeded but a craftsman from 
Chikuzen after seven days of continuous prayer. When the blades were 
tested upon the corpses of criminals one sword cut through the beard, and 
was called Higekiri maru, "beard cutting sword"; the other cleft the knee, 
and was thereafter known as Hisa maru. 

Mitsunaka is sometimes depicted killing or catching a devil in a wood. 
He died in 997, at the age of eighty-six. Raiko (Yorimitsu, q.v.) was his 
eldest son. See NAKAMITSU. 

Goo. MITSUNOBU SHOGEN TOSA. Celebrated painter. See MATAHEI 
and also the story of MITSUMI TOSA. 

601. MITSU TOMOYE H ^ E- The three-comma figure. See under 
COCK. This emblem is said to represent three waves; it may, however, be 
derived from the Iriscele, or three-legged symbol, which Goblet d'Alivella 
considers to be a solar emblem, like the Svastika. 

It may also be noted that a combination of two, or three, Magatama 
would give a similar figure to the futatsutomoye or mitsutomoye respectively. 
The single-comma figure found on some tsuba, especially amongst old pieces, 
in which it appears cut through the metal, might indeed be only an 
elongated magatama. Some tomoye figures present a dot in the "head" 
of the comma, which might correspond with the hole of the magatama. 

The mitsutomoye is the favourite form, and figures largely amongst 
crests (man) ; it is called migi mitsutomoye when the commas point clockwise, 
and hidari mitsutomoye when they point to the left. In the Korean flag 
a circle divided by an g-shaped line instead of diameter in two equal parts, 
coloured red and blue respectively, resembles the double tomoye, but it 
leaves no free space between the "commas" as in the Japanese design. 

602. MITSUZUMI TOSA f -fa jf . Name granted by SHOGEN TOSA 
to his pupil SHURINOSUKE. After the painter Shogen Tosa had fallen into 
disgrace he started a painting school near Kyoto, and lived the life of a 
Ronin. Once his garden was invaded by a host of peasants from Omi, who 
said that they had traced to his house a tiger which had done considerable 



damage in their district. His pupils laughed, but not so the master, who 
followed the peasants and found a tiger asleep at the back of his house at 
the foot of a bamboo hedge. He gave it as his opinion that it was a copy 
of a well-known picture by Ganki, and that the copyist could be no other 
than Motonobu KANO, son of Yusei. No tracks being found, the peasants 
were lost in admiration of the insight of the master. His pupil, SHURINOSUKE, 
asked to be allowed to paint out the tiger, and if he completed the task 
satisfactorily to assume the family name of TOSA. His request was granted, 
and he succeeded in blotting out every feature of the beast so that nothing 
could be seen but the bamboos, much to the delight of Shogen. 

603. MIURA NO OSUKE H if ^C fifr- Warrior on the side of the 
Minamoto clan in their struggle against the Taira. He was eighty-nine 
years old when he was besieged in his fort of Kinugasa by Kaneko lyetada 
and Hatakemaya Shigetada, and his troops were despairing in consequence of 
the enormous odds against them. To give them courage, he ordered his 
own horse to be saddled, and without any weapons led a sortie, falling a 
victim to the arrows of the besiegers. As a long-lived hero he is occasionally 
found associated with Urashima Taro and the other centenarians of Japanese 
legend. According to some he was 106 years old when he died. He left a 
son, Miuro Arajiro Yoshizumi, famous as a strong man. 

604. MIURA KURANOSUKE H M ft fi $J killed the Tamamo 
no Maye (q.v.). 

605. MIYAMATO MUSASHI ^ ^ | g was the originator of the 
two-sword style of fencing (Nitoryu). He began the life of a ronin when he 
was fifteen years old, and killed a fencing-master, whose hundred pupils, 
thinking to avenge him, challenged Musashi, and met him with a shower of 
stones and arrows, but without succeeding in wounding him. Once, while 
he was travelling about to learn fencing, he lost his road in the mountains, 
and met a grey-headed and dignified old man, who invited him to his house. 
On the way Musashi boasted of his achievements, and the old man laughed. 
Musashi then, heedless of the age of his companion, drew his sword and 
attacked him, but the old man parried every stroke with a saucepan lid. 



Musashi, recognising his stupidity, apologised, and stayed with the old man, 
who was no other than the celebrated swordsman KASAWARA BOKUDEN, who 
eventually taught him the finest points of the art. See Denning's translation 
of the life of Musashi (Japan in the Days of Yore, Vol. IV.). 

Another fencing- master, Sasaki Gwanryu, having killed Musashi's father, 
he met him in Kokura in a small island, using a wooden sword against 
the steel blade of Gwanryu, whom he killed. Since then the island has 
been called Gwanryu (Ehon Wakan Homare, 28). Musashi died in 1645 
(Shoho 4), at the age of sixty-four. He is said to have executed remarkable 
paintings of Shoki and Daruma. 

606. MIZARU. See APES. 

607. MOGUSA NO GANSO 3 0) ji M- Hermit of the province of 
Goshiu, who wandered in the forests of the mountain Ikubi yama. All 
moxas are called in Japan Ibuki yama no Mogusa. 

608. MO HAKUDO ^ f & if (MAO Po TAG). Four recluse, Liu TAO 
and MAO Po TAO, lived an ascetic life for forty years, and one day compounded 
an elixir vita?, of which Mo Hakudo and Liu Tao Tung drank, and died. 
Their companions, disgusted at the result of the experiment, cast the stuff 
away, but found soon after how foolish they had been when they saw at 
the top of the mountain their erstwhile companions mounted on white deer 
and followed by numerous pilgrims. 

609. MOJO ^ ^C. The female Sennin MAO Nu. Youthful female of 
wild aspect, with straight thick hair, carrying branches of pine and peach 
trees, with fruits and blossoms, also a makimono and a basket containing 
some loquats (Japanese medlars). She is usually clad in skins. Two Chinese 
travellers, Juntai and Inshikyo, who met her waiting upon a Sennin in the 
mountains of Su, questioned her, and she said that she had been a palace 
maid up to the fall of the Tsin dynasty, when she flew to Mount Kain and 
lived on a diet of pine needles, becoming so light that she was able to soar 
aloft like a bird. She is also called Mogioku Kio. 



610. MOKI JJJL ^, shown polishing a sceptre. He was a hermit of 
Seikwa, to whom the Emperor SHUKO gave a jewelled sceptre, and he carried 
it with him, rubbing it on his sleeve till it broke from wear. He lived upon 
cinnamon leaves gathered at the foot of the Mount Kwain. 

611. MOKIN 5; ^, of Rakuyo, taught magic. His prosperity enraged 
a man named FUYU, who planned to murder him, but the wizard transformed 
himself into a whirlwind. 

612. MOMIJI. The Maple, the leaf of which changes colour in the 
autumn, from green to red. Picnics to view the maples are called momiji 
g ai 'i %L id $?> an( J this name is also given to the legend of Taira no 
Koremochi, (q.v.) upon which is based a No dance. Warming sake on maple 
leaves has been for ages an elegant amusement ; it is depicted in the Shaho 
Bukuro. This subject is sometimes seen in netsitkc, and usually a deer is 
shown with the sake drinkers, the deer and maple being usually associated 
as emblems of autumn, much in the same way as mushrooms and chestnuts 
symbolise October. Amongst the numerous poems inspired by the sight of 
purple maple leaves, the best known is probably that of NARIIIIRA (q.v.). 
The five-fingered maple is called Ko no te: child's hand. 

613. MOMOTARO $fc ^C I|$. Little Peachling. A favourite fairy tale, 
of which numerous translations have been published. 

One day the wife of a poor woodcutter went to the river hard by to 
wash same clothes. As she was preparing to return home she perceived a 
large object coming along the water, and on reaching it with a stick found 
that it was a peach larger than she had ever seen or heard of before. She 
took it home, washed it, and handed it to her husband to open. As the 
man cut it a boy emerged from the kernel, whom they adopted as a present 
from the Gods to comfort them in their old age. They called him MOMOTARO, 
the Elder son of the Peach, and he grew big and strong, excelling in feats 
of strength beyond most boys of his age. Once he decided to leave the 
elders and to go to ONIGASHIMA, the Island of the Devils, to seek his fortune. 
The old people gave him some dumplings to take with him, and sped him 
on his road. He soon met a dog who asked for a dumpling and promised 

2 33 


to accompany him; then a monkey and a pheasant came with similar requests, 
and with these three followers he reached the gate of the Devil's fortress. 
They got in and had a stiff fight with the demons, the animals taking part 
in the fray. Finally, they reached the inner fastness of the place, in which 
the chief devil, AKAXDOJI, was waiting for them with an iron war club. He 
was, however, thrown down by MOMOTARO, who bound him with ropes and 
made him disclose the secret of his treasures. Then Peachling helped him- 
self liberally and, followed by his three companions, returned to the home 
of the woodcutter, becoming thereafter a rich and honoured member of the 

The story is variously represented in art, often with great detail, but 
sometimes only indicated by an open peach from which emerges a boy, or 
humorously a monkey. 

As a strong boy Momotaro is often depicted in company with the 
Golden boy, KINTARO (q.v.). 

Lengthy translations will be found in the work of T. Ozaki, in Mitford's 
Tales of Old Japan, and in the Kobunsha fairy tales series. 


615. MONKEY (Saru). The Three Monkeys. See APES; KOSHIN. Satow 
calls them monkeys of the three countries (India, China, Japan). 

MONKEY. Day of the Monkey. See KOSHIN. 

,, Magical, shown on a cloud or blowing his hair into a 

hundred and eight men. See SONGOKU, attendant of Sanzo Hoshi in the 
Chinese romance, Saiyuki. 

MONKEY. Monkey Showman (Saru Mawashi) as a ruse of war. See 

MONKEY SERVANT. Nickname of Taiko Sama (Hideyoshi), who was very 

Monkeys are of frequent occurrence in Japanese art; long armed ones 
often decorate the scabbards of short swords, while the red-faced variety is 
depicted in every posture in the whole range of art, from netsuke to kakemono. 
It is one of the signs of the Zodiac, and as such associated with the horse 



(q.v.). A monkey is also shown trying to catch an octopus in the water, 
or caught by an octopus, but no legend appears to be connected with 
this design. Monkeys trying to catch the reflection of the moon in the 
water are also a common subject. 

The monkey plays a role in legend and fairy tales ; he is the companion 
of Momotaro, of Sanzo Hoshi, and the chief actor in a few tales, amongst 
which the following : 

MONKEY and the BOAR. A boar once heard his master say that he 
would kill his monkey, which was of no use and only frightened his young 
baby. The boar talked it over with the monkey, and arranged to steiil the 
baby so that the monkey could run after him and return the infant to his 
father. By this ruse he saved his life and earned the gratitude of the 
parent (Ozaki). 

The Feud between the MONKEY and the CRAB. This fairy tale is called 
Saru Kani Kassen. 

A monkey once met a crab, and noticing that the latter had a rice cake 
which he was taking home, deluded him into exchanging this delicacy for a 
dry persimmon seed. The crab accepted, and planted the seed, which soon 
grew into a fine tree. The monkey espied the tree when the persimmons 
were just getting ripe, and one clay, as he was going to help himself, he 
found the crab waiting under the tree, who asked him to let him have some 
of the fruit as he could not climb up to it. O Saru, instead of doing so, 
eat the ripest fruit, and, when the crab expostulated, bombarded him with 
unripe persimmons with such force that he almost killed the crab. The 
family of the latter got roused, and getting together an army of crabs, 
declared war on the simian race. They were, however, unable to cope 
with the hosts of the enemy, and had to resort to ruse against their crafty 
opponents; a mortar and its pestle, a bee, and an egg (some say a chestnut) 
foregathered with the crabs and decided to bring O Saru to his doom. 
First, peace was concluded with the monkeys, and after a little time 
had elapsed without trouble the offender was humbly invited to visit the 
son of the wounded crab to renew their broken friendship. The monkey 
came, and was given the place of honour near the fire, which he found very 



low. He then began to stir the ashes, and the egg (or the chestnut), which 
was laid amongst the ashes, exploded, severely burning him. He rushed 
to the kitchen to wash his burns, when the bee, which was hard by, waiting 
her opportunity, stung his face. He thought then that he had better return 
home, but on the doorstep he tripped on some seaweed, and as he fell the 
mortar and pestle dropped upon him from a shelf above, so bruising him 
that the crabs had no trouble in achieving their work of revenge. 

The MONKEY and the JELLY FISH. RIUJIN, Dragon King of the sea 
sick unto death, lay helpless among his lieges, and the Octopus, his doctor, 
despaired of his life unless lie could get the liver of a live monkey. He 
suggested sending to the earth KURAGE, the jelly fish, who was then able 
to walk on four legs and whose body was protected by a hard shell. The 
Kurage started on his mission, and succeeded in decoying a monkey to go 
with him to visit Riujin. But the monkey, being of an inquisitive turn of 
mind, soon wormed the secret out of the fish, and then, feigning great 
sorrow, wished to return to the land. "Willingly would I oblige you, but 
as a matter of fact we monkeys have five livers, and the weight of them is 
rather wearisome, so that 1 have left mine hanging in a tree; you should 
have told me your wishes before starting." The Kurage was credulous, and 
returned ; the monkey, once on the shore, jeered at him, and he then under- 
stood his mistake. Neither prayers nor bluster could avail him, and he had 
to return to the palace of Riujin disappointed and sad, though little expecting 
the fate he had in store. And now jelly fishes have neither legs nor shell 
because Riujin sentenced this one to be beaten to a jelly, and all the bones 
taken from its body. 

The Ehon Hokan gives a somewhat different version : Otohime, daughter 
of Riujin, was sick and wished for a monkey's liver; the Kame (tortoise) 
was sent across the sea to find one monkey, which she deluded into 
riding on her back to the Riugu. On the way they met the Kurage 
weeping, and O Saru asked why the jelly fish was grieving when the 
Kurage told him the truth. The monkey affected to be deeply sorry, 
because he had left his liver at home, but he would ask Riujin to let 
him go back and get it. This request once granted, he took good care 



not to come back, and after a while, Riujin heard the whole story, when 
he ordered that Kurage's bones be extracted from his body. This story 
is called : Saru Kame no Noru $jj ^ j^- 

Perceval Landon, in his work on Lhassa, (Vol. 2, p. 368 and seq.), gives 
a Tibetan tale which has some points of similarity with the above, and 
may be of interest for comparison : 

Lizards in olden times lived in the water. The wife of a lizard had 
some fancy for some fruits growing on shore, and by nagging her consort 
she induced him to attempt to bring her some. The lizard, however, could 
not climb trees, so he sought the good offices of a passing monkey, who not 
only gave him the fruit he desired but took him to his home in a neigh- 
bouring cave, where they became fast friends. The female lizard, wondering 
at the long absence of her mate, sent a young one to inquire after him. The 
youngster reported the true state of affairs to his mother, who became very 
wroth, and sent him back with a cunning message that she was dying, and 
could only recover by eating the heart of a monkey. The lizard then invited 
his unsuspecting friend to visit his watery home, and on the way told him 
the reason of his invitation. "Oh," said the monkey, "it's not one but two 
hearts you want; let us go back and find another monkey." The lizard 
then put back to land, when the monkey gave him the slip with a few 
parting words of an appropriate nature. The lizard decided to kill the 
monkey if he could, and to that end he went to the cave to await his 
return. The monkey suspected that some treachery was afoot, and stopping 
in front of the hole, shouted "O, great cave!!" twice, and getting no answer, 
he said aloud, "Strange that there is no echo to-night, there must be some- 
one in the cave." The lizard then imitated him, and thus gave himself 
away. He was roundly reviled by the monkey, and flew away . . . but 
the story does not say whether he went home. 

616. MOON ^J. Man in the Moon. See GEKKAWO, God of Marriage. 
Hare in the Moon. See HARE. 

Frog in the Moon. See CHAN CHU. 

There is no end of Moon lore, transmitted from India by the Chinese, 



with many additions and modifications, so that the Japanese moon, TSUKI, 
enjoys the same legends as the Chinese moon YUEH. The old man YUEH 
LAO, who told WEI Ku that he bound together the feet of lovers with red 
silk, becomes GEKKAWO. The hare SAKCHI, who threw himself in the fire 
to save starving people, and was thrown into the moon by Indra, is 
also there, and with him the Moon shares the representation of the YIN 
(Yoni), or female principle. The Chinese KWEI tree (cassia) is the Japanese 
KATSURA. It grows on the moon till its leaves become blood red in the 
autumn, and its foliage, of which the YiJ SIEX -fc fll] (Gioku sen) immortals 
have eaten, confers not only immortality but renders the body of the eater 
entirely transparent. Eight of these trees grow in the moon, and the old 
man, Wu KANG, will hew down their ever-growing boughs till the end of 
the worlds in expiration of a sentence. The moon divinity is a female one, 
called Joga. 

SUSAXO O xo MIKOTO, the legendary hero of early Japan, the brother of 
AMATERASU, has also become a Moon God. 

The Cicadae and the Grasshoppers are consecrated to the moon, and the 
frog is^ also related to moon lore as set forth in the story of CHAXCHU (q.v.). 

Poems are composed to the moon with accompaniment of sake drinking 
on the fifteenth day of the eighth and the thirteenth of the ninth months. 
.The Harvest Moon is also called Rean Moon, and offerings of dumplings, 
flowers and beans are made to it, the houses are also decorated at the 
time with clover (Lespedeza) and with Eulalia grass. 

The collection of colour prints, Tsuki Hiyakushi, published in 1886, 
contains one hundred episodes which occur by moonlight in stories or 
theatrical plays. 

617. MOONCHILD, and the BAMBOO CUTTER. This fairy story, the 
earliest Japanese romance, is the Taketori (no Okina no) Monogatari, and it 
has been translated and published with illustrations and an essay on the 
Japanese grammar, besides a transliteration by F. V. Dickins. Other transla- 
tions have been published by T. Ozaki and by F. Turettini (in Italian). 

The story has been published in six volumes, with an exhaustive 



commentary about 1830 by Tanaka Daishiu; it is but rarely found illus- 
trated in popular prints, and only one netsuke representing it a modern, 
indifferent piece, the identification of which was open to doubt has yet 
been seen by the author, notwithstanding a diligent search amongst many 
thousands of specimens. 

An old man who was a bamboo cutter, or more properly a maker 
of split bamboo baskets (Taketori), by profession, once found in the node of 
a bamboo he was felling a small baby girl, whose body emitted a 
wonderful light, and took her home to his wife. The name giver of the 
district was called, and she gave her the name TERUKO* (Ray of the 
Moon). She grew up, and the fame of her beauty soon spread all over 
the land. Five Samurais of high rank came and simultaneously claimed her 
hand, but she would give no decision before they had achieved several tasks, 
for the completion of which she granted them three years. They were to 
bring her respectively the stone bowl of Sakyamuni ; a branch from the 
tree of Mount Horai, which has silver roots, a gold trunk, and fruits of 
precious jewels; the five-coloured stone which adorns the head of the blue 
dragon; the swallow with a shell in his stomach, and the skin of the rat 
of Morokoshi which lives in the fire. But such ordeals were more than 
knights had ever faced, and all the five suitors thought to obtain substitutes 
from China for the inaccessible objects of Teruko's requests. The first to 
come, Ishizukuri, brought a bowl, dearly bought from a temple, but which 
gave no radiance in the night. Iso, the man to whom the finding of the 
swallow had been assigned, gave up the task; the third, Abe no Miushi, 
brought a rat skin, alas, only to see it burn in the light of a candle. 
The knight, Ohotomo, who was to hunt the blue dragon sent an expedition 
to China, and after a year, hearing no news, set forth himself, but got 
wrecked, and on being rescued in some Chinese town found his retainers 
feasting after giving up the search, and he followed their example. There 
remained but one, Prince Kuramochi, and he finally came bearing travel- 
stained garments and carrying a branch of gold and precious stones, which 
he had caused to be made during the three years by clever Chinese jewellers. 

B F. V. Dickins, Japanese Texts, 1906, says N'ayotake no Kaguyahime. 

2 39 


Teruko looked but once at it, and complaining that the flowers had no 
scent, and therefore were not from Horai San, was going to dismiss her suitor 
when a tumult was heard in the forecourt. Ayabe no Uchimaro, the head 
goldsmith, and his Chinese jewellers had followed the knight, claiming the 
payment of their labours. As he could not meet this claim, Teruko paid the 
jewellers and sent the Prince away. By then the Emperor had heard of this 
marvellous girl, and came to press his own suit. She declined his attentions, 
and explained that she was constrained to do so because she was one of the 
daughters of the moon who, having refused to execute an order of her 
mother, JOGA, had been sent for twenty years on the earth, and that soon 
she would have to return to the moon. She then gave to the old bamboo- 
cutter a phial of the elixir of life and a poem to be given to the Emperor. 
Then seventy of her sisters appeared coming from Heaven to fetch her from 
the corner in which Taketori had attempted to hide her behind a screen, 
and they took her back to the moon. 

Taketori and his wife then only wished to die. The old man gave to 
the Emperor the elixir, the Fuji no Ksuri, and the poem, but the Emperor 
caused the latter to be burnt on the summit of Mount Fuji, into the bowels 
of which lie threw the elixir, and since then Fuji has smoked. 

TERUKO is generally called KAGUYA HIME 

618. MORINAGA fl Q. Son of Go DAIGO Tenno, under whose reign 
he was shogun, and who was accused by Ashikaga TAKAUJI of plotting 
against his own father, on the evidence of a stolen letter referring to some 
military arrangements. The weak Emperor allowed his son to be thrown 
into captivity in a cave in the Nikaido mountain at Kamakura, where, in 
1345, Ashikaga Tadayoshi, who had just been defeated by Hojo Tokiyuki, 
and was afraid least the latter might deliver Morinaga, caused him to be 
murdered by a retainer named Fuchibe Yoshihiro. Yoshihiro attacked him 
from behind, and although exhausted by his long captivity Morinaga bit off 
the point of the sword of his would-be murderer, who achieved him with 
his kotsuka. Fuchibe, remembering the story of Mikenjaku, threw the head 
away in a thicket instead of taking it to Takauji. 





KWANYU (ff.s.T.) 

MOMOTARO (C.//.A-.) 

MOSO (H'.L.e.) 

LOST CASH (tt.S.T.) 



620. MOSO ] jij-, or KOBU Q jj. The Chinese paragon of filial virtue, 
MENG TSUXG, who lived in the third century A.D. In the depth of winter 
his mother expressed a violent desire to eat stewed bamboo shoots. Weeping 
over his misfortune that such a delicacy could not be got so early in the year, 
he thought to make at least an attempt, and repaired to the nearest bamboo 
grove to dig out the snow and look for the unexpected; but he was as 
much staggered as delighted when the ground he had uncovered burst 
under his very feet, disclosing fresh grown shoots of unequalled beauty. 
This story is frequently found illustrated. The bamboo shoot alone, 
emblematic of the story, takes often the place of a more elaborate repre- 
sentation, particularly in netsuke. Another allusion is a node of bamboo 
with Moso's hat and straw coat. 

621. Ml'FUKU 3!l JHc- Mythical human beings who have no belly, and 
who "cannot laugh because they have no sides to hold.'' See FOREIGNERS. 

622. MUH WANG. See Boxu-O. Fifth King of the Chow dynasty 
of China. 

623. MU JIMA. Hairy Mermaid. 

624. MUKEIKOKU f!H ^p |lj. Foreign country, the people of which, 
according to the Todo Kummo Zue, live in holes dug in the earth, and, 
although they have no stomach at all, manage to exist on a diet of earth 
only; when they die, they are buried, but very soon after come back to life. 
In another country, the SAMBAXKOKU -^ | Hj, the natives live on stone. 

625. MUKO ^ -fc. The Chinese sage, Wu KWANG, who lived in the 
period of KA. His ears were seven inches long, and he lived on garlic. 
After the King Ketsu (Kie) was destroyed by the King of To (Tang), the 
latter offered the throne to Muko, who refused, and went to the river Ryosui 
carrying a big stone in his dress, and drowned himself. He reappeared 
four hundred years later, in the reign of Wu Ti. According to. a note 
of doubtful accuracy he is shown carried on the minogame of PENG LAI 



SHAN (Mount HORAI), one of the three fortunate islands of Chinese legend, 
like Koan and Roko, from whom it appears impossible to differentiate him 
in carvings. 

A similar mode of suicide was adopted towards 300 B.C. by K'ii Yuan 
j^ Jjf? Kutsugen (or K'ii P'ing Jg5 ^P"), privy councillor of Hwai, Prince of 
T'su, by whom he had been disgraced through the calumnies of a rival. 
After composing a poem, the unlucky minister drowned himself, with a 
stone in the bosom of his dress, in the river Milo. Mayers (C.R.M., 326) 
tells us that the anniversary of this event is still commemorated on the fifth 
day of the fifth month by the people of Southern China. 

626. MURAI ffi ffi. Warrior shown without his armour or helmet, 
but simply clad in his kimono and hakama, with one long sword in his 
girdle, defending himself single-handed with his bow against a surprise 
attack (illustrated in Brinckmann's, Vol 7.). 

627. MURASAKI SHIKIBU ^ ^ nR- Celebrated poetess of the tenth 
century (died 992), author, amongst other works, of the Genji A'lonogatari, 
which she composed to amuse the Empress Jioto no nin, wife of Ichigo 
Tenno. The Kogetsusho edition of this work forms fifty-four volumes. She 
is called by a French writer (G. Bousquet) I'ennuyetise Scudery Japonaise, 
though Mr. Aston's verdict is different. She was also nicknamed Nihongi no 
Tsubone by Mido Kampaku Michinaga, because she imitated the idea of the 
Nihongi in her Genji Monogatari. 

Her name, Murasaki, means violet, and, according to the dramatised 
version of her story, she was the daughter of Fujiwara Toyonari, one of the 
ministers. She lost her mother when she was but ten years old, and her 
father having married again, his second wife, named Terute, who gave him 
a son, hated Murasaki, and tried to get rid of her by foul means. Although 
still very young, Murasaki had achieved considerable fame as a singer, and 
when twelve years old she was invited to the cherry-blossom festival in 
the palace grounds, and there requested to sing before the Empress. Her 
performance was so satisfactory that she was loaded with presents, whilst 

* The Japanese legend attached to the print reads : " Udaijin being very angry shot with bow and arrow 
Murai and Kimura." This may refer to Nobunaga. 



her stepmother, who had been unable to accompany her songs, was put to 
shame, and resolved to avenge herself. She waited for a day that the girl 
was singing to her young brother, and offered her some sake which had been 
drugged; but she mixed the cups, and killed her own boy instead. Later, 
a flood of the river Tatsuta ravaged the gardens of the Emperor's palace, 
much to the dismay of his consort. He bethought himself of the power of 
verses over the elements, and then commanded Murasaki to come and check 
the flow of the waters, which she succeeded in doing by the recital of her 
poems, earning the title of HIME ; hence her name of Murasaki Hime. 

Her father was sent on an embassy to China, and his absence gave 
Terute another opportunity of exercising her relentless hatred against the 
poetess. She ordered one of her retainers, Katoda, to kill Murasaki on the 
plea that she had lowered herself to the level of a Joro, but Katoda, who 
knew the vile nature of Terute, took Murasaki to his wife amongst the 
mountains, where she grew under her care, to be found after many years 
by her grieving father one day when he was hunting. 

Murasaki Shikibu is usually represented amongst the thirty-six poets, 
or composing her verses whilst looking towards lake Biwa from the terrace 
of the temple of Ishiyama. 

Murasaki married Nobutaka, and their daughter wrote the novel, 
Sagoromo (narrow sleeves) (Aston). 

628. MUSUBI NO KAMI j ft I*. See GEKKAWO. 

629. NAGATOSHI j| ^ jffl (XA\VA). One of the supporters of Go 
Daigo Tenno, to whom he gave refuge in his castle of Funanoye. In 1333, 
in token of gratitude, the Emperor gave him the provinces of Inaba and 
Oki. Nagatoshi attempted, with Nitta Yoshisada and Masashige, to defeat 
the rebel Takauji, but their efforts were in vain. In 1336, when Takauji 
took Kyoto and compelled Go Daigo to flee, Nagatoshi returned with three 
hundred horsemen to give a parting look at his own palace, he reached it 
after seventeen fights, only thirty-one of his followers remaining after the 
fray. He then sat in his courtyard, addressed the buildings, and helped his 



retainers to set fire to the yashiki, returning afterwards to the Hiyeizan. He 
died during the same year. 

630. NAGARA KANJO. Flowing invocation; a custom peculiar to 
the province of Echizen, described by Griffis. When a woman dies in child- 
birth her death-name and invocation are written by the priests upon a 
square cloth, which is placed above a stream, the four corners being attached 
to four upright sticks. A sotoba is planted near it, and a wooden dipper 
placed in the pocket formed by the cloth. Each passer-by is expected to 
pour a dipper full of water into the cloth, and when the latter rots from 
sheer wear the soul of the woman is redeemed from the unknown sin in 
expiation of which she had died. 

631. NAKAMITSU f'|i -fa. Episode easily confused with the KANSHUSAI 
(q.v.), and, like it, forming the subject of a drama. 

MITSUXAKA (q.v.), lord of Tada, in Settsu, had sent his son Buio to the 
monks of Hiyeizan to study. Once, desirous to see what progress the boy 
had made, he sent Nakamitsu to fetch him. On their return he found Bijio 
hopelessly ignorant, and was about to kill him, but left it to Nakamitsu to 
behead the boy. Nakamitsu's son, KOJU, implored his father to kill him 
instead of the young lord, and after a struggle of generosity between the 
two youths, Bijio escaped to the Hiyeizan and Koju died at his own father's 
hands. The Abbot of Hiyeizan reconciled Bijio to his father on the score 
of the loyalty he had inspired to his retainer. 

632. NAKAKUNI fty [|. Noble of the court of Go SIIIRAKAWA, usually 
shown on horseback playing the flute outside a house of the village of Saga, 
near Arashi Yama, in which he discovered, through the sounds of her koto, 
the exiled musician, the KOGO NO TSUBONE (q.v.). 


634. NAKASENA SONJA #5 flp J^ #ft ^ # One of the Arhats, 
shown with a begging bowl, from which ascends a fountain of water. 

635. NAKATSUKASA rji Jfa. One of the thirty-six poets; a lady, 
whose most celebrated verse is : 



Uguisu no 

Koe nakariseba ^ 

Yuki kienu 


Yamazato ikade $ \ 


Haru wo shiramaji, 


"If there was not the song of the Uguisu, how should they know that it is \ 
spring, in the mountains where the snow remains late on the ground." 



638. NANA KUSA -fc Ifl. The seven green herbs which were chopped 
up by a man in ceremonial costume and cooked on the seventh day of the 
first month as a charm against diseases. This custom remained in vigour 
for a considerable number of years, and the herbs were called ^ 0) -fc jfl 
Hani no Nana Knsa, or seven herbs of Spring, to distinguish them from the 
Aki ^ no nana Kusa, or seven herbs of Autumn, selected for their flower, but 
not partaken of as food : the lespedeza (Hagi), Eulalia (obana or sitzuki), 
Pueraria (Kuzu), wild carnation (nadeshiko), patrinia (ominaeshi), Eupatorium 
(fuji-bakama), and the asagao, or morning glory, generic name of the countless 
varieties of the convolvulus family, dear to the heart of early risers amongst 
chajin. A short poem consisting mainly of these names is quoted by Professor 
B. H. Chamberlain in his Things Japanese, and attributed to an eighth 
century poet, Yamanoe no Okura. 

639. NANGYO KOSHU $f ^ fl. Chinese female sage. During 
the troubled times which followed the usurpation of OMO (nephew of HAN 
YUAN Ti, died 1144 A.D.), she retired from court upon the mountain KWA, 
and cultivated virtue in a hut she had built. After a year of seclusion she 
ascended to heaven on a cloud, leaving on top of the mountain her red shoes, 
which were petrified. Her servant followed her nearly to the top, but was 
lost in the darkness, and only found Nangyo's shoes as an indication of 
her fate. 

640. NANZEN pj ^. Two temples on the opposite sides of a road 



disputed as to the possession of a cat, which roamed freely from one to the 
other, sublimely unconscious of the differences of creed between the aggrieved 
monks. The priest Nanzen, summoned to judge of this momentous affair, 
borrowed a sword and, seizing the cat, prepared to act like Solomon with 
the stolen child. But the monks were obstinate, and neither giving way, 
they each received one half of the unfortunate puss (Ehon Hokan). 

641. NARA. Pillar. In the Daibutsu temple at Nara there is a huge 
column behind one of the Nw, in which is cut a square hole large enough 
to admit of a man passing through. This is a subject frequently met with 
in netsuke, pilgrims passing through the hole while others try to encircle 
the pillar with their arms, wondering how big the pillar is. As a rule 
the netsuke bear the inscription : Nara Daibutsu do Bashira ^ J^ ^ 
1i$ ^ 14- A similar column exists in the Tempozan Temple. It is depicted 
in GOGAKKU'S Tempozan Shokei ichiran (1838). 

642. NARIHIRA ^ Jj| H ^p- (ARIWARA NO). One of the Rokkasen, 
grandson of the Emperor Saga. He lived from 825 to 880, and is often 
pictured as a man of great beauty, amongst the other poets, or in company 
with Ono no KOMACHI. He is usually shown riding through Suzuga, on 
the road to Azuma, the last day of the fifth month, after his exile from 
Court owing to some intrigue with the Empress, engaged in composing a 
poem on the appearance of snow-bedecked Fujiyama, which he compares 
with the spotted coat of a young fawn. 

In other occasions sometimes depicted, he contemplates a field of iris in 
bloom, or composes his famous poem on the Tatsuta gawa, covered with the 
red leaves of autumnal maples: 

4 Chi hayaburu 


Kami yo mo kikanu 

Tatsuta gawa 

Kara kurenai ni 
- Mizu kukuru towa, 

"Praised be the Gods! Even in the Golden Age no water ever became like 
Corean purple, not even the water of the Tatsuta gawa." As an allusion, 



water strewn with maple leaves is of frequent occurrence in art. Narihira, 
on horseback, is seen on the banks of the Ide no Tamegawa, river in 

643. NASU NO YOICHI fj j( J^ iff, MUXETAKA. Archer whose clan 
took the fan as their crest, in allusion to his performance at the battle of 
Yashima, in 1185. 

When the Taira were driven from Kioto by the Minamoto in 1182, the 
Empress Nn NO AMA flew with the child, Emperor ANTOKU, to the shrine 
of ITSUKUMISHA, where thirty pink fans, bearing the design of the sun disc 
(Hi no maru), were kept. The head priest gave one to Antoku, saying that 
it contained in the red disc the Kami of the dead Emperor TAKAKURA (1169- 
1180), and would cause arrows to recoil upon the enemy. The fan was 
accordingly attached to a mast of the Taira ship, on which a court lady is 
always depicted, and a challenge sent to Minamoto no Yoshitsune, which 
was accepted by one of his archers, Nasu no Yoichi, who on horseback rode 
in the waves and with a well-directed arrow broke the rivet which held 
the leaves together, and thus shattered the fan. 

644. NEISEKI ^ Jg>. The Chinese NINO T'si, who found philosophy 
afforded him but a scanty living and went about driving a cart, like a 
peasant, singing verses reviling the government, and beating time on the 
horns of his ox with his stick. He was overheard by the Duke HWAN, 
who sent the philosopher Kwan Chung, to invite hime to take service with 
him. The wagoner accepted, though his cryptic reply is said to have 
puzzled Chung (see Mayers, 517-932), and in time he became a minister. So 
great was his ability that he was entrusted with a difficult embassy to the 
hostile Duke of Sung with satisfactory results. 

645. NEWT, as a love charm. See CHARMS. 

646. NEW YEAR FESTIVAL. The New Year decorations are em- 
blematic. The main part is the left-handed straw rope, Shimenawa (q.v.), so 
wound because the left is the pure or fortunate side, and from which depend 
groups of straw pendants with tufts in the sequence three, five, seven, 



recurring, and alternating with paper gohei. The shimenawa is attached to 
two Kadomatsu (see SAIGYO and IKKIU) made of bamboo and pine. Attached 
to the rope are also fern leaves (Moromoki or Urajird), bitter oranges 
(Daidai], charcoal (sumi), leaves of the Yuzuri, and a cray-fish. The whole 
combination is called Shime Kazan. 

Offerings are made to the household gods on a small table named Sambo. 
They consist of rice cake (Moc/ii), bitter oranges, or dried persimmons, 
(Kus/ii gaki), dried chestnuts (Kachiguri), pine seeds (Kaya no tane), black peas 
(Kuro mame), Iwashi, sardine, some herring roe (Kazunoko], a cray-fish, a Tai 
fish, some dried cuttle-fish (Surmne), Mocliibana, or flowers made of rice and 
straw, a daikon, some turnips, a string of cash, several edible seaweeds such 
as Kobu, because of the pun on Yorokobn, to rejoice. The offerings 
vary somewhat with the localities, and their meaning will be found 
under EMBLEMS. For illustrations see The Sun ^ |y|, Vol. /., part 1, 
pages 151-152; also Fusoku Gtva/io and Nikon Fuzokushi. See also MANZAI, 

During the month of January many festivals are held, the descriptions of 
which are common. Amongst others, that held on the first day of the rabbit 
is interesting because of the combination of emblems which it embodies. 
People go to the temple of Temmangu, and bring back branches of willow, 
which are sold in the gardens loaded with lucky symbols: Daikoku's hammer, 
Okame's masks, gilt paper money, toys and small presents, and especially 
sticky cakes, called Maidama, intended to represent cocoons. 

Games are freely indulged in, one of those peculiar to the month being 
the Fukii biki, or "luck pulling," in which the head of the household grasps 
a bundle of gaily coloured ribbons in his hands, the other persons present 
pulling the ends of the tapes to find whether they shall be lucky during the year. 

647. NICHIREN H 3$- Celebrated founder of the Buddhist sect 
which bears his name. Born in 1222, in Kominata, in Awa, near Tokyo, 
his name means Sun lotus, because his mother dreamt that the sun 
entered her body when she conceived him. He received by revelation a 
complete knowledge of the Buddhistic mysteries modern historians say 



that he followed the Shingon sect and studied the Jodo doctrines and 
sought to replace the ordinary mantra Namu Amida Butsn by Namu mio 
ho ren ge kio (Sanskrit: Mamah Saddharma pundhavika Sutra) "Glory to 
the salvation-giving book of the law," which is the initial sentence of the 
principal book of his sect, the Hokke-shu, founded under the reign of 
Gofukakusa Tenno. He also wrote a book Ankoku Ron (book to tranquilise 
the country), which contained the prediction of a Mongol invasion and 
was so full of attacks against the other sects that Hojo Tokiyori was 
obliged, at the prayers of the others, to exile him to Ito, in Idzu, for 
thirty years, in 1261. He escaped in 1264, only to renew his attacks 
with increased virulence. The help of the Kamakura Shogun was then 
again sought by Nichiren's enemies, and he decided to have the monk be- 
headed. He sent him to the beach of Koshigoye to be executed. 
Whilst awaiting the fatal stroke, the legend tells us that Nichiren 
composedly recited his beads and his invocation to Buddha, the sword 
broke in twain as it touched his neck, and at the same instant a flash 
of lightning struck Hojo's place at Kamakura. A beam of heavenly 
light illuminated the place of execution, and the officer entrusted with the 
deed sent to Hojo a messenger to beg for reprieve. Hojo, on his side, 
had sent a horseman with a pardon, and the two met at a small river, 
since then called Yukiai (place of meeting). Nichiren was again exiled, 
but this time to Sado. In 1273 he came back to Kamakura, then 
to Mount Minobu in Kai, where after his death in Ikegami, part of 
his ashes was returned. 

According to legend, a beautiful women once came to Mount Minobu 
whilst Nichiren was praying. The saint ordered her to resume her natural 
state, and after explaining that she ruled eight points of the compass 
whilst seated on the eighth one in the mountains of the west, she drank 
some water and took the appearance of a huge snake, some twenty feet 
long, with iron teeth and golden scales. The name of Shichi men 
Daimyojin has been given to that snake through a confusion in the meaning 
of Shichi men, and it is identified with Siva (Srimahadeva). See the Nichiren 
Shonin Ichidai dzue. 



Our colour illustration shows Nichiren on a pilgrimage in the mountains 
of Tsukuhara, in Sesshiu. It is taken from the rare set of prints named 
M M. |P " ftl B& [Il> Koso Go Ichi Dai Ki Rioku Zue. 

648. NI-JU-HACHI-SHIKU H + A ft- The twenty-eight followers of 
the Goddess of Mercy : KWAXXOX, meaning the twenty-eight constellations, 
or Stellar Mansions, of the Sinico- Japanese astronomy. 

649. NI JIU SHI KO H + ^ See the Twenty-four Paragons of 
Filial Piety 

650. NIKKI DANJO t 7K 5? JE. J eader of the rebellion of the castle 
of Sendai, could transform himself into a rat. Once he tried to steal 
from his master's room a precious book, and was nearly caught in the 
act by Matsumai Tetsunosuke, but he transformed himself on the spot, 
and the other saw nothing but a huge rat scampering out of the room. 
A popular play called Sendaihagi, has been written on this subject, in 
which the names of the personages have been borrowed from former ages, 
as was usual with playwrights under the Tokugawa dynasty. 

651. NTNGYO. A H(- Sort of mermaids, inhabitants of the Taiyan 
island waters, who are represented with a human bust attached to the 
body of a fish, and listening in shells to the secrets of the sea. The 
shell is usually a haliotis. The mermaid proper is usually represented 
with forelegs. There was a curious specimen in the Dresser collection 
(sold 1905), consisting of the dried body of a fish the head of which had 
been replaced by a carved head and forelegs with claws. 

Sometimes the Ningyo holds a Tamo. 

Other creatures, generally females, with a scanty covering perhaps of 
seaweed around the loins, but with legs and no tail, and carrying a 
scythe-shaped knife in the right hand, are often met with as netsuke, the 
left hand carrying to the ear a shell ; they are Awabi divers. 

But one type of old netsuke, very often rudely carved out of deer 
horn, with large protruding abdomen is said to represent the Empress 
Jingo Kogo, who retarded her accouchement during the Korean war. 



652. NINNAJI -{H i$] ^p temple of KIOTO. See SUKUMAMO. The story 
of the kettle dance is given in full in the book Tsurezuregusa, written by 
the priest Kenko (died 1350). 


654. NITTA NO SHIRO fc H I|$ J& &, popularly called NITAN 
No SHIRO (TADATSUNE), shown killing a boar, upon which he sprang as it 
passed near him in a hunt near Fuji, and he plunged his short sword 
in the brute's neck as he ran. This performance is sometimes erroneously 
attributed to Nitta Yoshisada who lived much later. 

It is during the same hunting party of Yoritomo that the Soga revenge 
took place. 

NITAN NO SHIRO was sent by the Emperor to try and kill the monsters 
of Fujiyama, which noboby dared visit on their account. He entered a 
cave and there saw a Goddess, who congratulated him upon his courage 
At the present day there is a statue of Kwannon in the cave. 

655. NITTA YOSHIOKI ff H ^ M, son of Nitta Yoshisada. At the 
end of the three years' war, in 1338, he was the only legitimist chieftain 
left to light the rebels, who still continued the struggle after the death 
of their leader, Ashikaga Takauji. His enemy, Hatakayema Kunikiyo, 
engaged two traitors, Takezawa and Edo Narihiro, to despatch him ; they 
led him to believe that he could safely cross the Kawasaki river, but 
scuttled the boat before starting. Seeing himself lost, Yoshioks committed 
seppuku in the boat ; his retainer, Ichiikawa, swam across with his sword 
between his teeth. See YOSHIOKI. 

656. NITTA YOSHISADA ff ffl H M- Distinguished Minamoto 
warrior who, after serving under Hojo government, until whilst besieging 
Kusunoki Masashige's fortress on the Kongosan he was approached by Prince 
Morinaga and became a follower and defender of Go Daigo Tenno, and 
then attacked the Hojo family at Kamakura in 1333. 

Later, during the war against Takauji, he saw once through the 
palings of a garden a lady, Koto no Naishi, busy playing the koto, and 


at once fell in love, but contented himself with composing the following 

poem : 
& Waga sode no 

Namida ni yadoru 
Kage to dani 
,' V Shirade kumoi no 

1 * ; \ Tsuki ya sumuran, 

i " The tears wet my sleeve ; the shadow of the moon (Koto no naishi) 

will remain above the clouds, unconscious of having caused them." 

He married her the following year and had two sons : Yoshioki and 
and Yoshimune. 

On the twentieth of the fifth month in 1333, he was besieging 
Kamakura, but found the sea too boisterous to cross over to the town, 
and he threw his sword into the waves to propitiate the divinities of 
the deep, an episode often represented in art. At the ebb tide he entered 
the town. Takatoki was killed, the shogun Morikuni Shinno became a 
monk, and Kamakura was burnt down, after which Go Daigo returned to Kioto. 
The uncle of his wife, Andozaemon Shoshu, was a retainer of Takatoki, 
and after the fall of Kamakura, Nitta's wife wrote to him that if he 
would submit to Yoshisada the latter would pardon him. Shoshu, however, 
would not accede to her entreaties and abjure the Hojo cause when his 
leader was defeated. He heard that Takatoki had burnt his castle and fled 
to the mountains, and he was so disgusted at this conduct that he went 
to Kamakura, with a hundred of his men, to weep upon the smouldering 
ruins, and wrapping around his sword the letter of Koto no Naishi, he 
committed seppuku. 

At Tenriu Gawa, in Totomi, the bridge broke or was purposely 
destroyed to prevent Yoshisada's retreat from Kamakura- -and Nitta's horse 
fell in the river, with his groom. A strong soldier, Kiuriu Sayemon, 
jumped into the water, and legend says that he threw the horse and 
groom back on to the bank. Nitta is sometimes shown on horseback on 
the beams of the wrecked bridge, although some commentators say that a 
bridge of boats had been used. 


OKAME (M.I;.) 



NIXGYO (a.e.) 


NYO (ll.S.T.) 


Nitta Yoshisada's campaigns are closely linked with those of Kusunoki 
Masashige (q.v.). Alternatively, he defeated the leader of the Ashikaga 
rebels Takauji, at Miidera and at Kioto, and was himself defeated at 
Takenoshita and at Minato Gawa, where the odds were entirely against 
him. Finally he was killed at the battle of Fujisliima, in Kchizen, by 
an arrow in the head. His head depicted with a cut on the forehead, 
was taken to Kioto to be exhibited publicly. His wife who, with his son, 
had gone to Kioto to meet him, saw this ghastly trophy, and forthwith 
entered the convent of Nishiyama. His sons followed in his footsteps, but 
only to meet with the same fate at the hands of his enemies. 

In the Hachiman Dai Bosalsn the Koto no Naishi is seen fumigating 
Nitta's helmet with incense before the battle, meaning that he would fight 
to the death. Another familiar illustration shows him on foot, after his 
horse had been killed at the battle of Motome zuka, cutting the arrows of 
the enemy "which poured upon him like rain in a storm," with his two 
swords, Oni kiri and Oni rnaru. 

657. NO GAK1" fit ||. Dances. See special literature. Amongst 
Japanese works on the subject are One hundred and ten No Dances, with 
musical notation, published in the form of twenty-two volumes (mentioned 
in Aston's Japanese literature) and a work in eight volumes by Owada 
Tateki, (The Yokyoku Tsukai, published 1892). 

658. NOBUTSURA 'fff | (CHOBEI xo :o & Q ^ HASEBE). Hasebe 
Nobutsura was a retainer of Prince Mochihito who, hoping to be helped 
by Yoritomo and Kiso Yoshinaka, started a revolt against Kiyomori. The 
monks of Kumano, hearing of it, denounced Mochihito to Kiyomori, and 
he had to seek safety in flight, accompanied by Nobutsura, both being 
disguised in women's dresses. Nobutsura, however, came back to the 
castle and killed a score of Kiyomori's men, but his sword broke in twain, 
and he was captured and taken to the Shikken. He refused to betray 
the hiding place of Mochihito, and his firm countenance so impressed 
Kiyomori that he granted him his life. 

5 The official History of the Empire of Japan (World's Fair Commission, 1893) says, p. 219, that Nitta 
Yoshisada committed suicide after the fall of the castle of Tsuruga. 

2 53 


659. NOMI NO SUKUNE if JE It M Patron of the wrestlers, since, 
by command of the Emperor SUININ, he killed the boastful KEHAYA (q.v.). 

660. NORIKIYO ft $| t* fff (SATO HIOYE). See SAIGIO HOSHI. 

661. NORITSUNE ^p $fc $$ (Noxo NO KAMI). One of the Taira 
warriors. In the final fight with the Minamoto, at the battle of Dan no 
Ura, he tried to kill Yoshitsune, who, however, evaded him by jumping 
over eight boats and falling into the ninth (Has-So Tobi). Noritsune 
tried to jump after him, but he was impeded in his attempt by two 
wrestlers of enormous size, and a strong man named lyemura, whom he 
kicked down. Taking the wrestlers under his arms, he jumped into the 
sea with them, all three being drowned. 

662. NUKE KUBI $ "|{f. Goblin with a head that leaves the body 
at night and wanders about. 

663. NUMBERS. The Japanese appear to be very fond of classifying 
things, individuals, animals, etc., into numerical classes, and although 
perhaps this custom is not developed to such an extent as with the Chinese, 
yet the list of their numerical categories could be extended to quite a 
respectable length. Among the best known which find their place in art 
may be mentioned : 

The Thousand cranes (Semba Tsuru). 

The Thousand horses and armour collected by Hidehira, of Oshu, by 
violent means and the Thousand bows and quivers collected by Matsura 

The Thousand armed and the Eleven-faced Kwannons. 

The Thousand carps, monkeys (sembiki saru), horses, boars, characters. 

The Thousand gourds of Hideyoshi, Sennari byotan. 

The One hundred-and-eight Chinese heroes of the novel, Sm ko den (Shui 
hsii ch'uan). 

Various "Hundred Poems." Hiaku nin Isshiu and the corresponding 

The Hundred monkeys; horses, etc. 



The Hundred ways of writing Jiu f|L 

The Fifty-three stations of the Tokaido road. 

The Thirty-six poets, and the more select group of the Rokkasen, or 
Six poets. 

The Twenty-four Chinese Paragons of filial piety, the list of which 
varies, but is usually preferred to the home-bred list of Japanese paragons. 

The Five hundred Rakans and the Eighteen Arhats, Sixteen of which 
are the usual collection. 

The Eight worthies of the wine cup, In chu no Hassen. See Mayers' 
2nd part, 252, and the Eight Sennins of the Chinese Taoists. 

The Seven sennins of Brahmanic lore. 

The Seven retainers of Hideyoshi (with spears) at Shizugatake. 

The Seven Komachi (Nana Komachi). 

The Seven Chinese worthies of the Bamboo grove (Chikurin no shichi Ken). 

The Seven Evils, and Seven Good fortunes, although not usually met 
with in art may be quoted from the A r /o Kid sittra, they are respec- 
tively, Earthquake, flood, fire, sales, onis, war, robbery, sickness; and Honour, 
long life, plenty of servants, carriages, grain and money, silk robes, fine 

The Six Tamagawa rivers (Roku Tamagawa). 

The Five chief festivals. Go Sekku, namely : Nanakusa ; Hina Matsuri 
or Jomi no Sekku, the feast of the dolls (March 3rd) ; Tango no Sekku, 
boys' festival (May jth) ; Tanabata ; Choyo no Seku (September gth). 
Illustrations of five different festivals grouped together are sometimes" 
found, especially on metal work. 

The Four sleepers. 

The Seven Gods in the Takarabune (Shichi fuku jin). 

The Seven herbs of the New Year's week festival (Nana Kusa). 

The Five Buddhas of wisdom, and other numerical categories of the 
Buddhistic faith, for which see the Butsu zo zui. 

The Four supernatural animals: Tiger (or Kirin), Tortoise, Dragon, and 
Howo, or Phoenix. 

The Four Deva Kings (Shi Tenno). 



Many lists of "Shi Tenno," the Four retainers of famous generals. See 
RAIKO; see also Chamberlain's Things Japanese. 

The Four beautiful plants: Pine, Bamboo, Chrysanthemum, and Flower- 
ing Plum. 

The Three heroes of the later Han dynasty: Chohi, Gentoku, Kwanyu 
(San Ketsii). 

The Three heroes of Han: Chorio, Kanshin, and Chimpei. 

The Three Sake tasters: Shaka, Koshi, and Roshi. 

The Three finest views of Japan: Matsushima, Ama no Hashidate, and 

The Three Mystic Apes. 

The Three old men (Sanko): Urashima, Takenouchi, and Miura no 

The Three long-lived genii (Saw////): Seiobo, Jurojin, and Tobosaku. 

664. NUYE ^|. See YORIMASA. There is a novel upon this fantastic 
animal, called Kokuji Nuye Monogatari (1807). 

665. NIOI NO JIU $|1 ^ 0) Precious jewel, by whose means all 
wishes are accomplished. 

666. NYO H 3L a l so -\ TI K N Go, the two great Golden Kings. 
Devas placed on either side of temple doors; temple guardians of more or 
less repulsive appearance, the duty of which is to guard the Ni o mon 
(gate) of the temple, and prevent devils from getting near. They are the 
representation of Indra and Brahma. 

They are also called Nio SAM A, or the red and green Devas, from which 
the transition to the red and green devils has been an easy step. AKA Oxi, 
the red devil, has an open mouth, as representing the Yo, or male principle 
of Chinese philosophy; and Awo ONI, the green devil, has compressed lips, 
and represents the Yin, or female principle. They are also considered as 
emblematic of strength. The word Nyorai is equivalent to the Sanskrit 
Tathagatq, and as such is the greatest epithet, applied to a Buddha. Under 
that name are designed the five Buddhas of contemplation and wisdom 
(Goshi nyorai) : Ashuku, Dainichi, Shaka, Taho, and Yakushi Nyorai. 




(Matt Garlmtt collection) 


One of the curious customs connected with the Nio, consists in spitting 
chewed paper at the NYO by way of prayer to be blessed with greater 
strength. In some places the same custom is followed towards the images 
of Binzuru. 


668. ODA NOBUNAGA* $$ jf Jt Son of Nobuhide, whom he 
succeeded, and descendant of Taira no Shigemori ; he married the daughter 
of Saito Hidetatsu when he was twenty. It is said that when Saito visited 
him he found him and his soldiers with rude arms and ill-shaped armour, 
but when Nobunaga visited him he took care to go in fine armour, and Saito 
sighed upon the probable fate of his own province, which he guessed would 
soon become the property of Nobunaga (this, in fact, happened under his 
son, Yoshitatsu). He ended the Okehazama war by destroying Imagawa 
Yoshimoto, then Lord of Suruga, Totomi, and Mikawa in 1560. The 
Emperor Ogimachi ordered him to restore peace in the Empire, then fallen 
into anarchy, and in 1564 he subjugated Mino, took Gifu as his residence, 
and attacked Omi. As there were many difficulties in attacking Sasaki 
Shotei, he attached to himself by family ties Takeda Shingen, Asai 
Nagamasa, Tokugawa leyasu, and other warriors whom he thought might 
otherwise side against him. In 1568 he was able to defeat Sasaki Shotei, 
who ran away from Omi and left the road free for the Sh5gun Yoshiaki to 
return from Echizen to Kyoto, where he was received by Nobunaga. The 
latter afterwards attacked Settsu and Kawachi, and was rewarded by the 
Emperor with the title of Danjochu. In 1569 the Shogun's palace was 
invaded by Miyoshi and Matsunaga, but they were driven away by 
Nobunaga, who then constructed new palaces for the Emperor and Shogun 
Yoshiaki, whom he placed under the guard of Hideyoshi, and was again 

The Yamabushis of Enryakuji (Hieisan) had become boisterous, and 
Nobunaga decided to abate their influence, but as they were supported by 

9 The spelling ODA is followed by most western writers, and has accordingly been adopted here, but 
the proper Japanese reading is OTA. 



neighbouring Daimios they were too strong for him. He then bethought 
himself of using the Christian devotees, and built a temple, "Nambanji," for 
three Portuguese Jesuits in Kyoto (the Catholic faith had been brought to 
Japan in 1547, and had extended in Kyushu and Chugoku with rapidity). 
In 1571 Takeda Shingen and the monks thought of attacking Nobunaga, 
but he forestalled them, and burnt to the ground their three thousand 

Shingen, envious of Nobunaga, slandered him to the Shogun, who 
foolishly agreed to destroy Nobunaga. The latter invaded the palace, and 
Yoshiaki apologised; but later Nobunaga attacked and captured Yoshiaki, 
who would have been executed, but begged for his life, and was instead 
exiled to the castle of "VYakae, in Wakasa. 

This marked the fall of Ashikaga Shogunate. In 1575 Nobunaga 
destroyed Takeda Katsuyori, successor of Shingen, and was promoted to 
the title of GON DAINAGOX. He also destroyed Asai Nagamasa and Asakura 
Yoshikage in the north, Miyoshi and Matsunaga in Kawachi (1574). 

In 1576 he was promoted to the Real Second Rank; in 1577 he defeated 
the revolt of the Buddhist priests of the Ikko sect in Settsu. He stayed in 
1582 at the temple Honnoji, in Kyoto, where he was attacked at night by 
his own retainer, Akechi Mitsuhide, with a great body of men. He could 
not resist with the few guards at his disposal, and was stabbed by the spear 
of an Akechi soldier named Amano Genzaemon. 

He was then forty-nine years old; his irritable disposition and severe 
discipline had estranged him from many of his men, and thus indirectly 
caused his murder after he had conquered twenty provinces. The Emperor 
conferred upon him the title of Prime Minister and the second order of the 
first rank after his death. 

During his life Nobunaga was nicknamed Baka dono (Lord Fool) by 
his enemies. It is said of Akechi that his hatred of Nobunaga arose one 
day when the latter, in a merry mood, caught Akechi's head under his 
arm and, striking it gently with his fan, told him he would make a drum 
of it. 

Shiganosuke, brother of Akechi Mitsuhide, was a retainer of Hideyoshi. 



When the latter attacked Akechi, unable to fight his brother and yet not 
wishing to turn traitor to Taiko Sama, he swam on horseback across Lake 
Biwa, killed his wife and children, and after setting fire to his palace 
committed harakiri. 

669. OEN -F. $!. Chinese who lived in the western mountains, and 
his lamp was marvellously filled every day. He had a tame tiger and a 
tame leopard serving him in his cave, and two blue phoenix always came 
to herald his visitors. 

670. O ETStJ SHO. A Chinese sage depicted writing a poem whilst 
he holds a duck under his arm. 

671. OGEI 3E 15li- Semi in figured in Hokusai's Mang-wa; was a 
disciple of Lao Tse (Roshi), who learnt the doctrine of Taoism in the periods 
of Fukiji and Shinno. He was also seen in Gojo and Shun, and finally 
went to heaven on a cloud. 

672. OGISHI 3E ^ * 1 ne Chinese caligraphist, Wang Hi Che, 
usually depicted writing on a rock. He lived from 320 to 379 A.D., and 
originated the Kaisho (Shinsho) style of writing now generally adopted. 
One of his sons, Wang Hien, followed in his steps, and is perhaps the 
youthful attendant usually shown holding the master's inkstand. 

673. OGURI HANGWAX /J> ^ lj *g (KANEUJI). Son of a rebellious 
vassal of Ashikaga, after whose ruin he had to live in hiding. He is 
celebrated for his horsemanship, and accordingly often shown on horseback 
on a Go table. 

OGURI HANGWAN had a vicious stepmother who compelled him to flee 
from home. Later on she sent him some drugged wine, which he unsus- 
pectedly drank, the result being that he wasted away and became a cripple. 
A priest made him a small car, upon which he travelled for several years, 
pulled by compassionate people. He met Terute Hime, who, with the help 
of a prayer to the God of Hakone, healed him, and the romance of their 
adventurous life is set at length in the Oguri Monogatari. 

In company with Hosokawa Hasafusa, he hunted down and destroyed 

2 59 


the pirate Kazama Hachiro, and he is often depicted mounted on his horse, 
Onikage, and watching from the top of a cliff the doings of the pirate. 

Lafcadio Hearn, in his paper on Daikoku mai (trans. Asiatic Society 
Japan XXII/3/309), says that Oguri's birth was the result of prayer and 
a miracle. Terute was also of miraculous birth, and her father, Choja 
Yokohama, incensed at her marrying Oguri against his wish, poisoned the 
bridegroom and ordered his own daughter to be drowned. She was, 
however, rescued by a fisherman named Murakimi Dayu, of Nawoye, whose 
jealous wife sold Terute to a kidnapper. The unhappy girl was thus sold 
seventy-five times, until she was bought by Yorudzuya Chobei, a Joroya 
keeper. She refused to become a Joro, and preferred to do the hardest 
menial toil, keeping chaste until she was rescued by Oguri. 

Once in Sagami some highwaymen plotted to rob him, but Terute 
heard of the plot and warned him; he then escaped on the horse of one 
of the robbers. 

A lengthy synopsis of Oguri's story will be found in Braun's Japanischer 
Stigen und Marchen. See Moronobu's book, Shimpan Oguri Hangwan. 

A remarkably similar legend is that of HATSUHANA. She was the wife 
of Inuma Katsugoro, better known under the nickname Hizari (lame) 
Katsugoro. The father of this Samurai had been killed by some enemy, 
and Inuma, bent on dutiful revenge, became a ronin, and travelled all over 
the country to find the murderer. He met with an accident and hurt his 
leg in such a way that he could not walk any more. Hatsuhana then drew 
him, in a little carriage, up to the temple of Hakone Gongen, in the 
mountains, where she prayed under a waterfall for her husband's recovery. 
The Divinity granted her earnest prayer, but the poor woman forfeited her life. 
Shortly afterwards, Katsugoro's enemies passed near the waterfall, when he 
killed them all, and the ghost of his wife appeared rising out of the waters. 

674. OHO 3 1E (i n a flying chariot and with a halo) was a man of 
Han-Yo who learnt Taoism on Mount Kwa, and whom the Gods favoured 
with a feathery chariot, with which he visited every fairy land and 
investigated the heavens. 



675. O HI SAN. August fire lady; another name of AMATERASU. 


677. OKADA |J6J |!J. A Ronin living in Akita who was inordinately 
fond of shooting birds with a gun, although his two daughters, who were 
good Buddhists, beseeched him repeatedly not to wantonly destroy life. One 
day he was asked by one of his neighbours to shoot t\vo storks, and agreed 
to do so. His daughters thereupon decided to dress in white, and to go in 
the moonless night upon the beach which the storks were wont to frequent, 
so that if their father killed either of them he might repent and get out 
of his evil ways. 

The ronin unfortunately shot them both, and when he went to collect 
his spoils found that he had killed his own daughters. Full of grief, he 
erected himself their funeral pyre, and burnt their bodies; then he shaved 
his head and went to the woods as a hermit. 

678. OKAME |SO g (}: fr &). See UZU.ME. 

679. O KATSU $3 Jj$p. The unfortunate heroine of a ghastly story, 
given by Lafcadio Hearn in Kotto. 

Near the waterfall of Yurei Daki, in Kurosaka, there was a shrine 
erected to Taki Daimiojin, to which was attached a money-box. The place 
was far famed as a rendez-vous for ghosts and goblins, and no one would 
venture near it after nightfall; but one night, as the result of idle talk, 
followed by a wager, O Katsu decided to go to the waterfall, and as a 
proof thereof she consented to bring back the money-box of the god. She 
went, and found the road rough and dismal ; as she grabbed the money- 
box she heard a voice in the waterfall call her twice, but she heeded it not, 
and went her way faster than she had come. Her friends congratulated her 
on her pluck, when one remarked that her back seemed wet, and lo, it 
was blood, running from the wee bundle in which she had carried her little 
son, strapped on her back, all the way. On unwrapping the baby it was 
then found that his head had been torn off. . . . 

680. O KIKU. See GHOSTS (Bakemono). 



681. O KINA. Mask of an old man, with tufts of hair on the cheeks 
and forehead. See SAMBASSO dances and MASKS. 

682. O KIO IK l|l (MARUYAMA UH Uj). A painter who lived in the 
eighteenth century; once he painted a boar, which he thought was asleep; 
someone passing along the following day saw the drawing and wondered 
at the accuracy with which the painter had limned a dead boar, much to 
the astonishment of O KIO, who protested, but went to the place where he 
had seen the animal, and found that it was really dead. 

683. OKUZAWA SENSABURO J& if fill H 11$. Great robber; often 
shown standing, tightly bound with a rope, but still in a defiant posture. 

684. OKYO 3E ^ Sennin. See OSHIKIO. 

685. OMI HAKKEI jf IL A il- The eight beautiful views of Lake 

The autumn moon, seen from ISHIYAMA ^3 Ul ^C ^j 
The evening glow in SETA $- *? M 
The evening bell of MIIDERA \ ffi Bffi. a 
The evening snow on HIRAYAMA Jifc, J^ ^ 
The night rain in KARASAKI ||f ll^ ^ M 
The boats sailing from YABASE ^ $| 
The bright sky, with the breeze of AWAZU !H ^ Hf! M 
The wild geese alighting at KATADA ^ ffl ^ M 

These views are commonly found on inro, and sometimes in the form of 
small panels on tsuba. 

This Hakkei is an imitation of Shosho no Hakkei $* i. |^ ^8 ^1 A ;!S. 
a Chinese category which, like the Omi Hakkei, is given and illustrated in 
the Yedo Osetsuyo. There is a Kanazawa Hakkei near Yokohama. 


687. ONI jU,. Generic name for devils, the representation of which 
in art is quite a common feature. ONIS have claws, a square head with 
two horns, sharp teeth, and malignant eyes surmounted by big eyebrows; 




occasionally they wear trousers of tiger's skin. On the first of January they 
are expelled from houses with the invocation Oni vaa Soto, Fukii wa uchi: 
Devils avaunt! Luck enter! by the Caster-out of devils, the Yaku Harai, or 
Toshi Otoke, whose weapons are a shakiidjo and a box of dried, roasted 
black peas (Kuro mame), which, after use, were thrown away with a paper 
previously rubbed on the body to get rid of ill-luck. This ceremony is called 
the Oni Yarai or Tsuina, and is frequently illustrated, either in its full 
details, a personage throwing the peas and onis retreating, or more often 
hiding under, or in, any well, box, hat, basket, etc., that may come handy, 
or even behind the chief figure. A common form of netsuke shows a box 
out of which protrudes the back of an oni, which, in trying to cram itself 
into the box, nearly bursts it, and on the top a few peas or beans give 
the finishing touch. In olden times an imposing ceremonial was followed, 
peach-wood bows and reed arrows being used in the Imperial palace against 
a man disguised as an oni. 

The caster-out is often Shoki (q.v.), the general demon-queller, but 
sometimes, in humorous groups, Okame and even the Gods of luck, Fukuro- 
kujiu or Jurojin, are depicted performing this function. The oni in that case 
usually hides behind, or even plays with, a strap at catching Fukurokujiu's 

Onis occasionally march at night in bands of a hundred, and this is 
called the Hiakki no Yako. They form processions in imitation of religious 
ceremonies; sometimes even become converted to better ways and enter 
monkhood, with their horns sawn off, and then carry the bell and umbrella 
of the true monks. Priests are shown sawing off the horns of demons, and the 
latter's services are then enlisted as temple guardians to beat the gong, etc. 

Onis as begging monks are depicted with the Nenchicho, or register of 
death, of Buddhist parishioners, kept in the temples to remind the relatives 
of the dead of the commemorative festivals held on the jrd, yth, ijth, 
25th, and 5oth anniversary of the decease. 

According to Shaka's teaching, even devils can be reclaimed in such a 
manner by working for temples, or as servants to holy men (Hakuhaku, 
En-no Shokaku). 



Amongst plays in which oni take a prominent place are the A T o of 
Adachigahara, Momijigari (see KOREMOCHI), Aoi no Uye (based on the Genji 
Monogatari), Benkei at sea, the Kazane, the Yotsuya Kwaidan (Oyiwa 
Shrine at Tokyo), the Banshiu Sara-yashiki (based on the story of O Kiku: 
see GHOSTS), D5joji. 

The ordinary temple guardians are often called the red and the green 
devils. See NYORAI. 

We also find oni dressed as court ladies, in allusion to the jealous 
palace maid who voluntarily became a devil in the reign of Saga (820); as 
master and servant, looking at themselves in mirrors, fighting with crabs, 
or with the celebrated Asahina SABURO bending the bow of Tametomo, or 
with MOMOTARO ; striking from the gate of Rashomon the helmet of WATANABE, 
or recovering the arm which the latter had taken from one of them; disguised 
in the shape of a huge spider (see RAIKO and WATANABE), exchanging places 
with Shoki, or dancing with Shoki's mask, riding on the back of Omori 
HIKOHICHI, tickling the head of a Chinese official deep in meditation, 
officiating as servant to some sage like Hakuhaku, and in some Kiogen 

BUNSHOSEI, the flying demon, emblematic of the dissemination of written 
thought, is represented with a writing-box in one hand and in the other 
a brush; he is mounted upon a fish with the head of a dragon and fins 
transformed into wings, somewhat like the stylised dolphins of Nagoya castle. 
See also RYUTOKI and TENTOKI in Tajima's Relics of Japanese Art, Vol. 3. 
The horse-headed (MA MIEN) and the Bull-headed (MO MIEN) oni are amongst 
the chief officials of Hades. 

The SHI TENNO are usually represented standing upon onis. 

by Tigers, see Yii LIU. 

688. ONIGASHIMA fa y &. The Island of the Devils. See MOMO- 

689. ONIWAKA fa 3. Young demon. See BENKEI. 




691. ONO NO TOFU /h If it Jit Celebrated caligraphist, born in 
894, and minister of the Emperors Shujaku and Murakami. He is usually 
represented in the costume of a noble and accompanied by a frog, from 
which he learnt the virtue of perseverance. 

He had tried seven times in succession to get to a higher post, but 
without success, and was just going to leave the palace in despair when 
he noticed a little green frog trying to reach a leaf on' the sloping branches 
of a weeping willow. The animal tried seven times without reaching the 
branch, but at the eighth leap was more fortunate. Ono no Tofu thought 
he had been favoured by the Gods with an object-lesson, and took courage. 
His perseverance was at last rewarded, and he rose to the highest rank. He 
died circa 964, when he was seventy years old. He is depicted on Hana 
garnta, and on the cover of children's school books, with the frog in one 
corner. A commoner version has it that he could not master caligraphy 
whilst a youth, and was despairing when he beheld the frog, and took its 
performance as an object-lesson. 

692. OOKA ^ pSj. ECHIZEX NO KAMI ;t$ ^tj '-if TADASUKE was civil 
governor of Yedo under YOSIIIMUNE shogun. It is as a judge of great 
acumen and impartiality that he has become famous. The Oka Sa'dan 
is a collection of some forty-three of his celebrated cases, some of which 
have been abstracted in Aston's Japanese Literature, amongst which the 
following : 

A man had a golden pipe, which was stolen, and the detective force 
of the period failed to locate the thief, though a certain man was 
strongly suspected. OKA watched the suspect and noticed that he was 
unable to prepare rapidly the pellets of tobacco of the proper size to fill 
his pipe. He then made the man confess his guilt. 

A vegetable pickler hoarded his gold in a tub of Daikon; once it 
was stolen, and Oka convicted the thief by smelling his arms. 

A baby girl was claimed by two women. Oka commanded them to 
pull her by the arms, as if to tear her away from one another. One of 



the women gave way when the baby cried, and Oka decided that she 
was the true mother. 

A man suspected his wife of adultery, and accused a youth of being 
her lover. Oka ordered him to bring his cat to the court on the hearing 
of the case. The cat let free in the room took no notice of any one 
except the man and his wife, until the suspected lover came in, when it 
went and rubbed itself against him. Further when the man was questioned 
by the judge, the cat nestled himself on his dress, and gave him away 
although he strenuously denied his guilt. 

693. ORO 3l ^. Sennin ; dwelt in a village and yearned for Taoist 
science. One day while he was threshing wheat n sage came and made 
him drunk with wine. The wine vessel suddenly broke, and the wine 
formed a cloud upon which his house was carried to the sky. Those 
below could hear him threshing long afterwards, and he is depicted 
at work, or cleaning rice. 

694. OSHIKIO 3E T' Hf- The Sennin WANG TSZE KIAO, properly 
named SHIN, usually shown in the sky on the back of a Crane, and 
playing a wind instrument, the Sho ; sometimes depicted on an Ox, playing 
the flute. He was the son of King REI (Chow Ling Wang), of the Chow 
dynasty (570 B.C.) and was fond of playing the Slid to the tune of the 
phoenix. He was taken by the fairy, FUKYUKO, to the summit of the 
Mount Su, and after thirty years he met a man named HAKUYO, whom 
he ordered to inform his family that on the seventh day of the seventh 
month he would appear to them on the summit of Mount Ko, where 
they found him on the appointed day, riding a white crane. See also 

He is identified with OKYO (WANG KIAO 3E Hlf), a Chinese governor 
under the Chow dynasty. This worthy came to court on the first day 
of each month without any horse or chariot, to the astonishment of the 
Emperor, who resolved to find out whether he had any magic means of 
travel. To that effect, the governor was summoned unexpectedly to Court, 
and he appeared at once ; a day later the experiment was repeated, and 



Kulo collection) 


watchers saw two ducks fly from the west just before he arrived. On 
the third they saw only one gander, and caught it in a net, but Okyo 
escaped, and the bird was transformed into an old shoe. Accordingly 
Okyo is shown with one or two ducks. A composition of Chinese courtiers 
trying to secure a big bird may be an illustration of this legend. It 
must be noted that in some books Okyo and Oshikio are described 

695. OSHIKURA |f L < > See GAMES. 

696. OSHICHI fc -fc (YAOYA). The daughter of a vegetable-seller 
of Kanda, in Yedo, whose father's house having been burnt sought refuge 
in the temple of Kichijoji. She then fell in love with Kidriza, son of a 
samurai, who was studying in that temple. When the merchants house 
was rebuilt, he took his daughter back with him, and about the same 
time the elder brother of Kichi/.a died, so that his father sent also for 
him, but he had to carry the boy away against the priest's consent. 

Yaoya, pining away without news of her lover, thought that the best 
way to return to the temple, where she expected to meet Kichiza, was 
to set fire to her father's new place, and did so. She was caught red- 
handed and taken to prison ; her judges tried to save her from death by 
passing her as under thirteen years of age, but an offering which she had 
left in the temple, and upon which she had herself written her age as 
sixteen years and a half, prevented them from saving her, and she was 
burnt alive. 

697. OSHITSU 3l *i{- The Chinese WANG CHIH, the original RIP 
VAN WINKLE. Having wandered in the K'u CHOW mountains, he went 
into a grotto, where some old men were playing Go. He laid down his 
axe and bundle of firewood, and sat down to watch them. One of the 
old men gave him a date stone to chew, and after doing so, Oshitsu fell 
asleep, becoming entirely oblivious of all earthly wants of drink and food, 
and losing all notion of time. After some time the players told him 
that he had been there a long while, and he woke up from his state of 
abstraction, only to find his axe rusted away, the haft of it decayed, and 



hear that he had been watching for several centuries. Several similar 
stories are met with in Chinese lore, amongst them that of Yuan Chao 
and his friend Liu Ch'en, and the story of Lu Wen. 

698. OSHIXJI 5E M IS- After the King of Korea had been beaten 
by Sadehiko at the end of the reign of Kimmei Tenno, he had to send 
tribute to the Emperor of Japan. Once, in 572, he sent a memorial 
written on a crow's wing, which none of the Emperor's courtiers were 
able to decipher; but Oshinji transferred the writing upon a piece of silk 
after holding the wing over the steam of a boiling kettle, and his skill 
won him a place at Court. The Nihongi give his name as O SHIN Ni 
(Ehon Kojidan), 

699. OSHO 3l lH (Osiioirsu). The Sennin WANG CHU, depicted seated, 
watching an umbrella descending from heaven with a scroll attached 
(Mangwa, Vol. 3), or seated on an umbrella (Shoshi gwa den}. OSHO was 
the disciple of the great fairy, CuoYO-Sosm, later, he retired alone to 
Mount TESA. As Choyo was travelling in Ryusen, her umbrella served 
her to send a letter to Osho, by throwing it through the sky the distance 
of some two hundred Chinese Li, between Ryusen and Sasen. 

700. OSHO -ff. jjj^, or KIUSIIO. The Chinese Paragon of filial virtue, 
WAXG SIANG, whose stepmother desired to eat some raw fish in the middle 
of winter. He went and laid himself upon the ice of a pond, until he 
felt the frozen surface giving way, and caught two carps for the old lady. 

701. O SHO KUN 3i Hg ^. The celebrated Chinese lady, Wang 
CHAO KUN. She was of peerless beauty, and her fame reached the ears 
of the Emperor Yuan-ti, who sent his minister, Mao-yen-sho, to fetch 
her. But the minister wanted to make some money out of the transaction, 
and as the parents were poor, and would not pay him, he made a picture 
of the girl of such ugliness that the Emperor forgot her very name. One 
day, however, he found her, and the minister had to flee to save himself 
from death. He went to the court of the Khan of Hiung-nu, who, on 
seeing the true picture of the girl decided to invade China, and consented 



to retreat only when the lady was handed over to him. But the girl 
threw herself into the Amur, rather than cross the boundary. 

Another version, perhaps more accurate, is to the effect that O Sho 
Kun was in the harem of the Emperor when the latter ordered pictures to 
be made of all the women of his seraglio, so as to select one to be sent 
to Hiung nu. She was the only one to refuse a bribe to the court painter, 
and as a consequence of the ugly picture he made of her she was selected 
by the Emperor. He found, however, when it was too late, that she was 
the most beautiful woman of his harem, and in his wrath ordered the death 
of Mao-yen-sho, who flew to the court of Hiung nu. This forms a very 
common subject in Chinese poetry and art. 

702. OSUI 3E :f|, or IGEX, depicted before a tomb, whilst a storm 
rages above, was the Chinese \\'AXG NGAI, one of the twenty-four paragons 
of filial virtue. His mother had been much afraid of thunder during her 
life, and in time of storm he would go and stand by her tomb, saying : 
"Fear not mother, your son is near." 

703. OTA DOKWAN ^C ffl M ?1- Founder of the castle of Yedo 
(present Japanese Imperial Palace), who is often represented in the rain 
talking to a girl at the door of a cottage, in allusion to the following 

Ota Dokwan, on a rainy day, was getting drenched when he espied 
an inn, and although the house was of poor appearance at once sped 
there, and requested the loan of a rain coat (Mz'no), but instead the maid 
brought him, on a fan, a flower of the Yamabuki (Kerria Japonica). Ota 
Dokwan got very angry, but he was reminded shortly afterwards that her 
meaning was expressed by the poetry: 

Nanaye ya ye 

Hana wa sake domo * 

Yamabuki no 

Mino hitotsu da ni 
Nakizo kana shiki. 


"Although having many petals the Yamabuki,* to our deep regret, has 
no seed." 

The irrepressible pun is on the word Mino, which means equally well 
a seed or a grass rain coat such as worn by the Japanese peasants. A 
good illustration of this episode is given in Hokkoun's Mangwa. 

Ota Dokwan was killed in 1486 by Uesugi Sadamasu, his master. His 
name was Mochisuke, and Dokwan, meaning priest, was added to his first 
name after he had become a monk. From him the temple of Hachiman, 
in Fukagawa Tokio, holds an image of the God of War, said to have been 
carved by Temmangu. 

704. OTAFUKU }: ^ H, or OTAFUKU - MEN. The popular, if 
irreverent, name of Uzume. It means "big breasts," and is usually applied 
jokingly to vulgar, bulky women. Pictures of Otafuku are carried by 
people, on bamboo rakes, on the festival of the Tori no Machi at the three 
shrines called Tori jinja during the days of the Cock, Tori no hi, of the 
eleventh month, now November, when everybody buys Kitmade (rakes), of 
more or less ornamental design, and bring back Shintoist emblems to attract 
good luck for the following year (Tokyo custom). On those days the back 
gate of the Yoshiwara (near by) is thrown open. 

705. OTAIFU "n $p, standing by the sea-shore drinking wine, the 
air-castle usually depicted in the clouds. He is one of the Chinese worthies 
who, according to the Taoist books, had some ability to divine fortune, and 
also a great taste for drinking. The presentment of this personage must 
not be confused with that of Urashima. 

706. OTAKE DAINICHI NYORAI *: ft ^C H #11 ^ lived in Yedo 
in the period Kwanyei (1624-1643), when she was the servant of a man 
named Sakuma. She was a very religious woman of great Buddhistic virtue, 
and gave all she had to the poor. She took hardly any food, and the 
little she consented to eat was gathered b)' means of a hempen sack placed 
before the inlet of a drain. 

s The Yamabuki is the Yellow rose, Kerria Japunica. 
2 79 






She has been reverenced ever since her death, and as a proof of the 
story a piece of the drain is said to have been preserved at the temple 

707. OTO TACHIBANA HIME #} f jff. Wife of Yamato Dake, 
who, to appease the Sea God, had her mats thrown into the sea and 
jumped on them, thus according to a fanciful version, taking her revenge 
upon her husband, who some time earlier had told her that a woman's 
place was on the mats, not following her lord to the wars. The episode 
took place between Kazuma and Sagami. 

The Gods, who had been offended by a jeering remark of Yamato Dake, 
were appeased by the sacrifice of his wife, and when the warrior returned 
and contemplated the sea from the top of the Tsui Toge, he exclaimed, in 
recollection of his wife's devotion, Azuma iva ya (O ! my wife), from which 
came the name of Azuma, given to the eastern coast provinces of Japan. 
It is usual to call her Tachibana Hime; the addition of Oto means 

708. OWO IKO ^ ^ 50. Strong woman who, having a grudge 
against a neighbour, carried a huge rock and threw it into the middle of 
the channel by which his rice fields were irrigated, so as to divert the 
water from them. 

One day the wrestler, SAEKI, of Echizen, going to Kyoto for some great 
wrestling at the court match, saw her at the stone bridge of Takasliima, 
and slipped his arm under her own. She squeezed him so hard that he 
could not move, and she carried him in that manner up to her house. As 
food, she gave him balls of cooked rice which she had pressed so hard that 
at .first he could not bite them. After a week of such treatment he was 
stronger than ever, and won the wrestling match easily (Ehon Fuji bakama, 
1823, Vol. /.). 


710. P'AN FEI y$ $2- Concubine of TUXG HWEN How, of Ts'i, and 
most celebrated as a dancer. Her Imperial lover made a poem in which 



he said that "golden lilies grew in her footsteps," and in allusion to this 
sentence pictures represent her treading amongst lilies. She' is said to have 
introduced, or at least developed, the custom of binding the feet of women, 
and even unto this day the feet of Chinese women are called "golden lilies." 
She composed the dances of the Dawn, of the Twilight, of the Waves, of 
the Cherry Blossoms, and of the Chrysanthemums. She killed herself in the 
Sword dance with such grace that the spectators thought her agony was a 
new variation she had introduced into that dance. She was given the 
name of FEI Jix, the swallow that flies away. 

711. PANS ON THE HEAD | ^. Figures are sometimes met with 
representing women going to a temple with some iron pans on their heads. 
The explanation of this strange headgear is to be found in a custom once 
prevalent at the temple of Tsu Kuma, in Omi, where adulterous women 
were not admitted to worship unless they carried on their heads a number 
of iron pans equal to that of their secret lovers. The figures are called 
Nabe Kabitri. 

There is, however, a prettier story, but it applies to a maiden with a 
single wooden bowl over her head, and forms the fairy tale Hachi Katsugi. 
An old couple in Yamato had a daughter whose beauty was so great that 
they were afraid lest it might cause her downfall. As the mother was 
dying she sent the girl to fetch a deep wooden bowl in the garden, and 
set it upon her head, partly covering her face, and enjoining her to thus 
keep it for ever. The girl was called Hachibime. She was sent to the 
steward of the neighbouring estate, who remarked upon her activity to 
the overseer; the son of the latter saw the girl at work, fell in love with 
her, although only the lower part of her face was visible, and finally married 
her. On the wedding day the wooden bowl accidently dropped from her 
head and broke, when it was found that it had a double bottom, the space 
between the two walls being filled with gems. This subject is illustrated, 
amongst other tales, in the Ukiyo Gwafu, Vol. 3, 

712. PARAGONS OF FILIAL PIETY H -f- 3ji (Ni Jiu SHI Ko). 
The Paragons of Chinese lore number twenty-four, and they are depicted 


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in many works, amongst which the Musei no shi of Hogen Shimboku, the 
Ni jiu shi ko of Giokuzan, the Mangwa of Hokusai and his Ni Jin Shi 
Ko Zuye (1822), in the following order: 

1. TAISHUN (Shun). 

2. Moso or KOBU (Meng Tsung). 

3. KAN NO BUTI (Wenti). 

4. TEIKAN (Ting Lan). 

5. Bixsox or Sin KEN (Min Sun). 

6. SOSAN or SHIO (Tseng vShen). 

7. OSHO or Kirsiio (Wang Siang). 

8. RORAISIII (Lao Lai Tsze). 

9. Kiosm (Kiang Sin 1 ) and his wife Cuosni (Shang She). 

10. SAISHI (Sui She). 

11. YOKO (Vang Iliang). 

12. TOYKI (Tung Yung). 

i]. KOKO (Bunkio, Hwang Hiang). 

14. KAKKIO (Kwoh Ku). 

15. Sniujrsno (Chu Show Ch'ang). 

1 6. EXSHI (Yen Tsze). 

17. S.vurx (Ts'ai Chun). 

18. YUKIXRO (Kien Low). 

19. RIKUZOKT or Cmsiio (Luh Su). 

20. The trio, DKXSIIIX, DKNKKI, DF.XKO (T'ion Chen, T'ien King, and 
T'ien Kwang). 

21-22. The two brothers, CIIOKO (Chang Mia) and CIIOREI (Chang Li). 

23. GOMO (\\u Meng). 

24. KOTEIKEX or SANKOKT (Hwang T'ing Kien). 

Sometimes the following replace numbers 21 and 22 respectively: CIIIUYU 
(Chung Yeo); KOIIAKU (Kiang Keh). 

There are also Twenty- four Japanese paragons of filial virtue, but they 
are very rarely alluded to. 

713. POETS ^ ffi ftlj. Although there are several . lists of Thirty-six 

2 73 


famous poets, Sanjiu Rokkasen, which slightly differ from one another, the 
number is usually restricted to six, under the title ROKKASEN, and their pre- 
sentment is frequently met with in art, sometimes humorously treated. 
The six are: Sojo Henjo, Ariwara no Narihira, Bunya no Yasuhide, Kisen 
Hoshi, Ono no Komachi, and Otomo no Kuronushi. 

In some other lists are introduced the names of Abe no Nakamaro, 
Hitomaru, Akabito, and Tsurayuki. 

The lists of the Hundred poets vary considerably, there are a number 
of Hiakku nin isshiit, one set of which has been translated by F. A*. 
Dickins ; there are two different sets by Shunsho, in the form of colour 
illustrations ; one of the thirty-six (1789), one of the Hundred in one 
volume (1775), besides a number of other similar works. However, 
outside books, it is rare to find representations of more than the six 
poets grouped together. 

714. POETRY. The three Gods of poetry are AKABITO, HITOMARU, and 
SOTORI HIMK (Shaho Bukitro I). 


716. PROVERBS. See the works of Chamberlain, Hearn, Steenackers. 
From the latter are excerpted the following proverbs, which are occasionally 
illustrated :- 

HAXA \VA SAKURA xi HITO \VA BUSHI: As the cherry flower is the flower 
par excellence, so the Samurai is the man par excellence. 

Allusion to the poem called "The Flower at the Inn" (Ryoshuku no 
hana), composed by Satsuma no Kami TADANORI (q.v.) during the war 
against the Minamoto, the day before he was killed by Okabe no Tadazumi, 
at Ichinotani. Tired, he could find no place to sleep but under the shadow 
of a cherry tree in flower, and on waking he wrote that poem. 

SENDO OKU SHITE FUNE YAMA E NOBORU : The boatmen are so many 
that the boat is hoisted on the mountains (too many cooks spoil the broth). 

USHI NI HIKARETE ZfiNKOJi MAiRi : Forced pilgrimage to Zenkoji, 
following an ox. 

An old woman of very irreligious habits lived on the road from Tokio 


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to Zenkoji. Once she put some clothes to dry, and an ox passing by 
entangled its horns in a long piece of cotton : maddened, it ran away, 
and the old woman's shrieks only goaded him to run further and faster. 
She thus followed him right up to the door of the temple of Zenkoji, many 
miles away, and thereafter became very bigoted. 

SAN NIN YOREBA MONJU NO CHIE: If three men associate they have 
between themselves the intelligence of Monju Bosatsu. This proverb is often 
applied to the three dancers so frequently met with in netsuke, the drummer, 
flutist, and mask dancer. 

OMO NEN \VA I\VA OMO Tosu: Perseverance and strong will pierce even 
rocks. An illustration is found in the classic story of the vendetta of the 
Soga brothers. 

NEKO NO SHIRI SAIZUCHI: "Using a hammer on the buttocks of a cat," 
is applied to the use of an inappropriate instrument for any kind of work. 
This gives the artist an opportunity to show Daikoku striking with his 
hammer a cat, perched on his bales probably in wait for the God's rats. 

MESHI NO UYE NO HAI : Flies on cooked rice, though not an art subject, 
is the characteristic expression for hangers-on whom one cannot shake off, 
like flies in cheap cookshops. 

KOI NI Jo Gi NO HEDATE NASHI : In love there are no distances. As, 
for instance, the story of the priest, CHIGO NO SHONIN, who fell in love with 
the wife of the courtier, KIOGIOKU, and, entering the palace as a priest, 
paid his homage to the lady, who showed herself to him through a blind. 

Many proverbs will be found in The Mikado s Empire (Griffis), and tersely 
illustrated under the name Kioga (comic) in common works, such as Kansai 
Givafu, or in the book Ehon Tatoye no Fushi (3 vols. 1789) illustrated by 


718. RAGYO. This word, meaning "naked form," was bestowed upon 
a"priest of the prehistoric period, Indian by birth, and who was brought to 
Kumano by six other priests in a boat, in which his companions returned 
without landing. His only garment was a priest's scarf (kesa), and he spent 



his days in the waterfall which was to be used later by Mongaku Shonin 
Seven centuries he remained thus occupied, at the end of which a carvec 
image rose before him in the pool, and he built it a shrine. In th< 
seventh century, after the introduction of Buddhism to Japan, a man namec 
Shobutsu saw Ragyo in a dream, and on his indications exhumed tin 
image, which was then found to be Kwannon, and the temple of Nach 
was built to receive it. 

719. RAIDEN f[f 1H, or KAMINARI SAMA. 

The Thunder God, usually depicted as a creature of red colour with th< 
face of a demon, with two claws on each foot, and carrying on its back ; 
drum or a wheel of drums. He is often represented in company wit! 
FUJIN, or with his own son, and the treatment is generally humorous. Th 
drum is perhaps torn or burst, and needs mending, or the mice are eatinj 
it, or the God drags along his burden of drums in a cloth bag. Fallini 
from its aerial haunts, it occasionally drops upon the earth, and in so doini 
damages both its drums and itself; hence, it is shown rubbing or holdin: 
with both hands the bruised part of its body. It may also have tumblei 
in Otafuku's foot-bath, or be shown hiding under a hat from a shower c 
beans, like an ordinary Oni. 

Or, sometimes, Raijin fights with Tengns, or with EUTEN, or peaceabl 
walks about with the latter. Mis son, RAITARO, is often his companior 
and the story of his life as adopted son of a poor peasant will be foun< 
under the name of the latter BIMBO. 

The thunder animal jumps from tree to tree in storms; it is fond c 
eating people's navels, and the only protection against such contingenc 
occurring consists in the use of a mosquito net, which the animal canno 
enter, and in the accessory burning of incense, which it abhors. 

Several times, however, the thunder animal was caught by a huma: 
being, as will be seen in the stories of SUGARU, and SIIOKURO, and th 
Nihongi. Both Sugawaru Michizane and Minamoto Yoshihira are said t 
have become transformed into the Thunder God to avenge themselves upoi 
their enemies. 


as ^ 
H X 



\\hen the Mongols attempted to invade Japan, they were repelled in 
a storm, and legend has it that only three men escaped to tell the story. 
Raijin's intervention in favour of Japan is often depicted in this event, 
when he is shown in the clouds emitting lightning and speeding arrows at 
the invaders. 

In central Japan the Ptarmigan is called Raicho (thunder bird) (Weston, 
Japanese Alps). 

Legend of SHOKUKO. There is a story of a man named Shokuro, of the 
village of Oinura, who, to earn the good graces of Torn, the magistrate of 
his district, promised him that he would catch the Thunder God. He had 
hit upon a special plan which consisted in attaching a human navel to the 
end of a kite, and Hying the latter during a storm. The Thunder God, 
being fond of human navels, would he sure to pounce upon the bait and 
be caught. 

The only difficult part of the business was how to obtain the navel 
of a live person. The occasion presented itself when he met in the woods 
a woman named O CIIIYO, whom he killed, cut out her navel, and threw 
her corpse in a ditch. Kaminari Sama noticed the woman in the ditch, 
and came down upon her, when he was struck by her beauty, and taking 
from his mouth a navel which he was chewing, he restored her to life, 
married her, and took her with him into the sky. 

Hence the saying which couples the name of Kaminari and O Chiyo. 
Some days later Shokuro was on the war-path, hunting for the thunder, 
and O Chiyo let herself be caught by his kite. As she came down she 
recognised her murderer, and he was just as much astonished; she then 
regained her own navel. Kaminari Sama came down in a rage, only to 
receive a severe beating from Shokuro, who made his peace with O Chiyo 
and became famous in his village. 

720. RAIGO fft, ij|? was a. priest of ONJOJI, whose prayers secured a 
male heir to Shotoku Tenno in 1097. In recompense, the Emperor told 
him that he would grant him any wish he might express, but the priest 
wanted only a raised platform in his temple whereupon to offer prayers. 



This was a privilege of the Hieizan temple, and the Emperor, afraid of 
the warlike monks seeking prompt revenge upon himself, refused to grant 
Raigo's request. The priest starved himself to death, and he was followed 
to the Kingdom of Shades by the young Prince. Moreover, his spirit was 
transformed into a thousand rats, which infested the palace. 

721. RAIKO $jl fft. -fa, or MINAMOTO NO YORIMITSU. Legendary warrior 

who is credited with the wholesale slaughter of the Ogres, Demons, and 

Goblins with which mediaeval Japan seems to have been infested. RAIKO 

was sleeping one day in the autumn of 988 when a beautiful lady appeared 

to him in a dream. She held a bow and arrow, and introduced herself 

as the daughter, SHOKWA, of the famous Chinese archer Yoyuki (q.v.), and 

said that her father had entrusted her witli the secrets of archery, to be 

transmitted to the most worthy. She then disappeared, leaving near him 

the weapons, which he found on awakening. His most celebrated feat is 

the expedition against the Shutendoji (q.v.), whom he located after a long 

quest, thanks to a maiden who showed him in the mountains a heap of 

flesh and bones, the mangled remains of her parents and of the Ogre's last 

meal. So pleased were RAIKO and his companions that their glee at having 

at last found the whereabouts of the monster had the better of their 

manners. Instead of condoling with the girl, they started dancing around 

the heap of bones, albeit such deportment could hardly be expected from 

them in their disguise as travelling priests. After which, RAIKO and his 

four retainers destroyed also the devils of the OEYAMA, who killed human 

beings to drink their blood instead of ordinary beverages. 

According to another legend, RAIKO and his henchman, WATANABE NO 
TSUNA, were walking in the plain of RENDAI when they saw in the sky a huge 
skull, with a red halo, floating amongst the clouds. They followed the 
vision up to the plateau of Kagura ga Oka, where they found the Yama 
Uba dressed in white, seated at the door of her "unnameable master," whose 
eight ancestors she had served during two hundred and seventy years. This 
repulsive-looking hag, with her breasts falling below her knees, had to use 
an ivory wand to open her mouth and lift her eyelids. She refused to 



SHINRA SABURO (/'../.,!/.) 



direct Raiko, but could not prevent him from entering the subterranean 
palace, in the first cave of which he and Watanabe found themselves 
surrounded by a troop of ghosts, Gakis and Bakemonos, who disappeared 
before a thin angular figure with a face two feet long, naked down to the 
waist, with fine breasts and arms like threads, showing her carefully 
blackened teeth in an unearthly grin. This figure itself gave way before a 
resplendent female. As the latter came near, Raiko felt himself wrapped 
in a net of warm green cobwebs. Feeling sure that lie was bewitched, he 
thrust right and left with his sword, severing the net, whilst at the same 
time a strange shriek was heard, and the point of his sword was broken. 
In front of the two warriors stretched a trail of some milky fluid which 
they followed right into the bowels of a deep cavern, the bottom of which 
was almost filled by a huge spider, in the middle of whose body glistened 
the broken point of Raiko's sword. Raiko prayed, specially calling to his 
assistance Shoki, the demon-queller, and succeeded in cutting off the head 
of the spider, one hundred and twenty feet in diameter. Out of the ripped 
belly of the brute dropped nineteen hundred and nineteen human skulls, of 
the warriors the goblin had slain, and a hundred spiders each more than 
three feet high. A different story of the slaughter of the spider will be 
found under WATANABE NO TSUNA. This forms the plot of the play 
Tsuchigumo, and the subject of a fine illustration in Hokusai's Givashiki. 

Another familiar episode in Raiko's life is the death of the robber, 
KIDOMARU (Yasusuke, q.v.), who had sworn to kill Yorimitsu because, when 
he was in prison, the latter had remarked upon the strength and evil 
appearance of the robber, and advised his closer confinement ; but his advice 
was not followed, and Kidomaru escaped during the night. 

The legend of Raiko is very commonly met with in old Japanese works, 
a number of which are entirely devoted to Yorimitsu's exploits. 

722. RAITARO ft -& ||$. The son of the Thunder God. See RAIJIN 
and BIMBO. 

723. RAKANS JH ^|, or ARHATS. The original meaning of the word 
being "deserving worship," implies the conquering of all human passions, 



the possession of supernatural powers, the exemption from transmigration. 
It is applied to the twelve hundred disciples of Sakyamuni generally, but 
more particularly to five hundred of them. Eighteen, however, form the 
specially selected class, to whom the generic name is particularly applied in 
Chinese Buddhism. Japanese artists and worshippers have further reduced this 
number to sixteen, the names of which are, according to the Biitsu dzo dzni: 









All these worthies have halos around tlieir shaven heads, long eyebrows, 
large ears, often with ear-rings, and the Buddhist cloak attached to one 
shoulder and leaving the other bare (for attributes, see under names), and 
they are usually represented in groups, often humorously treated, and their 
precise identification is often difficult or even impossible. 

The guide book, Ycdo ^leisho 7,ne (Vol. 18), gives a list and some 
illustrations of the five hundred Rakans, the figures of which stand in the 
temple Rakanji, in the Honjo (Yedo). 

724. RANK A Iff E. The Chinese Sage, LWAN PA, shown squirting 
water from his mouth. 

RANHA, of Seito, was appointed Shosho in the Gokan dynasty. On 
his first audience of the Emperor he was offered some wine, but instead of 
drinking it blew it to the south-west. The Emperor asked for an explanation 
of his disrespectful conduct, and he replied that he perceived that his house 
in Sze Chuen was then on fire, and that he was extinguishing it. 

725. RANSAIKWA jg ^ jffl. The female Sennin, LAN TS'AI Ho 
(sometimes also said to be an old man), shown walking about with a raised 
stick and with only one shoe. The Taoist books say that RAXSAIKWA did 



not know the place of his birth. His clothes were kept together by a black 
wooden girdle three inches wide, ornamented with six gems. During the 
winter, when his bed was dug in the snow, he wore a tattered garment of 
blue cotton, or even a scantier one made of leaves, whilst during the 
scorching heat of summer he would only wear padded garments. 

He begged in the streets, singing and beating time with two pieces of 
wood three feet long. When intoxicated he danced in the roads, and if 
any money was given him he tied it witli a string and dragged it along 
the ground. He was taken to Heaven by a stork. Some Chinese figures in 
the Musee Guimet (Paris) show Ransaikwa with strings of cash and a 
three-legged toad. Compare GAMA SEXXIX. 

726. RASHIBO !f| -p Hf, or CIIUKUYOSIII (Lo TSZE FAXU). Chinese 
female Sennin, borne through the air on clouds in a boat. She is said to 
have lived during the reign of Gento, in llic period of Kaigen, and ascended 
to the clouds from the top of a cedar tree. 

727. RASHINJIX ||t jit A.' or Ciiii'UKi', was a hermit of Hodaikan, 
where a golden man came to visit him one day, saying that he was a sick 
dragon and wanted some elixir. He healed him, and one day, as he was 
washing his feet in a river, the same dragon came and carried him away to 
Heaven. Compare BASUIKO and BO.MO. 

728. RESSHI $\\ -f- (Lm TSZE). Another Sennin who dwells in the 
aerial regions, amidst which he travels on a rain-cloud, or appears in a 

729. RI-A ? (frf. Sage of Shoku, who did not age, and spent his time 
begging for the poor, often wandering the whole night. KOKYO once went to 
visit him on Mount Seijo, and carried a sword as a means of defence against 
tigers, but Ri-A reproved him, saying: "What do you fear of tigers when 
in my company?" He thereupon threw the sword violently to the ground 
and broke it. 

730. RIHAKU ^ Q (Li PEH), or RITAIHAKU ^ J Q (Li TAI PEH). 
The most celebrated of the Chinese poets (699-762), whose genius manifested 



itself so early that the courtier, Ho CHE CHANG, declared that he must 
have been an Immortal in disguise, and he was said to be an incarnation 
of the planet Tai Peh (Venus). Hence his representation amongst the 
Rishis (though in the dress of a scholar), either riding on a dragon, reclining 
upon a jar, admiring the landscape in the mountains, or deeply intoxicated. 
The latter state appears to have been of frequent occurrence with him, and 
once, when called to the court of Hiian Tsung (GENSO), the monarch, was so 
impressed with his genius that he had him served by his own concubine and 
gave orders to his favourite counsellor, KAO Li TSZE, to remove the boots 
of the drunken poet. 

A satirical verse gave his enemy the Empress, the occasion to have him 
banished, and his subsequent wanderings led to his admirative poems upon 
the mountain scenery and the cascade of LUH, which he is sometimes shown 
contemplating. He did not, however, abstain from plotting against the 
Tsung dynasty, and narrowly escaped deatli by the sword of the executioner. 

RITAIIIAKU, according to another, erroneous, version, was summoned to 
Court by the Emperor Daiso (Tai Tsung, 627 A.D.), but it was reported that 
he was drowned one day that he tried to walk along a river drunk. Some 
years after he was found playing with a red dragon, which he rode through 
the green mist on the sea, his other playmate being a fairy. The trio 
ascended a mountain and disappeared. 

Although history is not clear as to whether he ever rode on a dragon 
whilst in the flesh, he is often sho\vn on such a creature, which bears him 
heavenwards. He died at the age of sixty-three. 

731. RIHAPPIAKU ^ A tl, Ri PA PEH. The Chinese Li Chen 
^ jflL, of Shoku, who lived through the three dynasties of Ka, In, and 
Shyu to eight hundred years of age. His name is a pun and means that 
he could travel eight hundred Li per day. After compounding an elixir in 
the caves of Mount Kuenlun, he returned to his birthplace, Shokuchu. 

732. RIKO ^ J|f. Archer. See STONES. 

733. RIKUZOKU |^? H| (LuH SO), also called CHISHO. Paragon of filial 
piety of Chinese tradition. When he was but six years old, LUH Su was 



invited to the house of a rich neighbour, Yuen Chow, and given some 
oranges. As he was taking leave, his host saw two of the oranges fall from 
the dress of the boy, and inquired into the occurrence. Lull Sii explained 
that his mother was very fond of oranges, and that instead of eating the 
fruit he had secreted it in his robe to take it to her. 

734. RINNASEI ffi. ^tl $j|. or R IX K\VA SEI. The Chinese poet Lix 
Hwo CHING, whose verses were never committed to paper, as he did not 
wish them handed down to posterity. He lived in the eleventh century, and 
is usually represented with one or two cranes under a plum tree. 

Rinnasei appears to be identical with ^ HI RIN T Yu, the Chinese 
LIN Pu, also called ^ $[ (Kunpuku) who likewise threw his poems away 
or burnt them but his friends managed to save some three hundred 
and who was pensioned by the Emperor Chen Tsung. This poet dug 
out his own grave. Rinnasei is sometimes shown with Michizane, 
in allusion to the love of the plum tree, common to both, in the same 
way as Ono no Tofu is represented in Morikuni's Kummosiie Taisei, with 
the Chinese caligraphist Ogishi. 

735. RINREISO ^ ft fft Lix LIXG Sr. A sage blowing creatures 
from his mouth. There were twelve celebrated magicians in the period 
of Taikan, in the reign of the Emperor Kiso (Hwei Tsung), of the So 
dynasty. One day they made a competitive display of their magic, and 
Reiso blew out a mouthful of water which was transformed into five 
coloured clouds containing a golden dragon, a lion, and sacred cranes, 
which were afterwards found crying and jumping in front of a shrine. 
Rinreiso, was originally a Buddhist monk, who, after becoming an adept 
of the Taoist school, tried to destroy Buddhism, and led the Emperor 
into the practice of Taoism and magic. He is numbered among the 
Sennins since his banishment and subsequent death in 1120 A.D. 

736. RIOTOSHIN g 5. The Rishi Lu YEX, or Lii TUNG PING, 
usually shown in Chinese dress and of martial appearance. He slays the 
dragon which pestered the lands of Chiang Huai, or crosses a river upon the 
magical sword with which for some four hundred years he destroyed the 



malevolent genii of China, or soars above the sea on a cloud. He is said to 
have been born in the eighth century, and to have been initiated by the 
Sennin SIIORIKEX (Chung Li Kuan) in the mountains of Lu shan. From 
SIIORIKEX he inherited the magic sword after he had successfully undergone 
ten trials to prove his fitness for the work assigned to him. 

737. RISHIS fllj J\_, or SEXXIXS, in Chinese, SIEX NUNG; and in Japanese, 
Sennin (UKAIKA ^ ^ or YA.MAIIITO are rarely used readings of the same 
word). Generic name of Immortals who have reached that stage from that 
of man through meditation, ascetism, and the following of Taoist teachings, 
which endowed them with wonderful magic powers. They are, however, 
of Buddhistic origin, and are divided by the Chinese into five classes, 
diversely described by Mayers (//. 101) and Eitel, as Deva, Purucha, Nara, 
Bhiimi and Preta, and to which might be added another one, the YL* SIEN, 
upon whom the immortality and transparency of body were conferred by the 
consumption of some of the leaves of the K'ien trees growing in the moon. 
The third class, Nara Rishi's, or transformed human beings, is, however 
the only one of interest here. 

The name Sennin, as at present written, carries with it the meaning 
of a life spent away from the rest of mankind in the mountain fastnesses 
affected by Buddhist monks up to the present day, and peopled by the 
imagination of the Taoists with hosts of genii, immortal animals, and 
mythical trees. This state of abstraction is well illustrated in a netsuke 


in the author's possession : an old man with a bald pate and long beard, 
holds a scroll upon which is written the Chinese poem meaning : 

" Under the shadow of the pine and the plum tree, sleeping on a 
high rock, UXKAKU (cloud-man) knows not how run the years, there is no 
calendar in the mountains." 

The number of Immortals sacred to Chinese legend is almost past count, 
but eight called Pa Sien yV fill are more especially meant when the term is 
used : 

SHORIKEN (Chung li kuan). CHOKWARO (Chang kwoh).* 

- In some works Chokwaro is written in full <jj^ J|i j'J|! (or 


. ! *1 




















RIOTOSHIX (Lu tung ping). SOKOKUKIU (Ts'ao kwoh kin). 

TEKKAI (Li tieh kwai). KAXSIIOSHI (Han siang tsze). 

RAXSAIKWA (Lan tsai Ho). KASKXKO (Ho sien ku). 

They are not, however, the most popular or the most commonly met with 
in art, but, with the exception of Chokwaro and Tekkai, generally give 
way before the more commonly depicted GAM A Sennin, KAX/AX and JITTOKU, 

More than fifty are described in Anderson's Culalo^nc of the Chinese 
and Japanese prints in the British Museum, and a like number distributed 
amongst the leaves of the popular Afangtua of Hokusai. Many are figured 
in the Ressen Zen Den in the Butsu dzo Dzui; Rcsscn d.zu San, Sos/ii Gwadcn, 
and Wakan Mcigiva Yen ; etc., amongst the five hundred worthies depicted 
by Bumpo Sanjin, they fill the twenty-two volumes of a Chinese book, the 
Reki Dai S/iinscn Tsukan ; and almost any illustrated book of a general 
character contains a few. As nctsnkc, most of the productions, now rare 
and priceless, which issued from the hands of Shu/.an appear to have been 
Sennins, and since then hosts of Sennins, more or less naked and with 
more or less characteristic attributes, have been wrought in wood, bone, and 
ivory in almost exasperating numbers, often with stereotyped expression, 
happily relieved by the wonderful modelling of a few pieces. It seems as if 
during the latter part of the XVIIIth century, and in all likelihood, most 
of the nineteenth, a wholesale manufacture of Sennin netsuke had taken 
place in Japan for the benefit of the Western amateur, if one may judge 
from the enormous number of pieces, and also of types. Many of these 
defy indentification, owing to the multiplicity and varied combinations of 
their attributes, which do not appear to follow the traditions embodied in 
the old illustrated works, whilst others faithfully follow the lines of some 
XVIIIth century drawings. 

Characteristic are the big ears, the leaf coat over the shoulders and loins, 
generally over a Chinese dress often reduced to scanty proportions, although, 
Sages are usually in Chinese dress pure and simple, and the leaf coat appears 
but rarely in book illustrations. A staff, usually knotted and crooked, is 



also a conspicuous attribute, and except in a few cases a beard of fair size 
forms another apanage of the self-respecting Sennin. A fairly complete list 
of the more common ones will be found by reference to the chapter on 
emblems and attributes. 

The Sennin Oshikio (Wang Tsze Kiao) has left for the use of later 
generations a prescription quoted by Anderson from the Gioku Kan Ko and 
the Wakan sanzai Dzuye* the efficacy of which is obviously overrated: 

Gather from a chrysanthemum the young shoots on the day of the 
Tiger in the third month, leaves in the sixth, the flowers in the ninth, and 
the remaining stem and root during the twelfth month. Dry separately 
in the shade; pulverise on the day of the Dog equal parts of each. Make 
into pills with honey, or mix with wine, one momme (four grammes) of the 
powder, and take daily three times, each dose being divided into seven parts 
the size of a small seed. After a hundred days the body will become lighter, 
the white hair will blacken in a year, and in two years new teeth will have 
grown; and after five years' steady absorption of this nostrum an old man 
of eighty will again feel young, his skin will be supple and fair, and he 
will never age again. 

Other preparations seem to have been efficacious though simpler to 
concoct. An old man was rejuvenated by eating porridge made of sesame 
seeds, such as is given to young children; another, Shujushi, became able to 
fly by drinking a broth of boiled roots, and some merely eat sulphur. 
Powdered mother-of-pearl, potash, cinnabar, realgar and orpiment, all of 
which are poisonous to modern man, were the daily food of some legendary 
immortals. Pine cones and needles also insured longevity when taken as 
regular food (Akusen). Such elixir vita? were called Tan, or Kin Tan, 
and in its most perfect and potent form, the elixir of nine revolutions 
changed men into cranes. Hemp seed was the rejuvenating medium in 
the case of Genkei (Yuan Chow), and there seems to be still some belief in 
the efficacy of cinnabar, for the writer has seen Chinese peach charms 
made of that substance. We are told of several cases when the use of the 
elixir resulted in apparently sudden death, but the disciples always beheld 

" Section VII : .A fjijf. States of mankind (p. 107 of the 1906 reprint) where the name is written ^* .A^- 



it ^ a 

<K&S: - * 4 1 

r i$. 

, wf > 


W\^K i 
-fel jnfb% KOSENKO 

2.." ffldi 

From the Res&en Dzit San 


the holy user amongst the Genii immediately after his absorption of the 
drug. In the case of Wei Peh Yang, the wizard tried the stuff on his dog, 
who died; he and his brother followed suit; a third brother was going 
to bury both corpses when Wei arose and revived his first brother and the 

Five or eight centuries were a common span of life amongst those 
Immortals, and even at the end of such periods a cloud, or dragon, or a 
phoenix usually took them up to the sky away from the gaze of common 
mortals. Although their quest for the elixir vita 1 was, of course, illusory, 
yet to their alchemical concoctions may perhaps be due, according to Kakasu 
Okakura, the discovery of the wonderful range of Chinese pottery glazes, and 
perhaps, as suggested by Edkins, these seekers after the secret of everlasting 
life were also the forerunners of the Arab philosophers, and of the European 
alchemists bent upon the elusive Recherche de I'Absoln, and from whose 
involved speculations modern chemistry was to emerge. 

SENNIX (female). Besides the male Immortals, some Taoist books 
mention eight female Immortals: Kyuei, Hanmo, Sonkohi, Chojo, Oshito 
(plays the flute), Tososei (playing a wind instrument), Hikei (playing with a 
long Hosso), and Ryujo, and the Ressen dzu san contains yet a larger number, 
amongst which Shozoku, Shin Seijo on a deer, Kosenko, Rogioku, Nangyo 
Koshu, Taiinjo (q.q.v.). 

There is a Taoist legend to the effect that seven men and seven women, 
disciples of Lao Tsze, were made immortals, and they went to amuse them- 
selves in the Eastern Sea. Riujin attacked them and took from them the 
earthquake-subduing compass, and the staff with which the lame member 
of the party could open the gates of Hell to liberate the souls. Returning 
on shore, the Sennins upset some mountains and flung them in the sea; the 
dress of one of them touched the water, and the waves retreated, leaving 
the bed of the sea quite dry, when the Dragon King returned his spoils, 
and a female Boddhisatva that passed by restored the order of things by 
sprinkling the place with a wet willow twig. 




739. RIU f|. See DRAGONS. 

740. RIU O KIO. See RIUJIN. 

741. RIUBI, or Liu PEL See GENTOKU. 

742. RIUJIN jf| 31, or RIU 6. The Dragon King of the Sea, who 
lives in the submerged Palace called the RIU Gu Jo castle. He is usually 
represented in the shape of a very old man, with long beard, and with a 
dragon coiled on his head or back. His countenance is fierce; he carries in 
hand the tide-ruling gems, such as in the illustrations of the stories of 
Hohodemi, and of Ojin and Takeno I'chi. Fond of precious things, Riujin 
obtains possession of the world-famed MUGEHOJIU gem, sent to Kamatari by 
his daughter; he captures the bell which later became associated with the 
name of Benkei, after the Dragon King had returned it to the upper world 
as a token of his gratitude to Tawara Toda. To his castle Urashima Taro 
journeys on the back of a tortoise, and a picture of this palace is reflected 
in the breath of a yawning clam, as the castle in the air. 

Riujin easily takes offence, and to his anger are due the boisterous seas, 
appeased by the sacrifice of Tachibana Hime or of Nitta Yoshisada's sword 
or Tsurayuki's mirror. See also MONKEY and JELLY FISH. 

His palace and the legends which pertain to it appear to have a Chinese 
origin, according to Chamberlain. In the clam's breath appears the palace 
itself (AiR CASTLE, q.v.). 

Riujin's attendants or messengers are depicted with curly hair, dressed 
in Chinese style, with sea shells or scales clinging to their garments. The 
two more commonly met with, are represented, one with an octopus as 
headgear, the other, like Riujin himself, carries a dragon. 

Occasionally the minor attendants of the Dragon King are represented 
like onis, with small horns. 

743. RIUTO. Chinese sage who, being too poor to procure oil or 
candles, studied during the winter nights by the reflection of the moonlight 
on the snow. Ehon Hokan calls him SONKO Jj^ J||. 

744. ROCHISHIN H |? $. KA OSHO ROCHISHIN. One of the 




KOKKASICN (<;.//..v.) 
ROSIII (.!/.,;/.) 
KIUTO (.-I.) 


hundred and eight heroes of the Chinese novel, Suikoden. He is shown in 
Hokusai's Ehon Suikoden as a muscular hairy individual, with a partly-shaved 
head and a loincloth as his only garment. Beside him is a staff with a 
forked top; he is sitting on a bamboo-work table, on which sprawls the 
body of a kicking personage, whom Rochishin holds by the scruff of the 
neck. In the Kyogwa Zukushi of Kuniyoshi, he stands on a strong, muscular 
and bearded figure, lying on the ground on broken staves, whilst a Buddhist 
priest flies away in the background. Two boys laughing complete the scene. 
Both these are allusions to his unruly life. His own name was Rotatsu; 
whilst a petty official in his native town, he killed a butcher who had dared 
to court his mistress, and, to escape punishment, he flew away to some other 
province, where he became a monk, changing his name to Rochishin. His 
energies were, however, too great for an ascetic career, and he was invited 
to resume secular life. Selecting as a weapon an iron kanabo weighing 
some sixty pounds, he then became the head of a troop of robbers, his 
first care was to sack the monastery whence he had been expelled, and 
which he made the headquarters of his band. Later, he waged war against 
another band of brigands. 

He is easily recognised by, and artists rarely neglect to show the five 
petals flower with which he was lavishly tattoed, and to which he owes 
his nickname, Ka Osho. He is also shown fighting another brigand who 
had eight dragons tattoed on his body and is called Kiumon Riu Shishin, 
or standing upon the head of a Nyo which he has broken, or uprooting 
a large tree. 

745. ROBEN jj ^. Priest; son of some farmer of Shigu, in Omi, 
and founder of the temple Toclaiji. Once when he was but two years old 
his mother placed him under a . tree, when an eagle pounced upon him and 
carried him away to the temple Kasuga, in Nara, the high priest of which, 
Gujen, educated him. He died in 773. 

746. RODOSHO g M ^, ^ f ter he mastered Taoism, threw his 
clothes upon the river Woga and squatted on them, trusting to the wind 
to direct him. He is one of the Sennins. 



747. ROGIOKU ^ -R. The Chinese female rishi, LAO Yu, depicted 
as a richly dressed woman borne in the air by a phoenix. 

748. ROHAN H $. A very strong Chinese living at the end of the 
Shu dynasty, whose story is given in Ehon Kojidan. According to the Kokai 
Shimbnn, Chilia Rohan built a stone bridge on the southern side of the 
castle of Chotan. Just as the bridge was completed a man named Choshin 
ijj| ^P, passed by riding on a donkey, and noticing the new bridge, went 
up to it, shouting: "Though this is a strong stone bridge, erected upon 
colossal pillars, yet the whole structure will tremble as I ride over it!" 

Rohan, who was lurking under the bridge, heard him, and grasped 
the sides of the bridge with both hands so strongly that there was not 
even a tremor as Choshin galloped over it. And for a long time marks 
left by Rohan's fingers and by the four feet of the donkey could be seen on 
the stone. 

749. ROKKASEN ^ Ufa fllj. The six poets. See POETS. 

750. ROKO JH ffi. Sennin shown on a tortoise (Hokusai's Mangwa, 
Vol. 3). In Ehon Hokan, it is only said of him that "he lived upon a 
Minogame, and read books." 

Perhaps he is identical with KOAN (q.v.), although, of this Sennin, the 
Ressen Den, II., 33, says that he wore no clothes and rode on a sacred 
tortoise three feet long. The people used to call him Manzai because he 
replied to an inquirer that he had been on the back of the minogame for 
about three thousand years. Kan no Buti heard of him and called him to 
Court. His speech was as smooth as the flow of a waterfall; and the 
Emperor named him one of the Go sen shin with Kiuyetsu, Moki, Kakuman, 
and Riyei. 

He disappeared at the death of the Emperor Wu Ti. 

751. ROKUBUTEN /^ t$ Jfc. Generic name of the six Buddhistic 
divinities: The Four guardians of Heaven (Shi Tenno), Taishaku, and 



752. ROKUROKUBI ||| M It- Long-necked goblin, occasionally 
shown as a female with three arms. See BAKEMONO. 

These creatures, whose Chinese name is FEI TEOU ff| gff ff| (Hitoban), 
live in the country Tatupouo ^ ^ ^. One day before their head becomes 
able to wander at night, a red mark appears all round their neck; their 
eyes have no pupils. In the time of \Vu Ti they lived in the Kingdom of 
In, to the South of China, and a Chinese general had a wife whose head 
could wander at night. Some of these monsters lived in the caverns of 
Mount Ling-nan, feeding on reptiles which the head searched for at night. 
The Japanese commentator of the Wakan Sansai dzue says that such 
creatures did not exist either in China or in Japan. Hearn, however, 
relates that the belief in the actual existence of Rokurokubi had not 
entirely disappeared at the close of the nineteenth century. 

753. ROKUSUKE A |Jj, of Keyamura ^ ^ ^t, retainer of Taiko, 
is a strong man who captured a Kappa. In prints he is seen surrounded 
by a number of these creatures. In the wars of Hideyoshi against Shimadzu 
(Satsuma), the soldiers while in camp spent part of their leisure in wrestling 
bouts, and Rokusuke proved the strongest of all, defeating all his opponents. 
Later in life he was called Kida Magohei Muneharu. 

754. ROKYO 3 ffi. Chinese leech, went up the Mount TAIGYO to 
gather simples, and met three strangers, who asked him whether he would 
like to live long. His answer being in the affirmative, they invited him to 
accompany them, and for two days they walked about gathering plants and 
learning magic, after which he was told to return home, when he found 
that in that apparently short time he had lived two hundred years (Ehon 

755. RONIN ff| A.- This word was used to design Samurai who, 
through the death of their master or some other untoward occurrence, such 
as a serious offence, had become " disattached," and led a wandering life 
like outcasts. Ronins had neither a recognised place in the feudal hierarchy 
nor worldly possessions, except their trusty swords, but they played a 



considerable role in most of the tragedies recorded in Japanese history and 
fiction. The word is picturesque, inasmuch as it describes the "wave man" 
tossed to and fro by fate, without the "shadow of a big tree," which in the 
Japanese expression means a protector. In the sixties and seventies, however, 
men of gentle blood became ronins of their own free will, to be able to 
study western ways by escaping from feudal discipline. 

CHIUSHINGURA fa 5 $i|. The celebrated story of the FORTY-SEVEN 
RONINS, also called the revenge of Asano, or The Loyal League, is well 
known; it has been dramatised, and its episodes are the subject of numerous 
sets of prints and illustrations of all kinds. Amongst the English translations 
are those of F. V. DICKIXS, the extensive story given in MITFORD'S Tales of Old 
Japan, and the version published in Japan by MURDOCH, with illustrations by 
OGAWA (q.q.v.). 

The gist of the story is as follows: ASANO TAKUMI xo KAMI (Yenya in 
the play) had been appointed to receive the ambassadors from the Emperor 
to the Shogun. His instructor in court etiquette, KIRA KOTSUKE NO SUKE 
(MORONAO in the play), so persistently insulted him that he had to draw his 
sword in the palace. Such an offence was punishable with death, and he was 
therefore obliged to commit seppukit in April, 1701. His principal retainer 
and counsellor, Oism KURANOSUKE, and forty-six of his companions thus 
becoming ronins, swore to avenge their dead master, and after many troubles 
succeeded in slaying KOTSUKE xo SUKE, after which they all committed 
harakiri (1706). Their graves in the cemetery of Sengakuji receive every 
mark of respect to this day. 

As a simple illustration of Chiushingura, one of the ronins, Sadakuro, 
murderer of Yoichibei, is commonly depicted hiding his face with a large 
dilapidated umbrella. 

Ronins adopting as their special religious creed certain Buddhistic tenets 
derived from the Nichiren teachings were, under the Tokugawa rule, con- 
sidered almost above the law, and immune against arrest. In consequence, 
they all became adepts of this peculiar sect. A conspicuous figure, both in 
the Chiushingura and on less recognisable scenes, is the ronin beggar, 
Komuso. playing the flute, with a high upturned basket in lieu of headgear, 



two holes provided in the front allowing him full view of his surroundings 
without his identity being disclosed. A similar headgear was also worn by 
actors in ancient days. 

Interesting details upon ronins can be found in an exhaustive and fully 
illustrated record of the customs of Japan, the Xippon Fuzokusht, of which 
unfortunately no translation or excerpt has yet been made in any European 

756. RORAISHI ^ 5$r np. The Chinese paragon of filial virtue, LAO 
LAI TSZE, who, when seventy years of age, still dressed like a baby in 
"clothes of five colours" to amuse his parents, and played like a child with 
the same idea in view. A classical occurrence, frequently depicted, is that 
in which he entered the room with a basin full of water and, feigning to 
slip, tumbled down, thus filling his elders with glee. . . . 

757. ROSEI J|t /{{. Identified with CHAD Lu SHEXG. He heard that 
the Emperor of China was in need of councillors, and set out on the road 
to the capital hoping to be accepted, although he had never been in the 
company of the higher classes. On the way he kept grumbling at his 
poverty and lack of protectors. He met near Kanton the Rishi Lu Kung, 
who, hearing his complaints, gave him a pillow warranted to possess magical 
properties. Rosei went away, and in the evening, whilst waiting for his 
millet to be cooked, he rested himself upon the pillow. He fell asleep, and 
had a dream, which is variously reported : in some versions it is said that 
he thought he had become a Minister of State, and that he was four years 
in office, retiring full of honours; in another, he dreams that the Emperor 
took such a fancy to him during his administration that he gave him one of 
his daughters in marriage, that he finally succeeded to the throne, and that 
his little son, three years of age, playing in the gardens of the palace fell 
into a piece of ornamental water. His cries startled him so that he awoke, 
and, finding that his millet was not yet ready, he understood that the 
rishi's pillow had given him the dream as a warning of the transitory nature 
of all earthly possessions, and instead of going further on his way he 
trudged back home, to retire in meditation. 


Still another version, which is more Japanese in character, makes him 
dream that he had been sent for by the Emperor and had reached a high 
position. His enemy, the powerful minister, Juro Sayemon, wished to get 
rid of him, and invited him to his house, but only to try and boil him 
alive in his bath. He then awoke, thinking himself boiled already, and 
found that the innkeeper had brought him a dish of steaming food, the 
vapour of which had broken his sleep. The conclusion is always the same. 

Rosei's dream is frequently illustrated; in Hokusai's Mangwa he is shown 
dreaming of a procession of retainers coming to fetch him with a court 
palanquin. In netstike he reclines on a pillow or a small table, and sometimes 
carries a fan. See DREAMS. 

758. ROSHI ^ ^f- (LAO TSZE). The ancient philosopher, the venerable 
Prince ^ J-. ^ ^ (LAO KUN), founder of the Taoist system of 
philosophy, whose mother conceived at the sight of a falling star, and carried 
him eighty-one years in her body, whence he issued from her left side in 
B.C. 1321. He was born with a grey beard, with a white and yellow face. 
He had large eyes, fine eyebrows, ragged teeth in a square mouth, a double 
ridge to his nose, ten toes on each foot, and ten lines in each hand; more- 
over, his ears, of enormous size, had three passages each. 

It is perhaps just as well that the artistic representations of ROSHI do 
not adhere closely to this remarkable description. He is usually shown as 
an old Chinaman, seated upon the ox on which he was miraculously carried 
to Paradise; often playing the flute, or reading a rolled book, his Tao teh 
king, or handing it to his disciple, Ing ty. 

Another common presentment of Roshi is to be found in the Three Wine 
Tasters, in company with Shaka and Confucius. 

759. RYOSHO Q faf was a man of Kishyu who, in the reign of the 
Emperor Chu, of the En dynasty, during the revolts, concealed himself for 
thirty years in Ryoto, after which he went to the southern mountains. He 
fished in one brook for three years without success, refusing to abandon this 
apparently useless occupation. At length he caught a carp, in the stomach 
of which was a military bell (Ressen Den). 




SAIGYO ('./...) 

ROHAN (//'./...) 

RYUJO (//'./...) 


760. RYUAN IflJ j (Liu NGAN) was no other than the King HWAINAN 
vH If] ~F.i who became immortal, and is known as Hwai Nan Tsze. He was 
taught by the sage HATSUKO A. Q the art of compounding an elixir vitae 
from medicines of quicksilver, and with him he ascended to Heaven in broad 
daylight. His dog and his cock, after he departed, licked the kettle in 
which had been the magic broth, and followed him in the clouds (Ressen 
Den, II.}. History however says that, ruined by his magic practices, he 
became a traitor, was exiled, and committed suicide. 

761. RYUJITSU $P 3K and GENTETSU jff; Hfc were friends in the period 
of Genwa, of To, and were presented with a flower-pot by the fairy, Nammei 
Fujin. They repaired to Mount Xangaku to find the rishi, TAIKYOKU-SENSEI, 
but for some years failed to meet her. Once, in the snow, they met an old 
wood-cutter with a bundle on his back, and comforted him with food and 
wine, when upon his burden suddenly appeared the characters Taikyoku, 
They recognised that he was the fairy in disguise, and showed him the 
precious pot. There may be some easy confusion of Nammei Fujin with 
Fukiuhaku, who is usually depicted as a scholar contemplating a flower-pot, 
but with flowers in it. 

762. RYU-JO flj ^C (Liu Xu) was the daughter of RYUAXJO f ij % _|: 
She is shown travelling in the clouds on a white swan. In her ninth year 
she discussed Taoism with a fairy, and found truth. When she was "old 
enough to have a pin in her hair" (twenty years old) her mother sent her to 
a man as his wife, but a swan having llown from the sky as she was on 
her way to be married, she rode on its back and flew away to the clouds. 
Sometimes she rides a wild goose. See Wakan Meigwa Yen, III., 9. 

763. RYU-KO flj H and his wife, HAN-FUJIN $fc ^ \. 

Ryuko and his wife having mastered thoroughly the mysteries of magic, 
decided to ascend to the sky. The man climbed upon a large tree, called 
SOKYOKU, and was able to fly after having climbed some Jo (jo ten feet), 
while his wife ascended slowly like a floating cloud. 

The Ressen Den says: Ryuko (Hakuban fj ^) lived in the time of the 
Shin dynasty; with his wife, Han Fujin, he studied the secret learning called 



Dojitsu under the guidance of a great oni. He was a good politician and 
governor, kind to the poor, and his merit was rewarded by the general 
prosperity of his province. One day he had a trial of magic with his wife: 
he set fire to a small summer-house, and she caused a storm to quell the 
fire. She went up to a peach tree and commanded the fruit to fall into a 
basket, which happened as she willed it, but Ryuko was not so successful ; 
he then spat in a dish full of water, and fishes appeared, but Han Fujin 
also spat, and an otter came out of her saliva to eat the fishes. The couple 
went to the Shimeizan, where they found several large tigers. Ryuko made 
them lay still, but his wife again did better, compelling the brutes to fawn 
around her ankles: she bound them together with ropes and made a bed of 
their bodies. Ryuko then ascended a tree to go to the sky, but Han Fujin 
had merely to rise from her bed, and she sped upwards more swiftly than 
her husband. See also Ehon Shuku bai. 

The episode might be easily confused with another one depicted in the 
Ehon Shaho Bukuro (IV., 8): A man named Heige ^p ^- was sent by the 
Emperor Gio ! to destroy a monster which was devastating a remote 
province. His wife whom he had left at home became love-sick, and dreamt 
one night that at last her husband was coming back, and that Seiobo had 
sent her the Furo-no-shi (elixir vita?). In the morning her husband arrived, 
and she found near her pillow a box of pills; she took one, and was at once 
wafted aloft; her husband took one of the remaining pills, and followed her. 
Both went through the clouds to the Palace in the Moon. 

764. RYUSHIN flj J| and GENKEI (gin JH Yuan Chow) lived in the 
period Eihei, of the Kwan dynasty, during the reign of Han Ming Ti. In 
the first century they climbed Mount T'ientai with baskets to gather simples, 
but lost their way for thirteen days, and would have been starved to death 
but for a peach tree which suddenly grew at the summit, and was then 
covered with fruit. They stayed for some time under its shadow, and a fairy 
directed them to a cave in which dwelt two sisters, who fed them on hemp 
seeds. The two wanderers shared their couches, but after a short stay they 
found that they were both a couple of centuries older. 



765. SAGINOIKE j& & fa HEIKURO ^ ^ g|$ MASATORA j fit 
was a farmer who was adopted by Saginoike Kuroemon because of his 
herculean strength. He tried his strength standing upright in a high 
waterfall, and could break a sword-rack made of deer-horn with one hand. 

766. SAIGIO HOSHI $J ft ? frfi, SATO HIOVE XORIKIYO (1115-1188), 
also called YOSIIIKIYO, was a member of the Fujhvara clan, descended from 
Tawara Toda Hidesato, but deeply devoted to the Emperor and opposed to 
Yoritomo. In one of his poems he expresses his devotion to the ruling 
dynasty thus: "The paradise is in the south; only fools pray towards the 
west," thus expressing his respect for the Emperor and contempt of the 
prevalent habits both of looking westwards whilst praying, and of attaching 
more importance to the Shogun's orders than to those of the Emperor. 

Gokuraku wa 

Minami ni aru wo 
Shirazu shite 

Xishi wo ogamu wa 


Oroka narikeri. 

He renounced all his dignities in 1137, at the age of twenty-three, to 
become a travelling priest.* Leaving the court of Go Toba (Hoyen, third 
year), he started on his journey with a big hat and a staff, and is still 
pictured with these attributes. Boys draw him in contemplation of Fuji in 
an elementary way, by means of two strokes for the mountain, a circle for 
the pilgrim's hat, and a short stroke protuding from it represents the end of 
his staff. 

This is called the Saigio ni Fuji or Fuji-mi Saigio, and is found in 
netsuke in the form of a mountain with a little man at the foot of it. 

Saigio is often inaccurately said to have been the first travelling priest 
to go on the first day of the new year from door to door, reciting the 
poem : 

* According to the plot of the Saigyo Monogatari (1677), which gives his name as Sato Narikiyo, he 
was once in attendance upon the Emperor, who, seeing a cock scattering the flowers of a plum tree with its 
wings, ordered Sato to drive away the bird. An unlucky stroke of the fan killed the bird, and the courtier, deeply 
grieved, went home, when he heard that his wife had dreamt that she was a bird and that Sato had struck her. 
This strange coincidence, coupled with his ardent Buddhism, led him to become a wandering monk. The. 
remainder of the play is full of fiction, and terminates with the apotheosis of Saigyo 's daughter. 



H Kado matsu wa 
, Meido no tabi no 

_ *, Ichi ri zuka 
" Medetaku mo ari 


a*. Medetaku mo nashi. 

"In our dark journey through this earth the Kadomatsu are the Ichirizuka 
of the road (a small knoll with a pine tree, erected every Ri on the roads). 
Congratulations there are after each year, and congratulations there are 

? > 

not. . . . 

This occurrence has served as theme for jocular poems and illustrations, 
but the true author of the poem is apparently IKKIU, who lived some 
centuries later. 

Saigyo once composed a poem upon the scenery of a nameless pool in 
Oiso, near Yokohama, which has since received the name Shigitatsu Sawa: 
Pond of the Flying Woodcock. When travelling through Kamakura, Saigyo 
was invited to the Palace by the Shogun, Yoritomo, who asked him to 
recite some of his famous poems, and beseeched him to communicate some 
of the books on Archery which he had received from his ancestors, as far 
back as the celebrated Fujiwara Hidesato (Tawara Toda). Saigyo, how- 
ever, declined, until, strong pressure being put upon him to comply with the 
Shogun's wishes, he agreed to talk the whole night with Yoritomo, and a 
number of writers took down his words to form a book on military art. As 
a token of esteem and gratitude, Yoritomo gave Saigyo a silver cat when 
he left in the morning, the monk accepted the gift, but once out of the 
Palace he gave it to some boys who were playing in the moat, and went 
his way. This episode is frequently depicted. Saigyo died in Kyoto, in 
the first year of Kenkyu, at the age of seventy- three. 

767. SAIJOSEN ^ ^C fll] was a clever woman, fond of embroidery. 
One day an old man called upon her and requested her to work on cloth a 
pair of phoenix. She did so, and as the old man looked at the finished 
work he suddenly closed his eyes and pointed at the birds with his finger. 
They became alive, and the girl and the old man mounted upon them and 
disappeared in the sky (Ressen dzu San; Ressen Den}. 


(Matt Carf'litt follcftiim) 


768. SAIJUN ^ )ljj|. The Paragon of Filial Virtue, TS'AI SHUN. One 
day, after he had gathered -a basket full of mulberries, he was caught by a 
band of rebels then at war with WANG MENG, who stopped him, wanting 
to know why he had collected such fruit. He replied that rice was scarce 
and he was poor; the ripe fruit would go to his mother and he would eat 
the rest. The men gave him the leg of an ox to carry home. He is easily 
confused with Osui and Sosan. 

769. SAIKEI |pj Jf| was a pupil of Roshi (Lao Tsze), and ascended to 
heaven on a cloud, bearing in his hand a cane and a charm called Yojofn 
(reviver), with which he resuscitated the dead. 

770. SAISHI -^ j. One of the Paragons of filial virtue, the Chinese 
woman Ts'ui SHE. Her great-grandmother had lost all her teeth, and could 
not eat solid food. Saishi fed her for many years on the milk of her own 

771. SAIWO H? Hf. A Chinese peasant whose story is commonly 
pointed out as representing the inconsistency of wishes and earthly events. 
He had a horse and a son ; the son rode the horse in a rocky road and was 
thrown ; then Saiwo hated his horse. The animal went far afield one day, 
charged with curses, and came back with another horse; then Saiwo gave 
him back his love. But the new horse was bad-tempered, and kicked down 
Saiwo's younger son, and the peasant thought ill again of his old horse for 
bringing home such a mate; however, a revolt broke out near by, and 
Saiwo's son was called as a soldier, but he was in bed with a sore leg 
caused by the kick, and thus escaped. Saiwo then reconciled himself to his 

772. SAIYUKI !J jgf f (Journey to the West). The Chinese story, 
SIYUKI, of the adventures of Sanso Hoshi (q.v.), adapted into Japanese by 
Bakin and illustrated by Hokusai. A dramatised version has been made of 
it, an episode of which is adapted under the title, "The enchanted palace," 
in Mac Clatchie's Japanese plays. See also Stanislas Julien's works. 

773. SAJI ^ $. The Chinese magician, Tso TS'ZE, adviser of TSAO 



TSAO. An episode in his life is frequently illustrated; his protector had 
once invited some of his courtiers to a feast, and expressed the regret that 
he had been unable to obtain any carp from the river of Sung Kiang, then 
considered a rare delicacy. Nothing loth, the magician called for a fishing 
rod, and to the astonishment of the party, hooked some carp in a transparent 
bowl of fresh water. His master desired, however, to get rid of him when 
his necromantic powers became irksome, but, according to legend, SAJI was 
able to render his body invisible, and thus escaped his pursuers:- 

One day, meeting the bearers of his master's choice fruit, he relieved 
them miraculously of their load, and the minister found his oranges to be 
mere hollow skins. Saji explained that this was a parable: If the minister 
found the oranges empty it was because he also was hollow in mind, whereas 
when Saji opened a fruit it was found filled with luscious pulp. The minister 
thereupon had him beaten and ordered his death, but the edge of the sword 
turned on his neck; he was then put in a furnace but sprang amongst a 
passing herd of goats; all the goats were beheaded, but the wizard had 
taken a different form, and put back the heads on the bodies, with such" 
hurry, however, that some of the ewes had goat's heads afterwards, and their 
descendants can still occasionally be seen. 

He ranks amongst the Sennins, and is sometimes confused with KEXSHU 
(or KENSHI, q.v.). 

774. SAKATA NO KINTOKI BK ffl ^ B$- See under KINTOKI, or 


775. SAKE TASTERS, The THREE-. g n$ H |fc SAKE Sui SAN Kio 
ROSHI (Lao Tse), SHAKA (Buddha), and KOSHI (Confucius) are often represented 
partaking from a jar of Sake, the taste of which affects them in different 
ways, shown by the play of their expressions. This jocular presentment of 
the three chief sages of Asia is intended to convey a philosophical meaning: 
Although the liquor is taken by all three from the same receptacle, yet it 
affects them in different ways; so the truth, one and unalterable, may be 
variously expressed by religious teachers, although its religious meaning and 



its philosophical origin are one and the same. Also, that divers expressions 
of creed may spring from the same religious idea. 

776. SAKURA. The flowering cherry tree, the blossoms of which are 
prized as the national flower of Japan. Viewing cherry trees in bloom is 
the favourite form of Hanami, and such places as Yoshino in Yamato, 
Arashiyama near Kyoto, Uyeno in Tokyo, are famous for their trees. 
Mukojima, also in Tokyo, is selected for flower picnics, in which the more 
licentious element prevails. 

The cherry flower floating on the water is a frequent subject in decorative 
art. See EMBLEMS. 

777. SAKURA HIME. Cherry Princess; the heroine of a play of which 
the story of the apostate priest, SEIGEM (Kiyomizu), forms the basis. Seigen's 
desperate love for the Princess caused him to continuously think of her, to 
wear a garment decorated with cherry flowers, and to forget the duties of 
his calling. He was killed by the servant of Sakura Hime. Seigen is 

.depicted in the tenth volume of Hokusai's Mangica (p. 7.5). 

778. SAMBASO 2E ?$ il- Dance, the origin of which appears to 
have been a religious performance which took place at Nara in 807 to stop 
the progress of some fissures, suddenly opened in the earth, belching forth 
fire and smoke. In this dance the performer wears the mask of O KIXA and 
a fan. When viewed from the front his cap is conical and painted black, 
with the red disc of the sun and twelve divisions representing the months; 
but seen sideways it appears like a mitre. (This, however, is not always 
the case in netsuke, the cap being often set with its broader side forward.) 
His dress is embroidered with the emblems of longevity, the pine branches 
and crane (see MASKS). One performer wears a white mask (Hakushiki) 
with black spots, the other a black mask (Kokushiki) with white spots. 

779. SAMBIKI SARU. The three mystic monkeys consecrated to 
KOSHIN. See APES (Mystic). 

780. SAMBO KOJIN H 8 5nL P The Kitchen God, the terror of 
evildoers, shown with three faces and four hands. He is also called the 



Spiritual God of the Three Treasures. A curious and cryptic presentment 
of Sambo Kojin is found in netsuke in the shape of a horse, on the pack- 
saddle of which are closely seated three passengers. The converse happened 
in current language, the saddle with two side boxes receiving the popular 
name of Sambo Kojin. 

781. SAMEBITO $$ A.- The shark man, who was rescued by TOTARO, 
whom he made rich beyond all dreams. But Totaro was insatiable, and 
wanted to marry a girl named TAMANA, whom he had seen in the temple 
of Miidera, near Otsu. He asked the shark to give him some jewels for 
his bride, and after reproaching him for his greed the shark wept blood into 
a dish, his tears crystallising into ten thousand rubies. There appears to be 
a Chinese parallel to this story, unless indeed both are identical in origin. 
HIAO JIN was a man-fish who once landed to buy some bamboo cloth, and, 
being unable to pay his debts to the shopkeeper who had lodged him, he 
asked for a basin, which he filled with tears, but each tear as it fell became 
a perfect pearl, and the shopkeeper was repaid a thousand-fold for his 

782. SANADA NO YOICHI \j 09 H iff. At Okuno, near Fuji, the 
vassals of Yoritomo had assembled for a hunting party. The strong man, 
MATANO NO GORO, wanted to show his powers, and picked up a rock, some 
seven feet high, to throw it over the edge of the cliff on the top of which 
the hunters were camping. As he did so he noticed below Sanada Yoichi, 
a youth of sixteen, whose strength was well known to him and made him 
jealous. Seizing the opportunity thus offered, he threw the rock at the boy, 
who however simply received it on both hands and hurled it back at 
Matano no Goro. See YORITOMO; NITAN NO SHIRO. 

Sanada no Yoichi is also shown trying to cut with his short sword the 
head of Matano no Goro, whom he has thrown on the ground (Buyu 
Sakigake Zue). 

783. SANETOMO $ji 5Jf ]j$j. Son of Yoritomo who became Shogun 
after the murder of his brother Yoriiye by the Hojo. In 1218, when he was 



twenty-seven, the Emperor promoted him to the rank of Third Minister of 
State, and it was decided that he should solemnly proceed to the temple of 
Hachiman (at Kamakura) to return thanks. Some of his friends advised him 
to put on armour under his ceremonial robes, as it was feared that he might 
be assaulted, and, curiously enough, he seeems to have had a presentiment 
of his impending fate, for he composed a farewell poem to his plum tree 
(compare MICHIZANE) and gave one of his hairs to his servant, Hada Kinuji, 
to keep in memory of his master but he did not put on his armour. The 
high priest of Hachiman was his own nephew, Kugyo, son of Yoriiye. As 
Sanetomo left the temple in the evening, Kugyo beheaded him, shouting 
that he was avenging his father. He then ran away, snatching some food 
at the house of a friend without releasing his hold of the head. ... He 
was caught further on and killed on the spot, but he had flung away his 
ghastly trophy, which was never found. 

784. SANFUNE jEl JiL ~F% or SANFUSHI. Sennin depicted sailing on 
an umbrella, and watching above him a fan to which is attached a girdle. 
See Hokusai's Mangiva. 

785. SANKAN. Chinese philosopher, who is represented riding on a 
horse backwards so as to admire the scenery away from which he is 

786. SANSENJIN 2E HI JP$- The Three Gods of War, represented as 
a man with three heads and six arms riding on a boar. See BISHAMONTEN, 

787. SANSHIN 5l Jfh Mythical individual who has only one head but 
a treble body. See FOREIGNERS (Mythical). 

788. SANSHIU H ti"- Mythical men with triple faces. See FOREIGNERS 

789. SANYO ^ ^. or HIMAN. One of the sons of Benten, transformation 
of Mahastamaprata, and also named Seishi Bosatsu. His attribute consists 
of silkworms. 



790. SANZO HOSHI H ii ? n or ^ (GENSHO). The Chinese 
priest, HIUEN THSANG (YUAN CHWAN), who in 629 went to India, where he 
remained through seventeen years, collecting Buddhist relics and some six 
hundred and fifty-seven volumes of sacred writings, which he brought back 
to China in 646. In the novel, Saiynki, legend has provided him with three 
followers: a monkey (Songoku), a boar (Chohakkai), and a demon. He is 
usually represented clad in white, and bears on his forehead the Urna mark 
of the Boddhisattvas. During his travels he had to perform a hundred and 
eight deeds as tests of his holiness, and his monkey, who was endowed with 
magical powers, helped him in this matter by blowing a corresponding 
number of his own hairs, which, as they were caught by the wind, were 
transformed into one hundred and eight doubles of Sanzo Hoshi, who under- 
went the series of trials in his stead. This army of doubles was afterwards 
impeding the movements of Sanzo, who, thanks to the good offices of a 
friendly Rishi, was able to restore them to their original form and position. 


792. SARUGAKU ^ || (see BUGAKU). War dance earlier than the No. 

793. SARD KANI KASSEN ^ H ^ H The feud of the Monkey and 
the Crab. See under MONKEY. 

794. SARUTA HIKO XO MIKOTO ^ ffl jg fa. Long-nosed God of 
Shinto, whose nasal appendage is sometimes said to have been seven cubits 
long. His eyes shine like mirrors, and he is always shown with Uzume in 
the episode of the retreat of Amaterasu, when Uzume dances with bells in 
front of the cave in which the Goddess was hidden. Uzume again proved 
useful when Xinigi no Mikoto, the first Emperor of Japan, descending from 
Heaven and finding the road blocked by Saruta Hiko, she appeased the God 
and made him give way. He is specially celebrated on the day of the 
Monkey, and accordingly is identified with Koshin (q.v.). 

795. SASAKI MORITSUNA f f ^ ^ $j, of Omi, was a retainer of 
Yoritomo. He went, in 1184, with Minamoto no Noriyori to attack the Taira, 
then encamped at Kojima, on one side of the straits of Fujito, in Bizen. For 



many days the two forces watched each other, until Moritsuna, tired of the 
chiding challenges of Taira no Yukimori, started himself to seek a ford. 
He secured the services of a fisherman, and once the location of the ford was 
ascertained he killed the man to prevent him from turning traitor. The day 
after he plunged into the water, and was soon followed across the Fujito 
straits by the whole army, defeating the Taira. Yoritomo promoted him 
in rank, but at his death Moritsuna was deprived of his rank and estate of 
Kojima by Yoriiye, and had to shave his head, retiring under the name 
Sainen. In 1201, Jo no Sukemori started a revolt against Yoriiye, who then 
sent an order to Sainen to join the troops. He was on horseback when he 
received this command, and rode hard for three days to the fortress of 
Torizaka, in Echigo, where his men joined him. He took the place, and 
captured a lady famed for her strength and military skill, HAN-GAKU, 
daughter of the rebel. 

(Lin GAWA episode); also BATEISEKI. 


798. SATSU SHYU KEN j|| ^ jg was a man of Seika, in Shoku. 
One day he had to cross a river, and as the ferryman was away he rowed 
himself across and put three cash on the seat for his fare. He washed his 
hands, and saw standing in the water a god with a jewelled axe, an iron 
crown, and a crimson coat (Ressen Zen Den, VIII.). 


800. SAYO HIME f )$ M (MATSURA). Wife of the general, O TOMO 
NO SADEHIKO, who was sent to Korea by Senkwa Tenno in the sixth century. 
As the fleet disappeared from view she climbed the Hire furii yama, waving 
a sash to her departing lord. So long did she stay' there that she became 
changed into a stone : the Bofu seki, or Stone of the weeping wife. 

Soi. SEIOBO ^ 3 -0J:. The Chinese Queen of the Fairies, Si WANG 
Mu, whose palace is, according to Taoist legends, in the Kuen lun (Konron) 

305 . 


mountains. In its gardens grow the peach tree of the genii, the fruit of 
which ripens only once in three thousand years. Two of the Chinese 
Emperors, Muh Wang and Wu Ti, were honoured by Seiobo with some of 
the peaches from this tree, which conferred immortality on the eater. 
According to a Taoist story, when Seiobo went to the court of Wu Ti (no 
B.C.) to present him with ten peaches, TOBOSAKU (q.v.) stole three of them. 
SEIOBO is shown gorgeously dressed, accompanied by an attendant, who 
carries the peaches in a tray, or standing on a cloud with two attendants 
carrying respectively the peaches and her fan. In Ehon Shaho Bukuro, 
Vol. 4, a man named Seiyei Koshu is depicted meeting Seiobo. This episode 
may be, easily confused with the fanciful story of the visit of Wu Ti (Kan 
no Buti) to the fairy on the mountains. The White dragon is one of her 
familiars, and her sister, Seiobo no Shiji, sometimes is depicted with her. 
She comes from Heaven surrounded by every woman who has "found truth 
and wandered between Heaven and Earth." 

She is also called KITAI KIMBO, and is perhaps a transformation of 
Indra, Mount Kwenlun representing Mount Meru of the Indian legend. 

o FUJIN, sister of Seiobo, with whom she is sometimes depicted, playing a 
musical instrument on a cloud. She also accompanies, on a white dragon, 
the Sennin JOGEN FUJIN (Shang Huen Fujen), who rides on a Kirin. 

803. SEISHONAGON fn ^ $] |f . Court beauty and poetess, daughter 
of Kiyowara no Motosuke, who fell into disgrace. She is shown raising 
a blind and showing the winter landscape in illustration of the following 
episode. Once when the Emperor was passing round the sake cup amongst 
his courtiers he noticed her looking through a door at the freshly fallen 
snow, and said: "How is the snow of Koroho?" Nobody understood except 
Seishonagon, who raised a curtain, showing that she perceived the allusion 
to Hakurakuten's poem: "The snow of Koroho is seen by raising the 

804. SEITAKA DOJI fjjlj B% $P H; -J* and KONGARA DOJI ft $S 
jJH iff ^p. Attendants of the God FUDO, and with him guardian deities of 




SO.NGOKU (C..H..V.) 

HOSHI (H.S.r.) 




SA1SHI (ir.L.S.) 


the waterfalls. SEITAKA is painted red and Kongara white. A figure of 
Seitaka in the Musee Guimet is dressed in a somewhat primitive manner in 
a "pagne" of plaited straw. Seitaka is a female deity, and holds a lotus. 

805. SEI SHOKO tf IE Deified appellation of KATO KIYOMASA 
(Nichiren sect). 


807. SEKION ^ ^. Son of Benten. See KWANTAI. 

808. SEKISHOSHI ^ ^ ^F was the rain master in the period of 
Shinno. He is shown as a Sennin wearing leaves and holding in his hands 
a cup and a bottle. He seems identical with a sage named SEKISHO SHIYO 
^ tffe -p Jfi|, who lived in the time of the Emperor Ko, and eat no grain 
but only flowering grasses. 

809. SEMIMARU j$ $i (HAKUGA). Blind son of the Emperor UDA; 
who taught the flute to Hiromasa. 

810. SEXGEX > faj, or ASAMA. The Princess who makes the blossoms 
of trees to flower: Ko NO HANA SAKUYA HIME, the Goddess of FUJI. 


812. SENSHA $ft Tji, or KOMIO. One of the sons of Benten, trans- 
formation of Yakujo Bosatsu, and corresponding to Bhaichadjyaradjasamudgata. 
His attributes are a wagon loaded with bales of rice and also a boat. 

813. SENTARO fill J IB- The man who did not want to die, and 
was sent to HORAI SAN by JOFUKU. 

Sentaro had read a book in which was related the story of JOFUKU'S 
expedition to Japan on behalf of the Chinese Emperor, SHIN NO SHIKO, to 
find the elixir of life, relating how, according to the Koku Shi Riaku, a 
man named HsO Fu landed in Japan with one thousand people from T'SIN, 
in the seventy-second year of Kore Tenno, as the Chinese Emperor, T'sin 
She Wang Ti, afraid of death, had heard from WANG Su, the recluse of the 
Demon valley, that in the island of Tsu CHU (Japan) grew a certain grass, 



one leaf of which was enough to revive a corpse, and he had sent Hsu Fu 
to fetch some. See Balfour's Chinese Scrap Book, 1887, p. 26 and seq.). 

Sentaro thought that Jofuku, who had become the patron of the hermits of 
Fuji, could help him in his realizing wishes for everlasting life, and in answer 
to his prayers Jofuku appeared to him, and sent him on a paper crane to 
Mount HORAI, where he found that people were rather tired of living for 
ever, and sought death by every means in their power without success. Soon 
he got disgusted himself: the first amusement and joy he felt at eating poisons 
without bad effects paled, and he began to wish he had never left Japan 
and his earthly life. He got quite home-sick, and decided to return on a 
paper crane again. But during his journey indecision beset him ; he began 
to regret coming back, but there was no way out of it, and his indecision 
nearly cost him his life, as he came perilously near the waves. ... A 
rat running upon his bare shoulder awoke him it was only a dream after 
all. This last part of the story is often found illustrated in netsuke. 

The fairy tale of Sentaro appears to be an imitation of the \Vasobioye 
or of the iMitsobioye. A lengthy adaptation of it will be found in T. 
Ozaki's book. 

814. SESSHIDO ^ fjjjj jj| (with tiger) used to gather mushrooms on 
the slopes of Mount Hyakujo. Once he met there an old sage who gave 
him a blade of sweet grass to chew, after which he became very lively, and 
the tigers of the mountains used to come and play with him. 

815. SESSHIU H ffi. Celebrated painter of the second half of the 
fifteenth century, born in Osaka in 1420. He was sent to the monastery of 
Hofukuji to undergo training. Having been tied to a pillar as a punishment 
for some offence, he painted a few rats on the floor with his brush held 
between his toes. When the Abbot came later to set him free the worthy 
man was so afraid that he dared not come near. Some say that a couple 
of the painted rats scampered away when the Abbot appeared. 

816. SETA NO KARA HASHI $1 (5 0) jf $|. The brid S e over the 
Setagawa. It is eight hundred feet long, near lake Biwa and the Buddhist 



temple of Ishiyama. Legend places upon it the meeting of Fujiwara 
Hidesato with the dragon of the lake, who requested him to kill the giant 
centipede, MUKADE, of Mount Mikami. See MASAKADO and TAWARA TODA. 


(Chikurin shichi Kenjin). The Chinese Chuh lin ts'i hien, frequently met 
in illustrations. The seven poets, literati and convivial immortals, who 
formed this group were: 

GENSEIIKI PJC f$ (Yuan Tsi), depicted with a boy attendant, and his 
nephew, GENKAN $} id* (Yuan Hien), with fan and staff. 

It is said of Genshiki that he turned the white of his eyes to those he 
hated, and the blue to those he loved. Another legend, very similar to those 
of Tanabata and of Wu lin jin, relates that he boated up the Milky Way up 
to the haunts of the Spinning Maiden, and met a strange fisherman who 
gave him the stone used by SHOKUJO to smooth her tresses (C.J.R. I. 14$). 
Compare CHANG KIEN. 

KEIKO |f>lj ffj" (Liu ling), who wished a grave-digger could always follow 
him, in case he fell dead when drunk; carries a book. 

KIOSHIN \n\ ^fr (Hian Siu), with an unrolled makimono. 

Oju -p- -$i (Wang Jung), minister of Tsin Hwei Ti, left his duty for 
pleasure, and was so mean that the fruit of a famous plum tree grown on 
his estate was stoned before being sold, to prevent it being grown elsewhere. 

SANTO jjj ^fjp (Shan Tao), minister of Ling Wu Ti, shown as an old 
man with a staff; was a patron of rising talent. 

RIUREI fjf j^ (Ki Kang), was a student of the black arts, which he 
practised under a willow tree. When a student, a spirit with a tongue 
seven ells long came in his room one night, and Ki Kang then blew out 
the lamp, saying: "I am not afraid but disgusted at your ugliness," and the 
spirit went away. He was sentenced to death as a wizard, and showed his 
indifference by tuning his guitar as he walked to the place of execution. 

818 SHACHIUSHO fi f$ |fl, a Sennin (Seay chung chu). Once he 
wanted to cross a lake; there was no ferryman or boat available, and he 
crossed on a bamboo. In consequence, he is usually depicted supported on 



the waves by a branch of bamboo. Compare DARUMA; KANSHOHI; see 
Anderson's Catalogue. 

Si 9. SHAEN Ifl [HJ. Chinese student who became one of the Taoist 
worthies. He is usually depicted reading. He was too poor to buy 
illuminating materials; he gathered glow-worms in gauze bags, and pursued 
his studies by the light they emitted. 

Two other Chinese read their books by night without a light: one, 
SHOKO, by moonlight, the other, RIUTO, using the reflection of the light upon 
the snow piled high near his window. See RISHIS; see Mangwa, Vol. 3, 
and Ehon Kojidan. 

820. SHAKA ff 5JU. The Buddha, Sakyamuni ff| ^ (>& H ^L) being 
the Chinese name of Gautama Buddha. It is unnecessary to enter here into 
a biographical sketch of Shaka; the various forms in which he is most 
often represented in art are given in the Butsu dzo dzui, the four principal 
ones being : - 

Tanjo no Shaka, the erect child on a lotus, with the right hand pointing 
towards heaven, the left towards the earth, as he appeared to his mother, 
Maya Bunin, and to his father, Jobon (King Sudohodhana). 

Shussan no Shaka, returning from the mountains, with a slight beard 
on his face; his head is partly shaven, and surrounded by a halo; barefooted, 
he affects the position of prayer, with clasped hands; his dress is moved by 
the wind. This figure is the only one commonly met as netsuke, usually 
of red wood, perhaps in allusion to the following story: 

When Shaka was preaching to his mother in the Tosotsu Ten heaven 
for ninety days, his disciple, Mokuren, carved from memory a figure of the 
Master out of some red sandal wood given by King Udayana, and the 
statue, placed in the temple of Jetavana Vihara (GiJwn Shoja), went out to 
greet Shaka on his return. 

Shogaku no Shaka, the omniscient and all-wise, seated on a lotus, with 
the right hand held up, palm forward, in the teaching gesture. The left 
hand rests, palm upwards, open on the lap; the head is covered with short 



curled hair, which a French writer described as "les colimacons qui pendant 
sa retraite vinrent refraichir le front du Buddha." 

The urna, already present in the previous form, is supplemented by a 
large jewel amongst the hair above the forehead. 

Nehan na Shaka, Buddha with closed eyes, lies on a raised platform, 
his head resting on a lotus; he has entered the Nirvana. Legend has it that 
when Buddha died all the animals wept except the cat, and the scene is 
depicted in some popular Japanese books. 

Amongst the presentments of the Buddha, Shaka Nyorai, the healer, is 
fairly common, identical in appearance with the teaching Buddha, though 
in the Butsu dzo dzui seven healing Buddhas are given, some of whom are 

Yama Goshi no Shaka (q.v.), Buddha between two mountains. In company 
with Manjusri and Samantabhadra. Shaka forms the Buddhist trinity. 

Other incidents in his career are sometimes depicted, but the most 
popular form in which Shaka is found in Japan is that of Amida (Amitabha), 
whose worship filtered eastwards in the fifth century, and whose various 
forms are set forth in the Butsu dzo dzui. Nine are particularly distinguished 
by the mudras, or mystic positions of the hands and fingers. Amida presides 
over the Paradise of the West with Kwannon (q.v.), and a pious legend 
states that in womanly form he became the mother of Shotoku Taishi, 
the princely protector of Buddhism in Japan (572-621). The Empress Komei 
Kojo is depicted massaging the back of a naked beggar, whose form the 
Buddha had taken to test her faith. 

821. SHAKKIYO ^J ^. A sort of dance in which the performers wear 
long reddish or brown hair, reaching to their ankles, and carry peonies in 
their hand and headgear. They are supposed to represent lions swarming in 
the valleys of sacred mountainous districts, roaring amongst peonies, the 
emblematic representations of worldly power. 

822. SHAKUJO H ;fct Staff with rings, attribute of Jizo. It is 
said to have been invented by a Buddhist monk to give warning of his 
approach to insects and worms crawling on the roads. 

3 11 


823. SHARI ^ ^'Ij (Relic, Sanskrit, SARIRA). A gem-like water-worn 
stone, chalcedony, or quartz, the size of a small pea, which Buddhists believe 
to be found in the ashes of any holy person after cremation. They were 
preserved in small pagoda-shaped shrines, called Sharito. 

In earlier periods these shrines took the shape of Go-Rin, or five 
circles tomb, the ultimate evolution of which is the Toro, or Daimio lantern 
found in gardens. It consisted of five divisions : a cube, a sphere, a cone, a 
crescent, and a flame, representing respectively earth, water, fire, air, and 
the Tama (jewel or spirit). The tama itself, with its pyriform shape and 
its grooves, is probably a representation of the five essences. See MIMIZUKA. 

The shari are said by unbelievers to vary in size and number in direct 
proportion to the offerings made to the priests before the cremation of the 
body, by the parents of the deceased. See TANKWA. 

824. SHARIHOTSU ^ f Ij $J. The most celebrated of the ten disciples 
of Buddha (Shaka), shewn with a halo around his shaven head and a fan 
in his hands (Butsu dzo dzui 4). 



827. SHIBA KISHU If] J| ^ i, of So, told fortunes in the street. He 
looked like a girl, but had a beard three feet long as black as lacquer. 

He is shown seated at a table upon which are the divining sticks in a 
tall vase, a book, and a few other implements. 

828. SHIBA ONKO WJ H) $n. (SzE MA KWANG). Chinese statesman 
of the eleventh century, under the Tsung dynasty. An episode of his boy- 
hood has contributed considerably to his celebrity, and is often found 
illustrated. Several Chinese boys, amongst whom Sze Ma Kwang, watched 
one day the evolutions of some gold-fishes in a huge porcelain jar, over the 
rim of which they were leaning. One of the boys overbalanced himself and 
fell into the jar; all his companions ran away shrieking, leaving him to 
drown, with the exception of Sze Ma Kwang, who broke the jar with a 
stone to let the water flow away. This episode is represented in netsuke in 



sword guards, etc., usually with the water and fishes escaping from the 
opening in the jar, through which protrudes the head of the drowning boy. 
Mayers (Ch.R.M.) gives the story and also a parallel instance of presence 
of mind of Wen Yen Po, which is, however, somewat less credible. Shiba 
Onko is also depicted killing a two-headed snake. 

829. SHIBA SHOJO W] H Jg #P. The ambitious Chinese Sze ma 
Siang Ju, often shown writing upon a bridge-post, in allusion to the 
following story: Near his home was a bridge, on the road leading to the 
Capital, and once he wrote upon one of the pillars: "In seven years from 
now, I shall cross this bridge in a carriage drawn by four horses." This 
prophecy was fulfilled, when after painstaking studies he became the minister 
of King Ti (Han). He soon retired, however, to his native province, where 
he fell in love with a widow who eloped with him, and the pair gained a 
precarious livelihood as innkeepers in a remote province. The father of his 
wife relented after some years, and Shiba Shojo was again called to court, 
when his new master was the Emperor Wu Ti. He then wished to take 
a concubine because his wife had grey hair (Ehon Hokan, etc.). 

830. SHIBA SHOTEI f ] J| ^ flj| (SzE MA CH'ENG CHENG) lived during 
the period Kaigen, in the To dynasty, and once practised incantation in the 
Hall of Longevity (Choseiden), where he slept with several people. During 
the night the others heard a low voice like that of a child reading a 
religious book, and found the room filled with a dim light. One man, 
BUNSEI, who was nearest to the wizard, went to his bedside and noticed 
on Shiba's forehead a small sun, which nearly illuminated the whole room; 
he also found that the sound came from Shiba's brain. 

Shiba is shown sleeping on a divan. 

831. SHIBATA KATSUIYE ^ ffl ffi ^, usually depicted breaking 
water-pots in a castle, was Oda Nobunaga's brother-in-law, and one of his 
lieutenants. After the death of his leader he plotted against Hideyoshi, but 
being somewhat dull-witted was easily detected by Taiko, who attacked 
him and defeated him. Katsuiye committed seppuku in his castle of Kita no 
Sho, in Echizen, after killing his wife and daughter, to escape capture. The 



illustration referred to alludes to the following story : He was besieged in the 
castle of Chokoji, and could not get fresh water from a spring outside the 
moat as his besiegers were too close. His soldiers greatly suffered from 
thirst, and to stimulate their courage he caused them to be brought to a 
chamber where a few pots of water were kept for emergency, ordered them 
to have a long drink each, and then, without drinking any himself, he broke 
the pots. A sortie was immediately made, and he won a victory. Some 
versions mention one pot only. 

assemblage of household divinities has been variously described, and to 
each of its number have been given more or less fanciful attributions by 
Western writers in their eagerness for classification, although the Japanese 
themselves give but scanty information as to the properties which may have 
originally been considered peculiar to the individual gods. Their invention 
is attributed to the courtier Dai Oi' no Kami, on the first day of 1624, to 
explain a dream of the Shogun lyemitsu. A group of Shintoist divinities 
appears to have been recognised before the introduction of this semi- 
Buddhistic septet of worthies which totally eclipsed it and took, from the 
end of the seventeenth century onward, a prominent place in popular worship 
as well as in art. Endowed with human failings and with endless pro- 
clivities for enjoyment, the Gods of Luck receive at the hands of the painter 
or of the carver pleasantly humorous, if irreverent, treatment: the luck- 
bringing Daikoku of Indian origin, his supposed son, Ebisu, of Shinto descent, 
Fukurokujiu the ever-smiling (which Ehon Kojidan states to be another 
presentment of the Taoist Lao Tsze, and a duplicate of Jurojin) rub shoulder 
with the rollicking Hotei and the musically-inclined Benten, both of which 
are Buddhist creations. Bishamon is the only member of this circle who, 
warrior-like, remains stolid in appearance, and although described as God 
of Wealth, he is but rarely depicted in comparison with the other six. 

Kishijoten occasionally takes the place of Jurojin (Ehon Kojidan). 
Kishimojin also forms one of the group in the works published in the early 
part of the XVIIIth century. 


A work called Hengakn Ki han contains lengthy descriptions of the Shichi 
Fuku Jin. It has been translated by Puini (// sette Genii della felicita), and 
an English adaptation, by F. V. Dickins, appeared in the proceedings of the 
Asiatic Society of Japan. 

833. SHIGEMORI ^ It $, TAIRA xo. Eldest son of Kiyomori. 
During the war of Heiji, he attacked Nobuyori at the Taikemmon with only 
three hundred men, and his horse having dropped and his helmet got loose, 
he was nearly killed by Yoshihira, but was rescued in time. One day he. 
found in the palace a huge serpent, and cut it in twain with his sword. 
He proposed to dig a canal from lake Biwa to the sea; he shaved his head 

and took the name Shoku. He fell ill in the third year of Oho after quelling 
the revolt of the yamabushis of the Enryakuji, and refused the help of Corean 
physicians; he only had his room surrounded with twelve Buddhist idols 
on each side, in front of which lanterns were lighted every night, and forty- 
eight women sang Buddhist hymns; hence his name, "the lantern minister." 
He died at the age of forty-two, in 1179. 


835. SHIIKI ^ jjj| (and two tigers) went from India to Joyo in the 
period of the Shin dynasty, in the reign of Bu, and asked to be ferried across 
a stream. The boatman reviled him because his dress was dirty, and refused 
to row him across, but when he landed on the north side of the river he 
saw the sage standing at the landing-place stroking the heads of two tigers. 

836. SHIH TE f ?. See JITTOKU. 

837. SHIKORO BIKI $& <j| means armour-breaking, and refers to 
episodes in which a warrior clutching the lappets, or neck-piece, of another's 
armour, the latter's fastenings broke, leaving the loose piece in the hand of 
the assailant. The best known shikoro biki episode is that between Kagekiyo 
and Mio no Ya at Yashima; others took place between Asahina Saburo and 
Soga no Goro, between Yoshiiye and Abe no Sadato, between Ashikaga 
Yoshiuji and Asahina Yoshihide (at Mankodoro Bridge in 1211, during the 
Wada rebellion). 


838. SHIKKUGANJIN. Divinity master of the Heaven of Desires 
(Kamadahta), depicted with an open mouth, a fierce expression, and round 
eyes. From his image in the temple Hokkeda (Todaiji) wasps are said to 
escape in war time. The figure holds a golden sceptre. 

839. SHIKU KEI WO jjjft || |t A Chinese sage, usually shown 
walking behind a group of cocks. In the Ressen Den he is shown feeding 
the birds with maize, and his name is written jjjl $$fe ^ Shiku chi yo. 

He was a man of Rakuyo who fed fowls for over a hundred years, all 
of them having their own names and coming to him when called. He 
sold the lot for a myriad cash, and left for the country of Go, leaving 
all his treasures behind him. 

840. SHIMAMURA DANJO TAKANORI fcj| ft jj$ J r^i fl'J was a 
retainer of Hosokawa Takakuni. In Kioroku IV. (1532) he fought against 
the Daimio of Awa (Miyoshi -". $-f) in the straits of Amagasaki ; defeated, 
he drowned himself, and the Jimmei ji sho says that the crabs found in the 
neighbourhood present on their back the face of a warrior. They are called 
Shimamura Kani. Compare Heike Kani. 

841. SHINANSHA ffi ^J iji. The south-pointing carriage of the 
Chinese Emperor KOTEI, son of YUHEI, inventor of the mariner's compass. 

The Ehon Shaho Bitkuro illustrates twice the Shinansha: in one place in 
connection with the well-known mariner's compass, and describes it as a 
vehicle upon which a figure pointed towards the south. In the southern 
mountains, says the author, a stone is found, called Jisseki fljj$ ^fj, and if an 
iron needle is rubbed upon it, and then placed to float upon water, it 
will point to the North and South with its two ends respectively. 

Kotei (]H; >3f) made use of it to build the Shinansha, and he had this 
carriage with him to guide him in his wars, especially against Shuyu, who 
could magically produce clouds and fogs around his army (IV. 6, V. 5). 

842. SHIN GEN HEI f lj jfc ^. Sage writing on the wall of a temple. 
He was also called KAISENSHI $J ^ -p, and retired to Mount Shunan. Later 
he visited the temple Juneikan, on the Mount Howo, and on the wall he 


wrote the characters of the tortoise, crane, longevity, and regulation (Ressen 
Den, VII., 16). 

843. SHINNO jj^ J|. The Chinese SHEN NUNG, honoured with the title 
of Emperor, and to whom sacrifices are offered under the name of SIEH TSIH. 
He is shown with a massive head, flowing beard, and two rudimentary 
horns, chewing a blade of grass and wearing the coat of leaves of the Taoist 
Rishis. Sometimes he writes on a tablet the ideograms which had been 
revealed to Fun Hi on the back of the dragon, and the number of which he 
extended from eight to sixty-four. Legends have been busily woven around 
his name: it is said that his mother conceived at the sight of a dragon, 
and that he was nurtured by wild beasts in the Lieh Shan. He invented 
the plough and the harp, founded the sciences of botany and medicine, and, 
harnessing eight dragons to his carriage, he traversed the earth and measured 
its dimensions. He ranks with Full hi and Ts'ang Hieh as one of the 
inventors of the art of writing. 

844. SHINOZUKA IGA XO KAMI ^ ^ ffi ^ ^'. Retainer of Nitta 
Yoshisada. When the latter was passing through the district of Idsu he 
was pursued by Ichijo Jiro, who wanted to grapple with him. But Shinozuka 
sprang at Echijo and hurled him away a distance of thirty feet or so, says 
the Hachiman Dcribosatsu. 

His herculean strength served him well in 1340, when he was besieged 
in the shiro of Kawae. His companion, Ujiaki, committed seppitkii, but 
Shinozuka, defying the besiegers, jumped into a boat and single-handed 
weighed the anchor, slept in the boat, which the wind carried safely to 
Oki, and escaped unscathed. His daughter, IGA NO TSUBONE, became the 
wife of Masanori, third son of Kusunoki Masashige. 

845. SHINRAN SHONIN |g flfc J-. A- (1174-1263.) Founder of the 
Shin or Monto sect of Buddhism. It is related of him that in 1232 he found 
the villagers of Toyano reluctant to accept his teaching. He then stuck 
in the ground the end of his staff, assuring them that in proof of the truth 
of his assertions the stick would sprout and grow, and, like the pope's staff 
in Tannhauser, it shot forth leaves and twigs. The Jodoji temple shows a 



peculiar bamboo wand with small bent twigs which is said to be the 
original staff, but, according to Murray's Guide, the temple Zempukuji, of 
Asakusa, shows in its courtyard an Icho tree of huge size, which it is said 
grew from Shinran's staff, when, on taking leave of his acolyte, Rokai, he 
stuck the staff in the ground, saying: "Like that staff will grow the strength 
of the faith." 

846. SHINRA SABURO f? II H IR (YOSHIMITSU). Younger brother 
of Yoshiiye, is often depicted playing some musical instrument on Mount 
Ashigara, in Mutsu. Toyowara Tokimoto had transmitted to him the secret 
of the tune, "Taishoku-nyu cho," instead of teaching it to his own son 
Tokiaki. The latter, afraid lest Yoshimitsu might die in the war, beseeched 
him to teach him the tune, and Yoshimitsu did so, seating on shields. The 
instrument used is generally the Sho. 

Yoshimitsu took his name, Shinra Saburo, from the temple of Shinra 
Myojin, where his "name-changing'' ceremony took place. 

847. SHINRETSU |$ ||. The Sennin TSAI LWAX (Sairan), daughter 
of We MENG (GOMO) and wife of WEX SIAO (Bunsho, q.v.). She is also 
called Go sairan ^ ^ ^ (Resscn Den, IV.}. 

848. SHIRAKA\YA j yBT Ho-o. The retired Emperor Shirakawa, who 
lived in the eleventh century. See the story of HEITARO SOXE. 

849. SHISHI $jjj = fr. See KARASHISHI. 

850. SHISHIMAI $jji np fl|, or DAI KAGURA. Lion dance performed 
with a shishi mask with movable jaw, especially about the New Year. It 
has its parallel in the Chinese lion dance. It may be played with hands 
and feet, and is then called Ashi mai. 

851. SHITAKIRI SUZUME ^ I)] ^. Story of the TOXGUE CUT 
SPARROW (q.v.), 

852. SHI TENNO ;H 3. The Four Kings of Heaven, or Four 
Guardians, who keep the world from the attacks of the demons. They 
correspond to the Tchatur Maharadja, guardians (Lokapala) of the four 



corners of Mount Meru, whose worship was introduced in China by Amogha. 
Their duty in the Indian mythology was to guard the universe against the 
attacks of the Asuras. They are : 

To the North, BISHAMON or TAMONTEN, the blue god Kuvera, or Danada, 
of the Brahmans. 

To the West, KOMOKU, with the large eyes and spear, sometimes shown 
with a book and brush. His face is red ; he corresponds to the Hindoo 

To the South, ZOCHO (Yirudhaka), with the white face, and represented 
as a warrior with the spear and armour, but no helmet. 

To the East, JIKOKU, with a green face, in armour and carrying a sword 
or a dorge. It is the transformation of Drhitarachtra. 

The same name, "Shi Tenno," is also applied to the four principal 
retainers of nobles and generals. See, for instance, RAIKO. 

853. SHITSUGETSU fT /J Son of Benten. See HAXKI. 

854. SHIUJUSHO -^ Sp ||. The Chinese CHU SHOW CH'ANG was 
separated from his mother when he was seven years old because his grand- 
mother was jealous of her daughter-in-law. For some fifty years they never 
met, until, having risen to a high official position, he resigned it to seek her. 
He met her at last, in the reign of Chen Tsung, in the town of Tong 
Chow, when she was seventy-five years old. 


856. SHIYEI ^f ^ f|lj. The Sennin TSZE YIXG, shown riding on a 
winged and horned carp. 

Shiyei once fished a red carp, the colour of which was so fine that he 
kept it in a pond and fed it. After a year the carp was ten feet in length, 
and had horns and feelers. Shiyei knelt by the pond and worshipped the 
fish, who told him that it was there to take him to Heaven. Forthwith 
the rain fell, and Shiyei went to the clouds on the carp's back. 

857. SHIZUKA pp. Mekake of YOSHITSUNE, sometimes shown in 
company with TADANOBU, in allusion to the following story: When Yoshitsune 


fled to Yoshino he had to leave Shizuka behind, with his retainer Tadanobu 
to escort her. He gave her as a parting gift a Tzuzumi (drum) made of 
fox skin, and legend has it that a fox took the shape of Tadanobu to 
reclaim the drum, which had been covered with the skin of the belly of 
its mother. Hence the familiar presentment of Tadanobu as a fox in 
warrior's dress or as a fox hugging a drum. Another version says that 
Tadanobu was really a fox-man himself. Shizuka was captured by the 
troops of Yoritomo and taken to Kamakura, and had to perform before 
Yoritomo in the temple of Hachiman Bosatsu the Horaku dance; the No 
play of the Two Shizuka is based upon this episode. She gave birth to a 
son, who was buried alive. She is usually depicted with long hair tied in 
the middle. See ASAZUMA. 

According to one dramatised version, after the heads of Yoshitsune and 
his retainers had been cut off to be sent to Yoritomo for public exhibition, 
Shizuka, helped by Hatakeyama Shigetada, substituted a wooden head for 
the ghastly relic of her lover, risking her own life in the act, owing to 
the jealousy of Kajiwara Kagetoki, who later sent his henchman, Bamba 
Chuda, to kill Shizuka. She was then hidden by Koshida Gounji, whom 
legends make the father of Tora, of Oiso (q.v.). 

858. SHODO SHONIX J i J: A- Founder of the first Buddhist 
temple of Nikko; lived from 735 to 817. His life is full of legend, and an 
account of it from a Japanese text will be found in Satow and Howes' Guide. 
The most interesting episode is probably that whicli led to the construction 
of the sacred bridge of Nikko, One day he saw four coloured clouds rising 
from the earth to the sky, and proceeded forward to see them. He found 
his road barred by a wild torrent, and was praying for some means to 
traverse it when a gigantic apparition, clad in blue and black robes and 
with a string of skulls as a necklace, called to him from the other bank. 
This supernatural being said that he would help him as he had once helped 
Hiuen Tsang (Sanzo Hoshi), and threw over the torrent two blue and green 
snakes, which formed a bridge. After Shodo Shonin had crossed, the god 
and his snakes disappeared. 



859. SHOGIO BOSATSU has a stone statue in Tokyo which receives 
peculiar treatment at the hands of the worshippers. They buy little bundles 
of straw tied in the form of brushes, and dipping them in water rub the 
image of the saint, after which the straw brushes are hung as ex voto. 

Shogio Bosatsu is one of the saints of the Nichiren sect, and no 
explanation is given for this curious practice of keeping this image constantly 

860. SHOHAKU ^ i$[ was a priest of noble lineage who assumed the 
name Botankwa (peony flower) for some unknown reason. 

He is usually depicted sitting on a bull with gilt horns, or decorated 
with peonies, reading a book, or admiring the scenery. Often enough he 
does so riding with his face towards the tail of his mount, like the Chinese 
poet Sankan. He lived in Ikeda (Settsu) until the beginning of the sixteenth 
century, when he went to Idzumi to cultivate his taste for flowers, incense- 
burning, and sake. He died in 1527 at the ripe age of eighty-four. 

He is one of the celebrated Rengashi, or writers of Renga, short poems, 
one half of which was composed by one poet and the other half by a second 
writer. His name is sometimes, though rarely, read Shokaku. 

861. SHOIDOJIN $SM A.- ^ sa e mending his clothes with rushes. 
SHOIDOJIN wore a white dress, and mended it with rushes when it fell to 

862. SHOJO. Son of Benten. See KONSAI. 

863. SHOJO H[ >(,. Mythical creatures living near the sea, and who 
evince an inordinate taste for intoxicants. Their faces are human in 
appearance, but with long straight hair of a red hue, from which a dye 
can be prepared when fishermen are lucky enough to catch any of them. 
They are usually shown in groups, with huge sake jars, or cups, and dippers; 
perhaps asleep near a jar, or busy drinking, or even frolicking on the waves 
in a huge sake cup, accompanied by the long-tailed tortoise; intoxicated 
and dancing with fan in one hand and dipper in the other, etc. 



They have human voices, and sometimes, though rarely, are made to 
look like monkeys with human faces and long hair, or are represented 
with a monkey's face, especially in Nara netsuke. According to some 
legend, a shojo was once the solitary customer of a Chinese innkeeper, but 
his potations were so deep and numerous that the man became very rich. 

864. SHOKI Hf ^. Sennin. The Chinese Ch'uki lived in Mount 
Tempei in the latter part of the Kwan dynasty, and played the flute so 
skilfully that the phoenixes came around him to listen. See KOSHOHEI. 

865. SHOKI fjf J^. A mythical being, the Demon Queller, CHUNG 
KW'EI, of the Chinese, whose legend dates back to the early period of the 
Tang dynasty, and is apparently traceable to some alteration in the writing 
of a magical formula. 

SHOKI is a conspicuous figure in Japanese art, and his legend has been 
developed from Chinese sources in such a way as to almost suggest that he 
was once in the flesh. He is said to have been a ghostly guardian of the 
Emperor Genso, to whom he revealed his history in a dream. He had been 
a student (Shiushi Shoki, of Shunanzan) during the reign of Kan no Koso, 
but had failed in the Imperial examinations, and sooner than live without 
a degree he had committed suicide. The Emperor, hearing of it, had com- 
manded that he should be buried with high honours, and in gratitude his 
spirit had vowed to remain for ever engaged in the expulsion of demons 
from China. Godoshi is said to have first painted him at the Emperor's 
request, and the Chinese represent him as a ragged old man, accompanied 
by a bat, symbolic of happiness, but the Japanese prefer to picture him in 
martial garb, with a naked sword, hunting down oni, which only grin at 
him, or hide in all sorts of strange places in wells, under Shoki's own hat, 
behind him, in boxes, etc., or run away as fast as their legs can carry them. 
SHOKI has usually a flowing beard, and is often depicted riding upon a 
Corean lion, but he is also seen beardless, though rarely. 

Amongst the many humorous presentments of this familiar figure may 

Ehoii Kojidan says that an imp was stealing the flute of Yokihi when Shoki interfered. Other versions 
say that the Emperor was himself surrounded with demons. 


SHOKI (.-/.) 

SIIIZUKA (..;.) 
SHOKI (1I-.L.B.) 
SHOJO (7-.V.C.) 

SHOHAKU (//..V. /'.) 
SHOKI (M.I; } 


be mentioned Shoki applying to himself a Moxa. Near him stands an oni, 
grinning at the pain under which Shoki winces, and saying: "I thought 
you were a demon -queller, and yet see how you feel the effect of such a 
small fire." 

Sometimes Shoki is shown sharpening the blade of his sword upon a 
rock, and an oni watches from a safe place, at the same time refreshing 
himself from a gourd. A long catalogue might be made of Shoki's present- 
ments, but in nearly all cases the scene is rather humorously treated and the 
demon-queller is the victim of the imp's tricks, even so far as to hide himself 
under his own hat, on which the oni squats grinning. According to the 
canons of Chinese art, pictures of Shoki should always be painted in one 

See also Yii Lui and Tu YU. 

866. SHOKUJO $& ^. The Weaving Princess or the Spinning Maiden, 
daughter of the Sun. See KENGIU and the Bridge of Birds (Tanabata). 

867. SHOKU-KYU-KUN TJjg Si ^ was a sage of Mount Tai, who was 
like Taizan Rofu, robust though old. When Wu Ti passed at the foot of 
the mountain he donned a yellow coat, put on his head a crown named 
Shoho, and taking a lute descended to greet the Emperor. 

868. SHOKUIN j$| p|j. Red Dragon with a horned human face, which 
lives in Mount Chung, "beyond the North Sea." One hundred li measure 
the length of its snake-like body; its breath is like a strong wind; when 
blowing it brings winter on the earth; night follows the closing of its eyes, 
and day their opening; it regulates the seasons by its breath, and it never 
takes any food (Wakan San sai dzite). Akin to it is a human-faced dragon, 
with four legs and four claws on each, called Shozan no Shin |f| |ij ^ jjitjl 
from the name of the mountain it haunts. It is figured in the Todo 
Kummo dzue amongst other beasts with human heads: 

The SHIXRIKU ffi ^, tiger with a human face, on the top of which are 
eight smaller heads. 

The SORIUUSHI ffi $jp |, snake with nine human heads. 

3 2 3 


The SHAOKU NO SHIJIN if* ^b ; JF* jjty, large dog with a human face, 
through whose ears passes a snake. 

The HOTAI jjjfe fj|, with a monkey's body and a human head with long 

The TEISHIN j A- men from Ti, in the East of Kien Mu, who have 
the head of a man on the body of a fish. They have arms and hands but 
no legs. Compare the NINGYO. 

The OSHO Uwo ^P fSj $&, identical with the UMI Bozu, q.v. 

869. SHOMIO ^f, or SAIKOKU. One of the sons of Benten, trans- 
formation of Miroku Bosatsu, depicted with a sword and sacred gem. 

870. SHORIKEN ft K| $|. The Chinese Sennin, CHUNG Li KU'AN, 
foremost amongst the Eight Immortals of Taoist legend. He is usually 
shown as a warrior with a sword which was capable of bearing him on 
the waters, and which he used accordingly as a raft. 

SHORIKEN was a general of the Emperor Kwan, of the Chow dynasty, 
and was sent to invade the country of Toban, but was defeated. He 
escaped on horseback to the mountains, but lost his way in a dense forest, 
where he met a strange priest, Tung Hwa-kung, who instructed him in 
the Taoist mysteries. 

When he died his sword passed to his pupil, Lu TUNG PING (Riotoshin), 
with whom he must not be confused. He must also be distinguished from 
Katsugen, who also carries a sword. He is sometimes, though rarely, 
depicted as a fat man with bare stomach and a fan or hosso (fly-brush). 

871. SHORYOBUNE H $&. The straw vessels of the dead, made 
on a light framework in the shape of junks, sometimes up to four feet in 
length. On their white paper sails are written the soul names (Kaimyd) of 
the dead. Upon their deck is placed a small cup of fresh water, besides an 
incense cup and some banners bearing the manju (Svastika, Fylfot), with the 
cross arms turning towards the right ^, or sometimes, but rarely, towards 
the left ^ (Suvastika). They are used on the festival of the Dead (Ura bon ye). 

* This writing is that of the Ressen Den ; in some cases it is written 


'6 * 

K - 


872. SHOSEI |$ JE emitted lightning from his eyes, so that he kept 
them shut for twenty years wherever he went with his twenty disciples. 
Once one of them forced him to open his eyelids, and as he did so the 
noise was like thunder, and lightning from his eyes smote his disciples 
senseless to the ground. 

873. SHOSEN ^ 3fe, or KOZEN. Sennin; was a man of Kato-Taiyo 
who had no relatives, but lived for one hnndred and seventy years eating 
white stone (potash?) and cutting brushwood, which he gave to poor people. 
He is depicted as a woodcutter. 

874. SHOSHI H| jjj,. The Sennin, HSIAO SHE, shown (in Hokusai's 
Mangwa) riding on a phoenix and playing the flute, or as a sage on a 
dragon accompanying his wife on a phoenix, both with Sho (the Cheng, or 
musical pipe) in their hands, because it is written that: The Taoist SHOSHI 
liked to play Sho. He married ROGYOKU, daughter of the Prince BOKU 0, 
of Shin, whom he taught to play the Sho. Once as she played it to the 
tune called Homei (phoenix voice) a phoenix came from the sky, and Boku O 
had a terrace built for the bird. Later, the two went to Heaven on the 
dragon and phoenix respectively. 

875. SHOZUKA NO BABA H it fcf fg. The old hag of the under- 
world who robs the dead children of their clothes, and hangs the clothes on 
the dried-up trees which line the banks of the Japanese Styx (the Shozu 
Gawa), unless she receives the sum of three rin. 

She is said to be sixty feet high. See Jizo. 

876. SHUBAISHIN $fc Jf gJ. The literary firewood-seller, CHU.MAICHEN, 
or LIEN CHI, who read books while carrying his faggots, in which occupation 
he is usually depicted. His wife deserted him to take another husband, 
but the Emperor heard of him and elevated him to the high dignity of 
governor of his own native province. Once he met two scavengers, and 
in them recognised his wife and the man of her choice; they came to him 
and asked for his forgiveness, but he refused to take the woman back, 
though he sent her home in his state chair, after which the two unfortunate 



people committed suicide. Compare the story of KIANG TSZE YA (Kioshiga). 
He is confused with SHUMOSHIKU (q.v.). 

877. SHUCHU ;xjc fj>, of Kaikei, offered thirty gems three inches in 
diameter to the Emperor KEI, of the Kan dynasty. 

878. SHUJUSHI /jc Iff -J* was a pupil of GENSHIN. Once he saw two 
fine dogs leap across a ravine and hide in a bush of Kugo shrubs. He 
returned the day after with his master, and they dug out two hard roots 
looking like shrivelled dogs. They boiled them for seventy-two hours, and 
the broth gave them the power to fly about like birds. 

879. SHUMOSHIKU $jj jrj| ^, also CHOW MAO SHUH or CHOW TUN I; 
also LIEXCHI, and, according to another transliteration, CHU MAN SHU. 

Sennin, apparently identical with SHUBAISHIN (q.v.), represented contem- 
plating a lotus flower, or in a boat in a pond covered with lotus, in allusion 
to his poem upon the purity of the lotus flower although its roots are in 
the blackest mud. 


881. SHUNK"VYAN ^ 1=[. An exiled priest, depicted standing on a 
cliff beckoning to a ship far away. 

He was a priest of the temple HOSHOJI who conspired against Taira 
KIYOMORI with Yasuyori (q.v.), Fujiwara Narichika, and their associates. 
The conspiracy was discovered, and in the first year of Jiso (1177) the 
plotters were exiled to Kikaigashima. Kiyomori pardoned them some 
years later with the exception of Shunkwan, who was left to die alone 
on the island when his friends were sent for, because as a priest his 
political offence was unpardonable. This is the episode usually illustrated, 
the wretched exile calling to his friends whose boat is speeding away from 
him. He died at the age of thirty-seven, and his story forms the subject 
of a No play of the same name, in which a former servant of Shunkwan 
comes to Kikaigashima just before the exile's death, and takes his remains 
back to Japan. 



882. SHUSEN Jj ^, or MISHAKU. Son of Ben ten, also called Munoju 
Mio, depicted with a wine vessel and the sacred gem. 

883. SHUTENDOJI 'M H H Literally, Great Drunkard Boy. 
This more or less mythical creature was slaughtered by RAIKO (Minamoto 
no Yorimitsu, q.v.) and his four retainers : Watanabe no Tsuna, Urabe no 
Suyekata, Usui Sadamitsu, and Sakata no Kintoki. 

It is variously described as a maiden stealer, an ogre, a cannibal devil, 
etc., and its death under the sword of Raiko placed in 947. It is probable 
that some foundation of fact exists upon which the imagination of generations 
of writers has had free play. The story is well known ; it has been translated 
by Mr. F. V. Dickins, and a popular exposition of the expedition of Raiko 
against the ogre has been published in the Strand Magazine, with illustrations 
from a Japanese book, by Mr. Leonard Larkin. 

When the Shutendoji was seven years old his father, Ibuki, was killed 
by his father-in-law, owing to his disgraceful conduct. The widowed 
mother, Onoki, then abandoned the boy, who fell in with a band of robbers 
and became such a rake and wine-bibber as to earn for himself the nick- 
name under which he is known. He fortified himself in Oyeyama, and his 
band became the terror of the country. The Emperor Murakami decided 
to rid the earth of this evil band, and entrusted Raiko with the carrying 
out of his decision. Raiko was successful, and legend has enlarged upon 
this story as follows: 

The Emperor Nari Akira, posthumously named Murakami, heard in the 
last year of his reign that an overgrown boy, some eight feet in height, 
who was at night transformed into a huge demon, devastated the country. 
He called upon his best warriors to kill the demon, and Raiko, with his 
companions, set out to fulfil his wish. They disguised themselves as travelling 
priests, carrying their armour packed in their alms-boxes. They passed 
through the country laid waste by the ogre's band, and near a ruined castle 
in the mountain met an old man, who proved to be the spirit of Sumiyoshi, 
who gave Raiko a drug to make the Shutendoji dead drunk and a golden 
cap endowed with magical powers, which the hero was to wear under his 



helmet. The old man further guided them to a stream which ran near the 
ogre's lair. Near to it Raiko and his companions met a woman washing 
clothes on the bank and weeping upon the ghastly remains of a relation 
killed by the ogre, whose hiding-place she showed them in the distance. 
So glad were they at finding the place that, instead of condoling ,with 
the lady, they danced for joy. When they reached the castle in which the 
band had fortified themselves, they requested admittance and help in the 
name of Buddha, but were received with mock courtesy by the attendant 
demons, who were highly pleased at such unexpected good fortune. The 
Shutendoji invited them to partake of his food of human flesh, and as 
they appeared to like this fare he took kindly to them and offered them 
drink. The opportunity was at once seized upon by Raiko, who, under 
pretence of imparting to his host the secret of a potent drink, drugged 
the wine, after which the ogre fell asleep and assumed its demoniacal shape. 
The warriors then put on their armour, and explained the position to the 
waiting ladies, who were prisoners of the ogre. The spirit of Sumiyoshi 
again appeared, and gave Raiko a magic silken cord wherewith to bind 
the ogre and make him fast during his slumber, after which, with the 
sword lent to him by the priest of Ise to whose shrine it had been offered 
by Tamura Shogun Raiko severed the huge head of the giant, and the 
head jumped in space, falling upon his helmet, in which the ogres fangs 
imbedded themselves, but the golden cap saved Raiko's life. The dead 
body of the ogre, still writhing but unable to break the magic bonds, 
was slashed to pieces by the retainers of Raiko, after which the gallant 
troop destroyed the remaining demons, and liberated the captive ladies 
upon whom the Shutendoji had intended to feast. 

The episode is illustrated amongst the Tokaido stations. 

884. SHYU-YU ^c ^ went to fight at the beginning of the war 
which took place in the Genho period, under the So dynasty, and lodged 
in the Shichugun district. Once he saw two birds looking for food, and 
as he watched them something like pitch fell before him, which he picked 
up and eat, but at once he felt violent pains internally and suffered from 



(S/wzo Kaio collection) 


a terrible thirst. He went to find some water, and a fairy appeared to him 
who told him to eat the leaves of a certain pine tree; he obeyed, and was 
cured. He is shown watching the birds. 

885. SHYUTENSEN 7 J1J $gf fllj. Sennin, lived in the reign of KOKO, 
of the Gen dynasty. When the Emperor prepared to invade Kukyuko he 
agreed to go with the army, and signified that his spirit would accompany 
the conqueror by walking up to the Emperor's throne and brandishing his 
cane aloft. 

886. SLEEPERS {Hj |j|, THE FOUR (SHI Sui). They are Kanzan, Jittoku, 
Bukan Zenshi (q.v.), and his tiger, and are generally shown together, often 
in a cave. 

887. SOBU 1 ^ (Su Wu) was a Chinese of the Court of Han Wu Ti. 
He is usually depicted with a goat, or watching a bird with a paper 
attached to its leg, in allusion to the following story: In 100 B.C. he was 
sent to the Court of the Khan of Hiung Nu, where he found a Chinese 
renegade, Wei lii, high in favour. He tried to kill him, but was caught 
and urged to abjure his allegiance to the Han dynasty in order to save 
his life. Remaining loyal, he was put to starve in a dungeon, then sent 
to the desert to watch the herds of goats of the Khan, with the intimation 
that when he could milk one of the male goats he would be pardoned. 
According to the same legend he used his wand of office by way of a crook, 
and after nearly a score of years, recognising a wild goose of a species 
common in his earlier place of abode, he fastened to the animal's leg a 
scrip describing his life. The bird' was shot outside the dominions of the 
Khan, and the paper brought to the then Emperor, Chao Ti, who sent an 
embassy to the Khan to request him to set free Su Wu. The Khan, 
wondering at the message, asked how the King of China could know better 
than himself what went on in his domains, and on hearing the explanation 
said: "Set him free; such a crafty man might write about everything here." 

888. SOFU j!|| 3C- Sennin, shown leading away his ox from a river. 
He is generally shown with KIOYU (q.v.). When the Emperor Yao invited 



the latter to become his adviser, Kioyu washed his ear of the temptation 
at a waterfall near by. His companion, Sofu, noticed his own ox drinking 
of the polluted water, and led it away. This legendary hermit lived in a 
sort of nest which he had built in a tree. His Chinese name is CH'AO Fu. 

889. SO FUTSU YO W 2U H- The Chinese painter, TSAO FUH HING, 
who lived in the third century, under the Emperor, Sun Kuan, of the Wu 
dynasty. Two feats are celebrated amongst his works : once he painted 
a dragon which caused the rain to fall, and which was used thereafter for 
that purpose in times of drought; another time he painted a screen upon 
which a fly was so cleverly drawn that the Emperor tried to brush it away. 

890. SOGA BROTHERS ^ ^ 5 ^ (SOGA KYODAI). Juro Sukenari 
and his brother, Goro Tokimune, were the sons of Kawazu Sukeyasu, who 
had been killed by Kudo Suketsune, in the mountains of Hakone, about 
1190, when the eldest boy, Ichiman-maru, was but five years old and his 
brother, Hako-o-maru, was only three. According to one dramatised version, 
the murderer appealed to Yoritomo some years later, and represented that 
the boys would try to murder the Shogun, who had killed their grand- 
father, Ito Sukechika. The Shogun believed this tale, and ordered Kajiwara 
Genda Kagesuye to behead them upon the beach of Yuigahama, with the 
help of Soga Taro Sukenobu. Kudo Suketsune, who did not expect this turn 
of affairs, interposed, pointing out the ages (thirteen and ten) of the lads; his 
prayers were in vain, but Hatakeyama Shigetada was more successful, and 
saved the life of the boys at the last minute. 

According to the usual story, after the death of Kawazu (Saburo) his 
widow married a man named Soga, who adopted her son Juro Sukenari 
and sent the younger boy to a Buddhist temple, where he received the 
name of Hako-o-maru. Tokimune, however, did not intend to become a 
monk, but to avenge his father. Once when grown up Juro heard that 
the doomed Suketsune was hard by in camp with Yoritomo, near Fuji, 
ready for a hunt. Vaulting a horse that was grazing in a field, and using 
a daikon as whip, he rode from Soga to Oiso to meet his brother, and 
they returned to achieve their vendetta. 


SIIIiiA ONKO (7..V.C.) 
SI1ITAK1KI SL'ZU.ME (ll'.I..K.) 



SHITAKIKI Sl"/.l'ME (//'./...) 
Jl'RO's KIDE (//..v. /'.) 


blllYEI (.I/./:'.) 



Their plans were, however, thwarted for the day by their own mother, 
whose step-son was an adherent of Suketsune, and to deceive this possible 
informer she arranged for the sudden wedding of both her sons to 
two girls named Tora, of Oiso, and Shosho, of Kehaizaka. But at night 
the two brothers met one another in the garden, and not heeding the storm 
raging all over the country, made for the camp, where they found the 
inmates preparing for the following day's hunt. Hatakeyama Shigetada 
directed them to the tent of Suketsune, whom they killed. One of his 
attendants, Otona'i, was so afraid that he ran away naked. The story 
somewhat varies; some say that they found Suketsune drunk and asleep; 
another version gives him the company of a Joro. However, after slaying 
him they proclaimed their deed, and fought his retainers. Sukenari was 
killed and Goro had cut his way right up to Yoritomo's presence when he 
was tripped from behind by the wrestler, Goromaru, dressed as a woman. 
Yoritomo was inclined to spare Goro owing to his youth, but he could 
not refuse justice to the son of Suketsune, and Goro was executed; he was 
but twenty years old. 

SOGA NO GORO is sometimes represented on horseback having a trial 
of strength with Asahina Saburo, who seized him by the skirts of his 
armour, pulling with such strength that the silk ropes fastening the armour 
together broke, and the lappet remained in Asahina's hand. 

891. SOGORO, TK 115 (SAKURA -jj). The story is also known 
under the name of "The Ghost of Sakura," and forms the basis of a 
popular play. 

In the seventeenth century, under the Shogunate of lyemitsu, the Lord 
of Soma (Shirnosa) was Hotta Kotsuke no Suke Masanobu, who resided in 
the castle of Sakura. He was the son of Hotta Kaga no Kami, whom he 
succeeded in the council of the Shogun (Gorojiu). Unfortunately for the 
peasants living on his estate, he was of fastuous disposition, and increased 
considerably the taxes which had been regarded as reasonable before his 
advent. The farmers assembled to protest against the extortions of his 
tax collectors, and their petitions having been refused by the Chief 


Councillor of Kotsuke, they decided to journey to the capital Yedo, to 
lay their grievances before the lord himself. The headman of Iwahashi, 
named Sogoro, then some forty-eight years old, was to accompany them, 
but he was prevented from doing so by illness, and the peasants thinking 
him cowardly, decided to approach the castle alone. Their petition was 
again refused, and they were compelled to retreat. On the following day 
two messengers were sent to Sogoro, who, now in better health, parted 
from his wife and children, fully resolved to lay down his life for the 
good of the people. On reaching Yedo, he arranged to hand the petition 
to one of the Gorojiu, Yamato no Kami, and sent the peasants, all but 
eleven, to their homes, the eleven remaining with him in Yedo to await 
developments. During the twelfth month, they were called to the supreme 
court and admonished for their audacity, their petition being handed back 
to them. Undaunted, seven of them decided to hand their memorial to 
the Shogun himself, on the twentieth of the twelfth month, when lyemitsu 
went to Uyeno to worship at the shrine of leyasu. Sogoro hid himself 
under a bridge, and succeeded in throwing the document into the Shogun's 
litter. He was seized and thrown into jail. Kotsuke then received the 
memorial from the hands of the Shdgun, and decided that for his heinous 
offence SogorS and his wife should be crucified, his three sons, aged thirteen, 
ten, and seven respectively, beheaded before their parents' eyes, and 
Sogoro's estate confiscated. The six other elders were exiled to Oshima, 
in Izen. Kotsuke also ordered the execution of a few petty officials. The 
six elders petitioned to be allowed to share Sogoro's fate, praying that 
his innocent wife and children might be spared, but in vain, and three 
of them took to monkhood. 

The prayers of the priests and councillors of Kotsuke found him 
equally adamant, and on the eleventh day of the second month of Shoho 
2 (1646,) the doomed Sogoro was executed at Ewaradai ; the priests of 
Tokoji, in Sakenaga, were allowed to carry away in coffins the bodies of 
his three little sons, but Sogoro and his wife were to be exposed for 
three days on their crosses after death. 

Before dying, pierced by the spears of the Yetas, Sogoro vowed that 


his ghost would avenge upon the Hotta family the murder of his wife 
and progeny. His head, he said, would after death turn towards the 
castle, in proof of his determination, and according to legend it did. 
Two years after, the wife of Kotsuke no Suke was taken with pains and 
her room filled with the appalling wails and shrieks of the ghosts of 
S5goro and his wife, who appeared to her and to her lord upon their 
crosses. Another year elapsed, and his wife and children died, and 
Kotsuke, beseeched by his relations, erected a shrine to the memory of 
Sogoro, under the name of Sogo Daimiojin. The ghostly visitations then 
ceased, and although Kotsuke became partly mad, and killed another 
noble, he was finally pardoned, and changed his name to Hotta Hido 
no Kami. 

A lengthy translation of Sogoro's story will be found in Mitford's 
Tales of Old Japan, and the self-sacrifice of the headman of Iwahashi 
forms the subject of Viscount Tadasu Hayashi's work: For His People. 

892. SOJO HEXJO ff j M HS- A priest named Sadamune, father 
of Sosei Hoshi, and selected in the Xlth century by Dainagon Kinto as 
one of the six poets. He lived circa 820-890. 

893. SOKOKUKIU l|f iU Jf . Sennin ; a Chinese military official, 
TS'AO KWOH Kiu, shown with castagnets, or with a flute and a fly-brush 
(hossu). He is reputed brother of the Empress Ts'ao How, who lived in 
the eleventh century. Disgusted by the crimes of his brother, he went to 
the mountains and led an ascetic life. 

894. SOMPIN ffi i[ (SuN PING). Chinese general, descendant of the 
famous strategist, SUN Wu (ffi ti). Sompin and HOKEN jf| fff studied 
together in the Suirendo mountain under the sage and magician Kikokushi, 
who preferred Sompin to his other pupil, owing to the latter's narrow-minded 
ways. When the King of Gi selected Hoken as a Minister of State, and 
engaged Sompin as his Commander-in-chief, Kikokushi foresaw that the 
two could not live peacefully together, and, warning Sompin to beware of 
his colleague, he gave him a magic brocade bag, which he was forbidden 
to open unless his life was in danger. 



On his way to the Court, Sompin was attacked by two robbers, Entatsu 
and Dokkochin, who threatened to kill him unless he paid them a large 
sum of money; instead of yielding, he called to his help the genii of the 
forest, and the Thunder God, followed by a score of devils, came down and 
frightened the robbers, who craved forgiveness. Sompin pardoned them and 
went away. They attacked him again in the evening, but he had arranged 
some stones in the way called Hachijin (figure of eight) so that the brigands 
lost themselves; he set them free again, but suspecting that they would 
break their pledge not to come further, he made a strong net of ropes, in 
the meshes of which they were caught the following evening. They became 
then his faithful followers. 

Shortly after Sompin's arrival at the Court of Gi, he was called upon 
to pray for rain, as the country was parched, and all efforts had failed. The 
Emperor witnessed the ceremony, and a lengthy downpour followed Sompin's 
prayers. Hoken became his worst enemy, and as he could not prevent 
Sompin's promotion to the office of Daikokitshi, or Governor, he tried to 
kill him. He failed in his attempt, although he cut off Sompin's legs. The 
helpless cripple was rescued, however, by Jung-u-Ton $$ ~f- jjjpj, who had 
been sent on an embassy to the Court of Gi by his master, the King I, of 
Sei, and who took him back with him to the Court of Sei. The King 
made him his Fieldmarshal, and sent him as general of the troops of Sei 
(Ts'i) to help the army of Kan (HAX) against the forces of Gi (Wsi), 
led by HOKEX. After a battle, Sompin pretended to retreat, and wrote 
on a tree near a pass: "Hoken will die on this spot," and when Hoken, 
who was deceived by this manoeuvre and started to follow him, passed 
by in the twilight, he remarked his name boldly written on the tree, and 
came nearer to read the whole sentence. The soldiers of Sompin, ambushed 
near at hand, fell upon him and killed him. According to another version 
he committed suicide (Shaho Bukuro VIII. 17.). 

895. SOXTO $* ^. Sennin, depicted playing upon a musical 

instrument, or stringed lute. His Chinese name is Sun teng. It is said 

that he lived in a cave in Mount Hoku, in the Kyu district ; he wore a 



grass coat in summer and his long hair in winter. He played the harp 
and was skilled in the divining arts. 

896. SORORI SHINZAEMON ff g flj $ff & ft ft. Depicted 
licking the ear of Hideyoshi. He was a scabbard-maker, who for thirty 
years had been in the service of Taiko. The latter once promised to 
grant him as a reward, any request he might then proffer, and the 
man asked permission to lick the lobe of his ear, if some day he felt so 
inclined. Hideyoshi laughed, but granted the strange wish. One day 
when Taiko's retainers were assembled, Sorori stepped up to him and 
began licking his ear, watching the nobles whilst so occupied. At the 
end of the audience, all thought that he had spoken about their affairs, 
and felt very wrath ; but they thought they had better conciliate by 
lavish gifts, the feelings of the old man towards them. The scabbard- 
maker became thus a very rich man, and entertained Hideyoshi with the 
story of his cunning joke, with further monetary benefit to himself. There 
are many stories told about this witty man. 

897. SOSAN "ff ^, or SHIO. One of the Four Assessors of Confucius, 
the Chinese Tsen Shen, born 306 B.C., and part author of the Tat Ho 
(Daigaku, Great Learning). When a boy, he was gathering w r ood in the 
forest, and his mother wanted him at home. Vexed by his absence, she 
bit her finger, and the dutiful son felt a sudden call to return home, 
when his mother explained to him that she had missed him whilst she 
had a visitor. When his mother was told of his death she refused to 
credit the first and second intimation, but believed the third, and this 
has now passed into a proverb. 

898. SOSENWON "If flij j& was an old woman whose birthplace is 
unknown. She had two companions, a young girl and a dog. Once, 
when a ferryman refused to row her across a lake, in a storm, she 
stepped on the waves and the wind aiding she got to the other side 
with her companions. 

899. SOSHI $ -^ (strolling with a long-haired fan), of Ma, was 



once governor of the district of Moshitsuen. He lived at the time of 
King KEI, of Ryo, and of King SEN, of Sei ; he was greatly learned, 
and strove to imitate ROSHI. His books are amongst the most difficult 
pieces of Chinese literature. 

Amongst other legendary anecdotes, it is said that once in the moun- 
tains he saw a woman fanning a freshly- made tomb. The astonished 
sage inquired into this strange behaviour, and the woman replied : " I am 
called Yushi, and my husband has made me promise not to leave his 
tomb till the clay was quite dry." Soshi repeated the story to his own 
wife, who waxed indignant, and assured him that she should never dream 
of marrying again if by ill-fortune he predeceased her. One day Soshi 
appeared to be dead, and his lifeless body was put in a coffin ready for 
burial ; his disciple suffered from some disease, the only radical cure for 
which consisted in eating human brains, and he besought Soshi's wife to 
let him have his master's cerebrum as a remedy. The widow agreed to 
do so, and had the lid of his coffin lifted, when it was found that Soshi 
had come back to life. This untoward adventure may have prompted his 
desire that his relatives should not weep when at last he died, and to 
leave his corpse exposed on the bare earth, saying that if the birds were 
fed upon his dead body, no injustice was committed in thus cheating the 

He is also called SOSHU, and is shown asleep with a butterfly hovering 
about him. He woke up once saying that he had been wandering in 
the shape of a butterfly whilst his body appeared asleep, and that 
afterwards he felt like a butterfly. In his works he said that he could 
not in his dream decide whether he had become a butterfly, or whether 
it was the butterfly who had borrowed his form. 

900. SOSHIN >J; *fr. Other name of the great robber, TOKUBEE (q.v.). 

901. SOSO ""If $|. The celebrated Chinese, TS'AO TS'AO, who took 
an active part in the wars of the Three Kingdoms in the second century. 
He rose to quasi-Imperial position and power through his usurpations, and 
finally dispossessed the legitimate Empress, put his own daughter in her 



place, and took himself the title of Prince of Wei, of which he was 
soon deprived by death in 220. He is sometimes shown standing in a 
boat, composing a poem upon the flight of two crows, in allusion to the 
following episode : 

On the fifteenth day of the eleventh month of the twelfth year of 
Kien King (234), Soso was in his boat on the Yang Tsze Kiang, near 
Sekiheki, with his court. The full moon showed the Nambio mountain, 
and after pouring a libation to the river, Soso seized his spear and stood 
up. Addressing his generals, he told them that with that very spear he 
had conquered the Koken rebels, and had marched unopposed throughout 
the Empire. 

On seeing two crows pass in the sky he composed a poem, and then 
gave the order to begin the battle of Sekiheki, in which he was defeated. 

902. SOTAN ^ $ (carrying food) served her mother and learned 
magic from a wizard. Once when she was sweeping the yard, her mother 
enquired why she was more thorough than usual ; she replied that she was 
going to be a fairy, and warned her that a pestilence would sweep the land 
the following year, and that she could escape it only by eating the leaves 
of a certain orange tree near the house and drinking the water of their own 

903. SOYUDO 77; 'ff j|;. A sage watching the stars. SOYUDO could 
produce a cloud at will, and conversely destroy the clouds when he wanted 
to gaze at the stars. From this craft he took the surname of Cloud-parting 

904. SPARROW (TONGUE CUT). Suzume San; Shitakiri Suzume. 
Once upon a time an old man and an old woman were neighbours; 

the old man had a pet sparrow, and one evening as he came back home 
he was surprised not to see the bird, and inquired from his cantankerous 
neighbour whether she had seen it. Oh yes, indeed she had, and the bird 
had eaten some starch paste which she had made and left in her garden, 
so she had caught him and cut his tongue, and he had then flown away. 
The old man was deeply grieved, and set out towards the forest in 



search of him, calling his pet, whose name was Bidori. At last he found 
him, and the sparrow took him to the house of his family, who greeted the 
old man and gave him a whole-hearted hospitality. 

Finally, the sparrow offered him two baskets, one large and heavy and 
the other much smaller, to choose from, as presents to take home. The 
old man (Nasakeji) said, "I am old, and I will take the light one, which 
I can carry more easily." When he reached home he found his basket full 
of precious things, silk, silver, gold, jewels, etc., in inexhaustible supply. 

The old cross neighbour (Arababa), hearing of this, went herself to the 
woods, calling for the sparrow, and, meeting him, expressed her pleasure 
at seeing him again. The sparrow civilly invited her to his home, and when 
she left gave her also the choice of two baskets; but the old woman selected 
the biggest of the two, which she could hardly carry. She did not wait 
to get home before opening it, as she soon had to stop and rest, and she 
was very inquisitive. She lifted the lid, greatly wondering at what she 
would behold, and out of the basket suddenly flew a host of goblins and 
devils, who gave her a very short shrift. 

In some versions the old man is represented as having a wife who 
follows him in his quest. It would be interesting to know whether the old 
shrew would have been killed by devils if she had taken the smaller basket. 

This fairy tale is commonly illustrated by showing the old man with 
the sparrow, or the hag with the scissors, or simply a sparrow, or a basket 
full of devils, or the woman on the back of a huge sparrow. 

905. STONES, of five colours. See JOKWA. 

WOMAN STONE (Phallic Rock), at the temple of Hachiman, in Kamakura. 

WEALTH-GIVING; FUKU ISHI, at Enoshima, which pilgrims used to rub. 


NODDING STONES. When the priest Daita (Tin Sang) preached Buddhism 
in China people would not listen to him, but the stones nodded at his 

STONE RUNNING AWAY, in the Osaka road out of the way of the 
Emperor Ojin (q.v.), who was drunk. 



SPEAKING, at the command of devils, In Izumo. 


GAMA ISHI, the inscribed frog stone of Enoshima. 

DEATH STONE, SESSHO SEKI, at Nasu; title of a No play. 

The Kimmo Kiubi no Kitsune of the Imperial concubine, Tama no 
Maye, took the shape of a stone, the SESSHO SEKI, the very sight of which 
was sure death. The priest, Gen no Osho, recited prayers in front of it, 
and the stone burst, covering with its fragments the plain of Nasu, where 
modern matter-of-fact chemists are said to have found large quantities of 
arsenical ore. See ABE NO SEIMEI. 


MIOTO SEKI, the wife and husband rocks of Futami ga Ura (Ise), which 
are joined by a straw rope. Legend has it that a peasant named Somin 
rescued Susano-o from a storm near Futami, and that the grateful God 
gave him a straw rope to use against the coming plague. At the present 
time the straw rope is still used as a charm on the New Year's festival for 
Sun worship at those rocks. See Aston's Shinto. 

OBA ISHI; the stone of the old woman, to be seen on Mount Tateyama, 
near Ashikura. The first man to ascend this peak was Ariyaka Sayemon, 
whose body is buried in a temple at the foot of the mountain, whilst some 
arrow-heads and a spear said to have belonged to him are exhibited at 
the top. Ariyaka was blessed with a wife of inquisitive disposition, who, 
desirous to emulate his exploit, started one day to climb the rocky slope, 
and so bent was she upon reaching the summit that she forgot a very 
important fact : women were not allowed to climb a mountain beyond a 
certain limit, called Nionindo, marking their inferiority to man, but still 
varying in height according to the stiffness of the climb. The Gods 
apparently were incensed at a woman setting the law at nought, and as 
soon as Ariyaka's wife trod beyond the Nionindo she was changed into a 


STONE OF SAYO NO NAKAYAMA, near Nissaka (Tokaido Road). 

In the reign of KOGEN (1332) a faithful wife, whose husband was away 



in the wars, went to try and find him in Musashi, and met a soldier who 
tried to do her violence, but she resisted, and he killed her. As she died 
she gave birth to a boy, whom Jizo Bosatsu rescued from death, and who, 
when older, found the murderer of his mother boasting of his deed, and 
avenged his mother. Since this event there have been on the spot of the 
murder a rock and a pine tree, which are heard at night crying like human 
beings. The stone is called Yonaki Ishi (night-crying stone). 

KAGAMI IWA, mirror rock of Kyoto, celebrated picture by Yamaguchi 
Soken, showing a woman seeing her reflection in a rock, at the foot of 
which is a thin stream. 

PIERCED ROCK OF KURAKAKE ZAN. The archer, Yuriwaka Daijin, sped 
a shaft to this rock from Yokokawa, a long distance away, and the arrow 
went through it. 

STONE PIERCED BY AX ARROW. The Chinese Archer, Riko, thought that 
a tiger was crouching near the road on which he was riding, and sent an 
arrow into the animal. He found on dismounting that there was no tiger, 
but that he had driven his shaft into a stone. 

Stones are split by swordcuts by the warriors Chidoji and Uyemon no 
Kami Nobuyori ; thrown by Owo Iko, Matano no Goro, and Miura no 

An exhaustive list of stones used in landscape gardening and their 
symbolism will be found in Conder's paper, Trans. As. Soc. Japan, p. 137, 
Vol. XIV. 

STONE LANTERNS. In a book named the Chikusan Teizoden (garden 
descriptions), there is a note to the effect that the ISHI ODORI were invented 
by the God IRUHIKO, who had stone lanterns placed along the lonely paths 
of a mountain as a protection against the numerous brigands. One of 
these lanterns was taken to a temple built in 594 by the Prince Shotoku. 
They are usually made in a peculiar form, akin to Gorin, described under 

906. STRAW ROPE J|L jjjjji (Shimenawa). See AMATERASU; CHARMS; 
STONES; NEW YEAR, and also under the name TAJIKARA. 



TAIKOliO (<,.//..Y.) 

TEKKAI (.V. r.) 


soso (<,.//..v.) 

SUZU ARM (./.) 


The straw rope used by the Gods to prevent Amaterasu from returning 
into the cave, and copies of which are placed in front of shrines. 

The rope is made of rice straw closely stranded, leftwise, with loose 
ends projecting at intervals, and it is often decorated with long strips of 
coloured paper. It is used in the New Year's festival to join the Kadomatsu, 
or stretched over the offerings; it had its place in the sword-making ceremonial, 
and is used to girth large trees to which special reverence is paid. In the 
fire-walking performance a rope of hemp hung with forty-four gohei may 
take its place to encircle the platform. The Shimenawa is intended to repel 
evil influences, and one may perhaps trace its origin to the ropes, from which 
might dangle rags or skins, stretched around the camp fires of the earlier 
men to scare predatory beasts, a custom which is still found amongst modern 

907. SUGARU - fa ^S $f $ (KOSHIBE NO), nicknamed the God- 
catcher, was a courtier of Yuriaku Tenno. It is said that once, as the 
Emperor prepared to leave his palace in Yamato, a thunderstorm burst, and 
he ordered Sugaru to catch hold of RAIJIN, the Thunder God. Sugaru rode 
to Mount Abe, chasing the God before him and commanding him in the 
name of the Emperor to stop the storm, but without avail until he began 
to pray to Kwannon, who delivered Raijin into his hands. He tied Raijin 
in a sack and took him to the Emperor; hence his nickname. 

908. SUGAWARA MICHIZANE H Jj| it M- also TENJIN SAMA Jfc |*jl 
TEMMANGU ^ $fa ^, KWANSHOJO ^ ^g Six. Noble of the ninth century 
(847-903), deified as God of caligraphy under the above names, and usually 
represented riding on a black ox, or clasping to his breast a branch of 
flowering plum tree. He was governor of Sanuki, with the title of Naidaijin 
under Uda Tenno, who in 898 recommended him to Go Daigo Tenno when 
he himself abdicated. Michizane was, however, hated of the Fujiwara, and 
especially of Tokihira (Shihei). Go Daigo took him as his minister, much 
to the annoyance of Tokihira, and once, when the Chinese Emperor had 
signified his desire to have a portrait of Go Daigo, who was ill, Tokihira 
proposed to pose in his place; but Michizane objected that wearing the 

34 J 


insignia might be construed as an omen that Tokihira would one day 
become Emperor, and he directed that the younger brother of Go Daigo, 
Tokyo Shinno, was the right man to impersonate the monarch. Some time 
later Tokiyo met in a temple the adopted daughter of Michizane, with 
whom he fell in love. This gave Tokihira his chance, he accused 
Michizane of plotting against Go Daigo, and the minister was exiled to 
Km SHIU with the title of Dazai no gon no sotsu (901). As he started on 
his exile he cast a last glance to his plum trees in bloom, and composed 
$ the following poem: 

^ Kochi fukaba 


4 Niwoi okoseyo 

>> Ume no hana 

Aruji nashi tote 

Haruna wasurezo. 


"When the eastern breeze (spring wind, Kochi) passes, load her with 
perfume O blossoms of my plum trees; even though the master is far away, 
never forget the spring."* And one of the plum trees there and then 
uprooting itself, became miraculously transplanted to Chikuzen, where 
Michizane was going. It is called Tobi Ume, the jumping plum tree. 

Michizane then wrote a Chinese poem upon the costume which had 
been given him the previous year by the Emperor. Tokihira's hatred 
pursued him even in his retreat, where he sent a man to murder him, who 
was killed by Umewo, one of the retainers of the ex-minister. Then 
Tokihira decided to destroy the son of Michizane, Kanshusai, who was in 
the school of Genzo at Kyoto. He sent two of his retainers, Gemba and 
Matsuo (brother of Umewo), to demand of Genzo the head of the boy, but 
the head of Matsuo's son was given them instead. Matsuo had sent his 

^f own boy to be sacrificed. Tokihira and his accomplice, Kiyotsura, were 

> ~ 

'f 5! There is a poem composed by Yoritomo's second son, Sanetomo, to the same import when he went 

ft to the Hachimangu, where he was killed on the same day by KUGYO. It reads : 

[-* Idete Inaba 

I I Nushinaki yadoto 

' | Narinu tomo 

' & Noki ba no ume yo 

> t Haru wo wasuruna. 

34 2 


killed in a thunderstorm, and since then the legend has shown Michizane 
as Thunder God, avenging himself upon his life-long enemies by striking 
them with lightning, a power which popular legends also gave later to 

Before he had become a minister Michizane had been a tutor in Kioto, 
and his large book-room was called Riu Mon, or Dragon gate, in allusion 
to the carp leaping the waterfall and becoming a dragon. His works form 
two hundred volumes of history and some twelve volumes of poetry. 
Michizane is the author of the Riuju Kokushi, which he wrote in 892. He 
died at the age of fifty-eight, and received from the repentant Go Daigo 
the posthumous title of Daijo Daijin, and tne twenty-fifth day of each month 
is specially consecrated to his memory. An image of himself which he had 
carved floated to Sakai' in the tenth century, and a temple was erected to 
it. One day, in 966, the doors flew open and the image got out and took 
its rest on a neighbouring plum tree. 

Lafcadio Hearn gives a story of a caligraphist who once called at the 
house of a Zenki Hayato, of Kobuga, in Nara, whose ancestors had been 
priests of Nikko, and remained there to rest for the night. The writer 
saw a large cauldron of hot rice taken from the fire into an adjacent 
room, and inquired, after hearing a great noise, who was the other visitor. 
His host then took him into the room, and showing him the empty cauldron, 
told him that the Temmangu had been there to eat. 

The trials and troubles of Michizane form the subject of several dramas, 
of which the Sugaivara denju Tanarai Kagami, written by Takeda Izumo 
in 1746, is the most famous. 

Michizane is often depicted, especially in Kakemono, dressed in the 
costume of a Chinese official, and holding a branch of the plum tree. No 
satisfactory explanation of this portrait is available; the name Toto Tenjin 
given to it means Tenjin who went to China, and it is so described in books 
of old pictures, but as Michizane never went to China, although he very 
much desired to do so, the description applies to his spirit."* 

As stated in the Bittsu dzo dzui (III., 7) ; see also Supplement to Ehon Hokan (HI., 4) ; Wakan Meigwa 
Yen (III., i) ; Meigwa Zui (VI., 7), etc. 



909. SUGIMOTO % 7J. The weeping priest; one of the retainers of 
Kusunoki Masashige, who, disguised as a priest, was sent to tell Takauji 
that Masashige and Yoshisada had both been killed at the siege of Kyoto. 
While the Ashikaga were rejoicing over these tidings, the two generals, very 
much alive indeed, defeated the army of Takauji and entered Kyoto. See 


911. SUITENGU 7jc Jfc Hf- The Indian idol, VARUNA, represented as 
a green figure with three eyes, a flaming nimbus around its head, bristling 
with snakes. In one hand the figure holds a cup or a vajra-hilted sword, 
and in the other t\vo snakes; a tortoise supports it on the waves. 

It is sometimes confused with the emissaries of the Sea Gods who 
helped Jingo Kogo in her Korean expedition. The same name is occasionally 
applied to the child Emperor Antoku, who perished in the waves at Dan 
no Ura. 

Varuna is the Buddhist Regent of the sea, and a charm bearing the 
name SUITENGU is used by sailors and people when engaged on a sea 
journey, as a protection against shipwreck. 

912. SUKETSUNE jjft fg (KUDO SAYEMON X M ~& & PI)- Kinsman 
and murderer of Saburo KAWAZU, father of the SOGA brothers (q.v.). 

913. SUKUMAMO. A dance which takes its name from the priest 
Sukumamo, of the Ninnaji temple of Kyoto. This jovial person, one evening 
whilst intoxicated, placed over his head a bronze brazier and so tried to 
enliven a geisha dance. But the brazier worked down to his shoulders, and 
he was unable to get his head out of it afterwards until rescued by his 
amused spectators. 

It is also called ASHIKANAYE or KANAYE KABURI. See the book 

914. SUMIYOSHI ^ ^. A bacchanalian God, patron of the shrine of 
Uji, near Kyoto, where he is worshipped with HASHI HIME, the goddess of 
lust. The temple contains phallic symbols now hidden from the public 



gaze. Sumiyoshi is prayed to for divorces, whilst the goddess receives 
invocations for marriages. Their companion god at the Uji temple is Agata, 
reputed to cure venereal diseases (Gulick); he must not be confused with 
the following : 

SUMIYOSHI. The spirits of Sumiyoshi. See Jo and UBA, and also the 
story of the SHUTENDOJI, Pine of Takasago. 

SUMIYOSHI. One of the most famous shrines in Settsu ; also called 

915. SUSANO-O NO MIKOTO 21 ft % $f (Gozu TENNO ^f H ^ 3). 
The impetuous male, most often shown killing the, eight-headed dragon, 
which threatened Kushinada Hime, by making the brute drunk with eight 
jars of strong sake one for each head and then cutting off all the heads 
at one time. From the tail of the dragon he drew a sword, the Ama no 
Murakumo no Tsurugi, which was kept at the temple of Ise until it was 
handed to Yamato Dake, after whose exploits it became the Kusunagi no 
Tsurugi, or grass-quelling sword. Yamato Dake consecrated it to the temple 
of Atsuta, where it is kept. A copy was lost at Dan no Ura. 

Susano-o was born from the nose of IZANAGI no Mikoto, and is the 
brother of AMATERASU NO KAMI (q.v.), to whom his ways proved so obnoxious 
that she retired in a cave. Susano-o was then sent by the Gods to Izumo, 
where the eight-headed serpent (or dragon), YAWATA NO ORICHI, mentioned 
above, succumbed to his craft. He married Kushinada Hime, daughter of 
the King of Izumo. He is worshipped as ruler of the sea, of the tide, of 
the moon, and also under the name of Gozu Tenno. See Aston's Shinto and 

There is a mountain in Corea called Giuto Zan (the same word as 
Gozu), and it is believed that it derives its name from a visit of Susano-o 
to Corea. 

916. SU SHE ^ iff. The Chinese wizard of the Court of She Wang 
Ti, called by the Japanese JOFUKU (q.v.). Herr Albert Brockhaus in Netsuke 
described him as depicted on a two-horned tortoise, like Koan Sennin, but 



there does not appear to be any confirmation of this in old Japanese works, 
and it may be that the specimen alluded to represents Koan. 

917. SU SHE |$ $fr See TOBA (jfc 

918. TADAMORI ^ & & (TAIRA NO). Founder of the greatness of 
the Taira clan, Tadamori was the father of Kiyomori and of Satsuma no 
Kami Tadanori (q.v.). He served the Emperors Shirakawa and Toba, and 
died in 1152. Amongst his exploits are related the wars against the Corean 
pirates, and more often the celebrated capture of the oil thief (Abura Bozu).* 

It is said that one night when he was with the Emperor, and the rain 
fell in torrents, someone reported that a monster, emitting flame from its 
mouth, was speeding along the road leading to the temple of Yasaka no 
Yashiro (Giyonji), where it had already been seen for several nights.f 
Tadamori went in search of the monster, which he saw coming along with 
stiff bristling hair and light intermittently issuing from its head. He bravely 
sprang upon the creature as it passed him, and found that it was but a 
temple servant, with a large hat much the worse for wear, a straw rain coat 
on his back, and a vessel of oil in one hand. The light and flames were 
emitted by a torch, which he had to keep alight by occasionally blowing 
upon it. One of the lanterns of the Yashiro temple is still called Tadamori 
Toro. He is also shown pointing out a rent in the left sleeve of his garment 
to an old man who kneels at his feet apologising. This sequel to the oil 
thief story is called "The Giyonji lamp-lighter making excuses," and is 
taken from Hokusai's Mangiva. 

gig. TADANOBU fa / ff f $1 (SATO). One of the four chief retainers 
of Minamoto YOSHITSUNE. Tadanobu is celebrated in history as well as in 
legend. At the battle of Yashima his brother, Sato TSUGUNOBU, was shot 
by Noritsune, at the age of twenty-eight, in place of Yoshitsune, whose life 
he thus saved. The page of Noritsune, named KITAWO, was going to cut 
Tsugunobu's head off when Tadanobu sprang to the spot, beheaded Kitawo, 

B Attributed erroneously to Takamochi by Griffis, who places the event in 889, in the reign of the 
Emperor Uda. 

t In the Zoho Ehon Issaoshi Gusa (1839), Vol 3, it is said that Shirakawa met the ghost as he was going 
to see his concubine, whom he gave to Tadamori as a reward. 

34 6 


and carried his brother on his shoulders to Yoshitsune. The dying warrior 
expressed his regret not to have lived long enough to see the fall of the 
Taira, and expired. Sato Tadanobu, following his brother's example, 
exposed his own life when Yoshitsune was flying from the persecution of 
YORITOMO. In the middle of the winter the little band crossed the 
mountains, and were attacked by the monks of Yoshino, who were devoted 
to Yoritomo. To give time to Yoshitsune to escape, Tadanobu donned the 
armour of his leader and alone stood on the road, on the crest of the 
mountain, fighting the Yamabushis, led by Yokogawa Kakuhan. 

A few days later Yoshitsune had to part from his Mekake, SHIZUKA 
(q.v.), and Tadanobu served her as escort. Here legends intervene, and make 
of Tadanobu an old fox in human guise, as described under SHIZUKA. 

Later still Tadanobu himself was betrayed to Yoritomo by his mistress, 
Manju (or AIKU), and surrounded whilst in his tent. He defended himself 
with a heavy Go table, slaying many of his would-be captors. He made 
good his escape and joined Yoshitsune in his fSst retreat. In allusion to 
this episode, he is often styled Go-ban Tadanobu. 

920. TADANORI & |5: (SATSUMA NO KAMI, TAIRA NO). Son of the 
great TADAMORI. He is generally represented in armour near a cherry tree in 
bloom, as an allusion to his poem, Ryoshuku no Hana (the flower at the 
Inn). One day he was belated, and had to sleep on the ground under a 
cherry tree in flower, and, little thinking then that he would not live to 
the end of the following day, composed the following poem: 

Yuki kure te u 

Ko no shita-kage wo # 

Yado to seba s j 

Hana zo ko yoi no 1 * 

Aruji naruran. t 

"When one loses oneself in the evening and spends the night under a cherry 
tree, one has the blossoms for host." 

Another scene sometimes met with represents him ready to slay his 
concubine, Kiku no Mae, whom he suspected of having betrayed him to 



Okabe no Rokuyata, but she appeased him with a poem. He was killed 
in 1184, at Ichinotani, and recognised thanks to his poem, given above, the 
Ryoshukn no Hana, which was found in his sleeve by Tadazumi (Ehon 
Shaho Bukuro). 

921. TADATSUNE fa ^ killing the hog. See NITTA NO SHIRO. 

922. TADAZUMI fa ^ |Sj S|J (OKABE), or ROKUYATA A 5S , was one 
of the Minamoto at the battle of Ichinotani. He saw a Taira trying to 
reach the boats, and pursued him; he caught him, but this adversary was so 
strong that Rakuyata was forced down on his knees and could not use his 
sword. As the Taira was going to kill him, a Minamoto soldier came 
and cut his arm down. Rokuyata then beheaded the Taira, and found 
a poem in the armour of the dead man which showed him to have been 
TADANORI (q.v.) (1184). 

923. TAJGENJO J :. ~C was a female Sennin, pupil of GYOKUSHI. 
She never felt the cold, and she was not wetted by water; she could level 
down hills and break stones with a commanding motion of her fingers, and 
likewise withered or revived trees. Once she took her followers to the 
mountains, and, striking a rock, a hole was formed in the wall of the 
mountain, disclosing a huge cave. 

924. TAI-IN-JO ^ |ij|j TC. Female Taoist who sold wine on a roadside 
in the hope of meeting a wise man. She was a long time without success, 
but TAIYOSHI Sennin, who was a wine-bibber, listened to her story between 
his potations and became her teacher. She lived two hundred years. 

925. TAIKOBO J Q ?!? The Chinese KIANG TSZE (Japanese, KIOSHIGA, 
q.v.). The surname, TAI KUNG MANG, means grandsire's expectation, and was 
bestowed upon him by the Emperor Si PEH. 


927. TAIRA ^. The Taira, or HEIKE family, descended in direct line 
from Kwanmu Tenno. The exploits of its principal members form an in- 
exhaustible source of art motives, especially the episodes of the struggle for 



supremacy between the Taira and the Minamoto, generally called the war 
of GEMPEI. Finally the power of the Taira was entirely crushed by their 
adversaries at the battle of DAN NO URA in 1185. 

928. TAIRA NO TOMOMORI ^ frl |. At the battle of Dan no 
Ura, when the army of the child Emperor Antoku was defeated, TOMOMORI 
committed suicide by tying to his own body the anchor of his boat and 
jumping into the sea. 

929. TAISHAKU *^f HI ^C, also TAISHAKU TEN, one of the names of 
INDRA. One of the Rokubuten (q.v.). 

930. TAISHIN O FUJIN it jf| EE ^ A- Chinese female sage, who 
is depicted playing the harp on a white dragon, and riding amongst the 
clouds over the Universe. Identical with SAISHIX O FUJIN. 

931. TAIYOSHI ^ m -f-. Sennin, depicted drunk on a rock; he 
lived five hundred years, looking everlastingly young. He was a friend 
and disciple of Gyokushi, who reproved him for his fondness for wine, 
but with small result, as the drunkard did not leave off till he was three 
hundred years old, by which time he had acquired a very respectable 
girth. He then drank a magic elixir, and thus obtained wisdom and 
two hundred more years of life. 

932. TAISHUX fc ffi. Usually represented as a boy with an 
elephant ; was the son of the blind old man, Ku Sow, whose overbearing 
ways were a sore trial to his son, who, besides, had to suffer from the 
evil disposition of his step-mother and half-brother. His parents sent him 
to the Li mountains to cultivate the land. He went, and was helped in 
his hard task by an elephant, which ploughed the fields for him. The 
Emperor Yao heard of his piety, and gave him one of his daughters as 
a wife. Tai Shun succeeded him upon the throne, and he is one of the 
twenty-four Paragons of filial virtue. 

933. TAIZAN ROFU >(C [il ^ 5t- Sennin, whose proper name was 
never ascertained. He was seen cultivating land by the Emperor Bu 



(Wu-Ti), of the Kwan dynasty, who marvelled at his youthful face and 
decrepit body. The old man told him that when he was eighty-five 
years old, and very near death, he met a fairy who gave him some 
magic powers, and he then became young again, grew new teeth, and his 
hair turned black. He was able to walk three hundred Li per day. 

934. TAKANORI jtj fi, See KOJIMA. 

935. TAKARABUNE g $ft. The Treasure ship of the Gods of luck, 
the Shichi Fuku Jin, who are usually represented in it, with the TAKARA- 
MONO. Sometimes the latter article is alone depicted in the boat, or even 
its place is taken by the Tama, or Jewel. 

On New Year's Eve the boat is supposed to sail into port, with its 
load of treasures, and pictures of it form one of the necessary features of 
the New Year's festivities. Likewise, it is frequently taken as a pattern 
for netsuke, of a compact, rounded design, though of later years these 
have taken an ornamental form little suited to the function for which 
the netsuke, was originally intended. A picture of the Takarabune bought 
on New Year's Day and put under one's pillow ensures lucky dreams. 

936. TAKARAMONO ^ $f. The Takaramono is a collection of 
objects, each endowed with emblematic meaning, the representation of 
which is fairly common. They are associated with the Gods of Luck, 
and form the contents of Hotei's bag, or the cargo of the Takarabune. 
Grouped together in a compact shape they are met with in netsuke, 
whilst a picture showing them in detail will be found on the last page 
of the third volume of Hokusai's Mangwa. The various objects are : 
The hat of invisibility (Kakuregasd) ; Rolls of Brocade (Orimono) ; a purse 
of Money, quite inexhaustible (Kanebukuro) ; the sacred keys of the Godown 
of the Gods (Kagf) ; Cloves (Choji) ;* Scrolls or books (Makimono), often 
confused with the brocade, or replacing it ; Daikoku's Hammer (Tsuchi) ; 
the lucky rain coat, Kakure Mino, protection against evil spirits ; a flat 
oval object, perhaps a coin, found often associated with ornamental designs, 

ffi Apparently derived from the Chinese Chueh : Rhinoceros horn cup. 



and called Shippo Tsunagi no uchinu hana bishi, i.e., a hana bishi, within 
a [connected] shippo. A weight called Fundo ; The sacred gem, Hojin no 
Tama, either singly, or a group of Tama on a stand (Tai) ; also some- 
times a lion playing with the jewel Shishidama ; the Koban ni Hako, or 
Senriobako, is the figure called "one thousand Ryos in a chest"; a jar 
(Kotsubo) contains coral, coin, precious goods. Money is again represented by 
the copper cash, Zeni, and the Cowry-shell called Kai. Coral branches 
(Sangoju) ; an anchor, Ikari; an orange-like fruit, Tachibana, and some 
harpischord bridges (Kotoji) are also included, and the list terminates with 
the feather robe of the Tennins (Hagoromo)* and the emblem of authority, 
the flat Chinese fan, Uchhva. 

937. TAKASAGO. See Jo .and DBA. 

(Battle of Uji GAWA.) 

939. TAKATOKI ;jb 1& rj B (Hojo). The last of the Hojo, regent 
at Kamakura from 1312 when he was but eleven years old, and himself 
under the guidance of Nagasaki Takasuke, until his death in 1333, in 
the ruins of his palace to which the troops of Nitta Yoshisada had set 
fire. His fight with the then Emperor Go DAIGO Tenno has been dealt 
with under Go Daigo. See TENGU. 

940. TAKAUJI J ^'J f^ J% (ASHIKAGA). Ambitious founder of the 
greatness of Ashikaga clan. Takauji, after helping Go Daigo Tenno to 
destroy the power of the Hojo Takatoki, tried to gather in his own 
hands the Shogunal privileges (see Go Daigo). His designs were opposed, 
and he entered in open revolt against the weak Emperor, thus starting 
the wars in which Kusunoki Masashige and Nitta Yoshisada won eternal 

His brother, Tadayoshi, caused the son of Go Daigo, Prince Morinaga, 
to be murdered. Nitta Yoshisada gained a victory over the rebels, and even 
cleared Kyoto, but his success was short, and both himself and Kusunoki 

(> Confused with the lucky rain coat. 

35 1 


Masashige were beaten at Minato Gawa. Even the faithful AKAMATSU 
ENSHIN surrendered to the rebels. Go Daigo had to fly to Yoshino, whence 
he is sometimes called Yoshino Tenno. 

TAKAUJI, in possession of Kyoto, in the first year of Engen (1336) 
declared Emperor, under the name of KOMYO, Prince TOYOHITO, brother of 
the late KOGEX Tenno, and even changed the name of the period from 
Engen to Kembu. From that time dates the sixty years' schism between 
the southern, or legitimist, dynasty and the northern dynasty, headed by 

TAKAUJI defeated successively Go MURAKAMI, son of Go Daigo, Kusunoki, 
Nitta, Kitabatake, and other generals of the legitimist dynasty. Twenty 
years he fought, three times driven to the verge of suicide, yet disease 
accounted for his death in the thirteenth year of Shohei (1357) at the 
age of fifty-four, leaving the Shogunate to his third son, YOSHINORI, whose 
descendants held the same power for fifteen generations over a period of 
two centuries. 

In 1863, all images of Takauji in existence in Kyoto were beheaded 
by the partisans of the Restoration as a protest against the abuses of 
the Shogunate. 

941. TAKENORI tf H ft fl'I (KIYOWARA). Usually represented 
watching the flight of some water-fowl above a swamp. It is said of 
him that once as he was going to give battle to his enemy, ABE NO SADATO, 
whose position he did not precisely know beyond the fact that it was 
quite near, he noticed some wild geese, flying above a swamp in a straight 
line as if ready to alight, suddenly changed the direction of their flight. 
He concluded that his opponent was hidden in the reeds, and turning 
the position at night secured a victory. A similar story is said of Yoshiiye, 
probably because both were fighting against one another in the later three 
years' war. 

942. TAKENOUCHI NO SUKUXE ^ ft ^ 3$ is a warrior and 
statesman to whom legend ascribes an uncommon span of life, varying 
from one hundred and sixty to three hundred and fifty years. Minister 

35 2 

(S/wzo Katti collection) 


of Keiko Tenno about 100 A.D., he was the adviser of five more sovereigns 
in succession. With Jingo Kogo (q.v.) he went to Korea, and he is 
usually represented with the Empress, or with the child Emperor OJIN 
(Hachiman q.v.), receiving from the emissary of the Dragon King the 
gems of the tides. 

He is usually shown with the costume and headgear of a noble of 
high rank, wears shoes of tiger's skin, and has a long white beard. 

For his treatment by the Emperor, see HACHIMAN. 

943. TAKETORI MONOGATARI *ft ^ $& |g. The history of the 
old bamboo-cutter and the moon child (Kaguya Hime) (see MOONCHILD). 
This work is the oldest storybook in Japan and is mentioned in the 
Genji Monogatari. 

944. T'A KI $jj. E, (Japanese, DAKKI) was an unprincipled woman, 
concubine of the Chinese Emperor, SHAXG CHOW Six, who fell in love with 
her when he received her amongst his share of war spoils, circa 1140 B.C. 
The story of the excesses to which she led the abandoned monarch is full 
of horrible episodes. Pi Kan j:b "f", elder brother of Chow Sin by a concubine, 
dared to remonstrate with him, and T'a Ki said: "A sage has seven orifices 
in his heart; let us see whether Pi Kan is really a sage!" Pi Kan's breast 
was opened and his heart removed, but, says the legend, the Gods did not 
let him die. He lived for some years more, selling onions, until one day, 
being asked what they were, he replied: "A vegetable without a heart." He 
then remembered his plight, and died. 

Chow Sin had a palace built, surrounded with a park in which naked 
men and women chased one another. He delected in serving viands himself, 
like a butcher, to these lusty people, and had a "lake of wine" built for their 
refreshment, whilst the trees were hung with edibles (Tama no Ike, p. 5). 

T'a Ki found pleasure in ordering the watchfires to be lighted, so as to 
behold the soldiers rushing to their duty; after a while, however, the troops 
refused to be hoaxed, and when Wu WANG attacked the city they were 

15 Some say nine. 




surprised and beaten by the besieger. An illustration of this story is given in 
Ehon Shaho Bukuro, Vol. 9. 

The courtiers tried to make Chow Sin reform his ways, but the favourite 
held the reins of the government, which the dissolute monarch had abandoned, 
and she quelled all their attempts at rebellion by means of a form of supplice 
called the ROASTING. This consisted in a pit of fire, above which a cylinder 
of copper was fixed, and upon the red-hot surface of which, continuously 
smeared with fat, the would-be reformers were made to walk, naked, and 
urged on at the point of the sword until they fell in the blazing charcoal 
(Ehon Hokan, III., 7, where the name of the favourite is written $0. $). 

When Wu Wang defeated the demoralised warriors of Chow Sin, the 
latter retreated to one of the palaces in which he had held his dissolute feasts, 
and to which he set fire. Legend steps in and says that T'a Ki's beauty was 
so great that no one could be found to kill her, except an old minister of Wu 
Wang, who covered his eyes with a mask before he gave her the fatal stroke. 
Her body was burnt, and it is said by some that its ashes took life again in 
the shape of a nine-tail fox, while some others say that they were transformed 
into a musical instrument. See UNCHUSHI. 

945. TAKUJIU ffi flft. Mythical animal which appears on the earth 
only during the reign of virtuous monarchs. This fabulous creature has six 
horns, two on the head and the other four on his back, a human bearded 
face, hairy legs, the tail of an ox, and three eyes on each flank. 

Compare KUDAN. The picture of this creature given in the Yanagaiva 
Gwafu of Yanagawa Shigenobu bears the name Hakntaku j &, which 
belongs to the horned Shishi, and the name vK lift * s applied, also erroneously, 
to the Suisei. 

946. TAMA -R. Jewel ; also designed as Gioku, and represented in 
the form of a pearl tapering to a pointed apex, and scored with several 
rings. It corresponds to the Mani of the Indian Buddhists, and is 
symbolic of purity ; as such, it is the special attribute of Jizo Bosatsu 
and of many of the Arhats, but more especially of Panthaka. It is one 
of the treasures of the Takaramono. It receives amongst other names that 



of Nio-i-Hojiu, and more rarely of Shinshi, the latter word being used for 
the spherical jewel, one of the three relics left to Ninigi no Mikoto by 
his grandmother, Amaterasu. The necklace of Shinshi, mentioned in the 
traditions, was lost, and in its place a large crystal ball, some three to four 
inches in diameter is kept, and carried by an aide-de-camp of the Emperor 
on State occasions. 

The Tama is associated not only with the Bosatsu and other 
Buddhistic Deities or Saints, but also with the Gods of Luck and the 
purely Shintoist legends of HOHODEMI, OJIN (Jingo), etc. It plays an 
important role in the legend of Raijin, and it is an attribute of the 
dragons, on the forehead of which it is usually shown; it is also found 
sometimes on the head of the Karyobinga, or in the hands of Tennin, or 
Ningyo. See the story of TAISHOKWAN KAMATARI and the MUGE HO-JIU 
JEWEL. See also the Minogame of the three jewels (San gioku no kame). 
Tama are often shown in groups, on Chinese stands, called Tai. They 
are an attribute of Kishimojin, and sometimes Daikoku is shown juggling 
with Tama and his hammer. They appear in the breath of a clam, or are 
themselves endowed with an emanation 

Foxes are also shown holding the Tama, and the ball associated with 
the Shishi has probably the same origin. The question whether the globe 
held under their talons by the heraldic lions has a similar meaning or a 
common origin with that ball might prove an interesting one to investigate. 

The Jade Stone found by BEN\VA (PiEN Ho) is also called Tama, and it 
plays a part in the wars between the Chinese Kingdoms of Wu and Yueh, 
which is set forth in the Goyetsu gun dan (443, et seq.). In the eighth century 
B.C. Pien Ho found an eagle standing upon a large block of jade; he took the 
stone to the ruler of Ts'u, whose advisers pronounced it to be valueless, and 
gave it back to the man, but first of all they cut off his right foot. Benwa 
returned to the King Shan mountains and put the stone back in its proper 
place, when the same eagle came again to perch upon it. In the meantime the 
King had died, and the man went again to Court with his stone to present 
it to the new ruler, and this time his left foot was cut off. A third King came 
to the throne, and on seeing Benwa weeping by the gate of the Palace, he 



inquired into the cause of his grief, and had the stone tested, when it was 
found to be a perfect gem.*" 

This stone was at last carved and made into a jewel called the $\ fc . !tl 
(Ho SHI CHI PIH), which finally passed into the hands of the King of Chao, 
Bun O ;) 3E (298-266 B.C.). This King had a devoted counsellor in the person 
of LIN SIANG Ju (Rinshojo) ff|J ^ $n> an d when the envious ruler of Ts'in 
offered fifteen cities in exchange for the stone, this crafty person advised 
Bun O to surrender the stone and accept the land in exchange. But soon 
after he went to the Court of Ts'in and requested that the jewel be sent 
back to Chao. Ts'in hesitated, but Rinshojo took the stone, saying: "Do you 
fail to see its defects?" walking the while away from the King until he 
came to the end of the hall. He then dropped his cap and exclaimed: 
"Unless you return this stone to my master I shall break it to pieces; not 
only have we jewels, but also courageous men, such as none could be found 
in Ts'in!" The King of Ts'in yielded to his demands. 

In some versions, he is said to have invaded Chao, and requested the 
stone as a ransom for the fifteen cities, but to have given way before 
Rinsh5jo's boldness. 

947. TAMAMO NO MAYE 3L H 0) gff. This is a story which has 
been many times modified and dramatised. Tamamo no Maye was the 
favourite concubine of Toba Tenno (1108-1123). Once the Emperor fell 
dangerously ill, and the advice of the Court Astrologer was obtained. 
This Astrologer, Abe no Seimei, declared that the cause of the Emperor's 
illness was not far to seek : Tamamo no Maye had a halo around her 
head in the dark, and he was sure that she was a fox-witch, responsible 
for the ever-increasing weakness of the Emperor. Abe caused an altar 
to be erected in the gardens of the palace, and general prayers to be 
offered for the prompt recovery of Toba Tenno. The lady did not come 
until personally requested to do so, and as she reluctantly approached the 

The Chinese and Japanese Repository, 313, says that at the second time Benwa's fingers were cut, and 
that on the third occasion the Emperor became so angry that he threw the stone to the ground, when it broke in 
twain, and in it were found sacred characters ; the two halves were made into seals for the Emperor and the chief 
astronomer, but they were lost in the sea with the Emperor Ta Ping at the time of the Mongol invasion of Yueh. 



altar she took her proper shape, that of a white fox with nine tails 
(Kiubi no Kitsune), and flew away. She went as far as the prairie of 
Nasu, where she was pursued and shot by the archer, MIURA KURANOSUKE. 
She took the shape of a stone, the Sessho seki, or death stone, in the 
plain of Nasu, and contact with it, nay, its very sight was, it is said, 
deadly. In the period of Oei (1394-1427) a virtuous priest named Genno 
Osho went to the stone and struck it repeatedly with his hosso, and the 
stone burst, throwing its fragments far away. 

Legend has it that this fox, Kimmo Kiubi no Kitsune, was an old 
one which had previously bewitched two other rulers, one in India and 
one in China, before attacking Toba Tenno, and a popular rhyme, 
embodying this belief, says : Opened by three Emperors, broken by a 
Priest (Jiji Ando). 


In some variations of the story, the erection of the altar in the 
gardens is credited to the wife of Abe no Seimei, the wizard himself 
being confined at home. 

948. TAMAYORI HIME 31 & jjg was the younger sister of Toyotama 
Hime. The only legend regarding this mythological personage, that concerns 
us here is that which associates her with the Shinto Temple of Kamigamo, 
on the Kamogawa, near Kioto, consecrated to the worship of Wake Ika 
Ozuchi no Kami. Legend has it (according to Murray's Japan 1881., p. 
338) that Tamayori Hime, daughter of Kamo no Taketsumi no Mikoto, 
walking one day by the side of a stream, espied on the waters a red 
arrow winged with duck's feathers, which floated towards her; she secured 
it, and took it home. Shortly afterwards she was discovered to be pregnant 
and in due course gave birth to a male child. Her parents doubted her 
assurances that she did not know the father of her child, and determined 
that as soon as the boy could understand what was said to him, he 
would be submitted to some sort of ordeal in order to discover the secret of 
his birth. Meanwhile the arrow was thrust in the thatched roof of the 
house. Eventually Kamo no Taketsumi assembled the villagers in his 



house, and giving a wine cup to the boy told him to take it to his father; 
without stopping before any of the men present, the boy ran out of the 
house and placed the cup in front of the arrow ; then transforming himself 
into a thunderbolt, he ascended to heaven, followed by his mother. 

The author of Murray's Guide adds that this is undoubtedly a myth 
invented to explain the application of the name Kamo (duck) to the 
temple in question. See the f$} |^ !f fcf, Vol. V. 

The story appears to have been taken from the Topography of Yamashiro, 
and it is almost identical with the story of Seya Datara Hime (see Kojiki 
p. 146.) It is also found in the preface of the Hojo Ki '}j 3t Hfi f 
the poet Kamo Chomei (Xllth Century), but the name of the Tamayori Hime 
is not mentioned, and the girl is said to have been washing clothes near 
Izumoji (Trans. As. Soc. Jap. XXXIV. 47). 

949. TAMETOMO $| $} ^ (MINAMOTO) was the eighth son of Tameyoshi 
and the grandson of Yoshiiye (Hachimantaro). He was seven feet high, and 
his left (bow) arm four inches longer than his right one. As a boy he was 
very violent, and in consequence he was sent, when thirteen years of age, to 
the Kyushu Islands, which in two years' time he subjugated (hence his name, 
Chinzei Hachiro j! [0| y\ J$), and upon which he held sway to such an 
extent that the governor complained to Sutoku Tenno, who thereupon dis- 
missed Tameyoshi from office. Tametomo, hearing of it, came to Kioto with 
twenty-eight men, and was pardoned. He then became a follower of the 
Emperor Go Shirakawa, and after the latter's abdication protected his palace 
during the war of Hogen, when in a night attack he killed with a single 
arrow Ito Rokuro and Ito Goro Kagetsune. Finally he was captured by 
Minamoto no Shigesada in 1156. The Taira exiled him to the island of 
Oshima, in Izu, after severing the muscles of his arm, but the wound soon 
healed, and Tametomo became all-powerful in the island. He discovered a 
smaller island near by, and named it Ashijima, some ten years after his exile. 

The governor of Izu, Kamo Mochimitsu, was instructed to destroy him, 
but when his boats sighted the island, Tametomo was standing on the beach, 
and with a single arrow sank the leading boat, as a challenge to the whole 


OIL THIEF (G.ff.V.) TANKWA (ff.S.T.) URASHI.MA (ir.c.,1.) TAMAMO NO MAYE (ir.L.3.) 





fleet. He then retired to his house, to which he set fire, and committed 
harakiri in the burning structure (Kawo, second year, 1170). He was then 
thirty-two years old. During his life he is said to have been the only man 
Kiyomori ever feared. His bow was eight and a half feet long, and it took 
three men of ordinary strength to bend it. His arrows were proportionately 
big, being five feet long, and their iron heads were as large as ordinary 
spears. Tametomo is credited with the strength of fifty men, and he could 
bend his bow eighteen hands from the arrow head (?). It is sometimes stated 
that he did not commit seppuku, but escaped to the Liu chu islands, of 
which he became king. He is usually shown with his bow, speeding a shaft 
against the boats of the enemy, or showing his strength to the demons of 
Onigashima, which island he is said to have visited, like Asahina Saburo. 

Hachiro Tametomo is described by Bakin in the Yumibari Tsuki (bow 
of the full moon) as having had the eyes of a rhinoceros, with two pupils in 
each. In his youth he was once taken to a lecture delivered by Shinsei 
before the Emperor, and although he was but twelve years old he boasted 
that he could easily beat all the living archers of the period. Shinsei 
laughed at him, whereupon he quoted Chinese texts to show his learning, 
and offered to catch any arrows that might be shot at him by keen archers. 
Yorinaga then ordered two bowmen of repute, Norikasu and Norishige, to shoot 
arrows at the boy, Shinsei recklessly offering him his own head if Tametomo 
survived the ordeal. At the first attempt he caught both arrows in his 
hands; then the angry archers shot both arrows simultaneously, and he 
caught one arrow in his sleeve and the other between his teeth, breaking the 
iron to pieces. He then sprang upon Shinsei, and would have beheaded him 
but for the interference of his father, Tameyoshi. 

Amongst other stories there is one having reference to his intimacy with 
a crane and a wolf whilst in Kiushyu ; and amongst his marvellous exploits 
in the Liuchu Island is recorded a fall from a cliff several thousand feet in 
height, from which he escaped unscathed. 

950. TAMON ^ pf]. See AN AN. 

951. TAMONTEN ^ ^ ;. See BISHAMON. 



952. TANABATA $$ ^C- Festival of the Weaving Princess and the 
divine Herdsman. See KENGIU; also the book Ginka Zoshi, by Ishikawa 
Kiyoharu, 3 Vols., 1835. 

953. TANKAIKO $Si $| S- Son of the founder of the Fujiwara family, 
Taishokwan Kamatari. He went to China as a monk to study Buddhism, 
and brought back the huge tooth attributed to the Buddha, which is 
enshrined at the Senyuji temple of Kyoto. 

The story of his father and the fisher-maid, who, after Tankai's birth, 
dived to the castle of Riujin to fetch back the Muge Hojiu, has been given 
above, under KAMATARI. 

954. TANKWA ffi jH (TAN HSIA). A monk who once broke some 
Buddhist statues in the Eriuji temple at Kioto, aud burnt them to boil his 
kettle. The Abbot appeared and expressed his horror at the sacrilege, but 
Tankwa explained that his purpose was two-fold, for he expected to find 
relics (shari) in the ashes of the image. The Abbot thereupon inquired how 
could a wooden image leave skarif Then said Tankwa: "If your God is 
only of wood and has no shari it can only be a wicked God," and he 
continued his task (Ehon Hokan, V.). Kobodaishi is also said to have burnt 
some idols, and there is a story to the effect that Jittoku once noticed two 
crows eating the food offerings set before a Buddha. He then took a stick 
and struck the image, saying: "What sort of a God are you to let yourself 
be robbed?" 

A priest burning sacred books is also represented under the title 
fi UJ ^ $ Tokusan Shokio. 

955. TANSHOTAN f|[ JH j^j was a learned Chinese Sage, able to 
write in the Sosho and Reisho styles. Passing at Kotoken, he wrote for 
the owner of a tea-house the characters of the tortoise and the dragon (the 
Taoist books do not say whether this was in settlement of his bill), and 
this man Goroku hung them in front of his house. Some time later there 
was a fire which destroyed the whole street, with the exception of the shop 
protected by the sage's writing. 



Hidesato was the son of one of the first councillors of the Emperor, but 
lived the life of a ronin. He heard that Taira no Masakado was preparing 
to revolt, and went to see him under pretence of joining him. He found 
Masakado with his hair partly dressed, but so pleased by his proposal that 
he invited him to take dinner with him. Masakado then made a mistake 
which cost him his life: he dropped some rice (some say one grain), and 
picked it up with his fingers, seeming very loth to lose it. Hidesato thought 
him a mean fellow, and without settling anything went away. He then 
joined the opponents of Masakado, and cut the latter's head off after he had 
been shot by Sadamori (940). He was promoted in rank, and histories of 
warriors often mention his exploits. But the fertile imagination of the old 
story-tellers soon invested the death of Masakado with the garb of a 
marvellous legend, and it is as a personage of fiction that Hidesato is best 
known, under the name of TAWARA TODA, Lord Bag of Rice. According to 
this legend, Hidesato once had to cross the long bridge of Seta (Seta no 
Kara Hashi), in Omi. He found in the centre of the bridge a huge dragon, 
leaving no way to the passer-by but to tread upon it. This the hero did 
without any hesitation, and as he neared the other end of the bridge he 
heard himself called in a plaintive voice by an old man, into whom the 
dragon was now changed. The elder said that for some days he had lain 
in wait on the bridge for a courageous man, and now that he had found 
one he asked Hidesato to help him. He was, said he, greatly threatened by 
a huge centipede, Mukade, which devastated lake Biwa, his domain, and 
menaced his palace under the waters. Hidesato consented, and followed the 
old dragon-man into his watery realm. Soon in the night he saw the eyes 
of the monster, like two flaming moons, and his phosphorescent body curled 
seven times around the mountain (Mikamiyama). A first arrow proved 
ineffective, but Hidesato wetted the second one with his saliva, and as 
human saliva is fatal to snakes and centipedes, he killed the monster, whose 
dead body was found at the foot of the mountain. 

Riujin, full of gratitude, took Hidesato to his palace under the sea, and 
gave him the precious bell which was later hung in the temple of Miidera, 



a magic cauldron which cooked everything without fire, an inexhaustible 
roll of brocade, and a bag of rice endowed with the same property. 

The allegory woven around the facts is fairly thin, but the story varies, 
and in many versions the old man's place is taken upon the bridge by his 
daughter, Otohime. Tawara Toda is often depicted standing by the side 
of the lady. Sometimes his attributes only are depicted, with the pillar 
of the Seta bridge, or the attendants of Riujin form a procession through 
the water, carrying the gifts. See MASAKADO. 

957. TEGASHIWA j ^ $J (Ko NO TEGASHIWA, child's hand). The 
beckoning plant; the five-fingered maple, the leaves of which are common 
as an ornamental motive. 

958. TEI-I-SAI ^ fiji ~tjr was the wife of Tei-I, from whom she 
concealed her knowledge of the fairy world and the magic arts. Her 
husband and some of his friends tried to make her own up by beating her, 
but she ran about naked, her body besmeared with mud, and simulated 
madness, shrieking: I know, but I will never speak. 

959. TEIKO $ C (Ti KIANG). This creature lives in the Mount 
Thian Chan J^ U4 It is shaped like an egg, with four wings and six legs, 
without face or eyes; its back is yellow and "flame" red. 

960. TEIRAN T ||tj. The Chinese TING LAN. After the death of his 
parents he carved figures of them, and daily paid them his respect. One 
day he went away, and found on his return an expression of displeasure on 
the wooden images which led him to find that his next-door neighbour had 
offended the effigies, and it is recorded that, as a result, the neighbour's back 
became acquainted with a strong bamboo pole. Another version says that 
when he married, his wife scoffed at his devotion, and once went so far as 
to drive one of her hairpins into the finger of one of the figures, with the 
result that blood flowed from the image, and the woman was divorced and 
for ever after despised. 

961. TEIREI ~J* |. Mythical beings, partly human, but with horses' 
legs. See FOREIGNERS. 



962. TEIREII ~T 'TJ* fifa, according to the Ressen Den, was a native of 
Kioto who studied in the Reikuzan, and when proficient in the magic arts 
was transformed into a crane. He flew to his native village, where he found 
his house quite unchanged, although he had been away for more than a 
thousand years, but the manners of the people had degenerated. He is 
depicted in the form of a crane, standing on a pillar above the clouds. 

963. TEISHI-EN ffft fijh jJt is a Chinese sage usually depicted riding 
upon a large tiger, and followed by tiger cubs which carry his books. 

964. TEIZENPUKU Hf> ^ fa- Sennin, rowing an iron boat. Teizen- 
puku was strolling in the ravine of TOKA and saw an old man in an iron 
boat; he asked him for the loan of it, and the old man replied that he 
might come and ask for it three years later. 

965. TEKKAI |H ^ (SENSEI 5fc ^). The Chinese Sennin, Li T'IEH 
KWAI SIEN SHENG, one of the Eight chief immortals of Taoist lore, depicted 
as a man of beggarly appearance and often repulsive face, blowing his 
spirit into space in the form of a miniature figure riding on a staff, or 
occasionally upon Chokwaro's horse, or in the breath of Gama's frog. 

His story is told in two different ways. According to one version, 
adopted in Mayer's Chinese Reader, he was a young man named Li, who 
was very handsome and of commanding appearance, and who mastered the 
mysteries of Taoism with the help of Lao Tsze himself, who either descended 
from heaven or called Li up to the clouds to discourse with him upon the 
sacred subjects. One day, as he was going to the sky in answer to his 
master's command, Li instructed one of his disciples to guard his body, 
and if his spirit did not return within seven days to commit it to fire. 
Unfortunately, the disciple's mother was very ill, and on the sixth day her 
son had to go and see her, leaving Tekkai's body alone. When the spirit 
of the sage returned he could not re-enter his own body, and had perforce 
to be content with that of a lame ugly beggar who had just died by the 
roadside. Tekkai then became a lame, ugly old man, with an iron staff. 
The other story, as given in the Ressen zen den (I., 16) and quoted by 
Anderson, agrees in the main with the above, but, when the spirit of the 

3 6 3 


sage returned, not only his material frame had been devitalised by the 
absence of his disciple, but it had disappeared altogether, and the only 
available earthly shape near at hand was the body of a starved toad, into 
which the spirit had to enter, transforming the toad's body into an ugly 
lame human being. 

966. TEKIRIU ^ f| was a dragon painter of olden times, whose 
true name has been lost. His ability was such that the Chinese count him 
amongst the Taoist worthies who obtained immortality. 


968. TEMPAIZAN ; ff llj. Mountain in Chikuzen, celebrated as 
the last abode of Michizane (Temmangu), where the jumping plum tree 
took root ; from its summit Michizane worshipped the Emperor who had 
forsaken him, and, according to legend, ascended to Heaven after having 
directed the thunder against his earthly enemies. 

969. TENAGA ^ J^, or CHOHI. Long-armed mythical creatures, 
dwellers of the sea shore in north China; favourite subject for artists, and 
usually shown fishing in company with ASHINAGA, the long-legged (q.v.). 

970. TENGU ^ ffij. The Tengu are mythical dwellers of the forests; 
gnomes classified amongst the Maya Rakiyas, and divided into two classes; 
the ordinary human-shaped KONOHA Tengu, with wings and a nose of 
inordinate length, and the bird-like Tengu, with a strong beak, called 
Karasu Tengu (Crow Tengu). 

The Tengu have a ruler, the DAI TENGU, who wears long moustaches 
and a grey beard descending to his belt, and as a mark of his rank carries a 
fan of seven feathers. He is often called KURAMA YAMA NO SOJOBO, and he 
comes to the SAIJOJI, or Dorio temple. The priests call him Tengu Sama, 
and say that the first one that came was named Tarobo; his brother, 
Jirobo, came from Atago Yama. The chief Tengu wilfully broke the 
precepts of Buddha, and in consequence he does not belong to either Heaven 
nor Hell, besides which he is sick three times a day as a penance. He is 
sometimes depicted bringing food to the head priest of Saijoji. 

3 6 4 


The KONOHA Tengu of the ordinary type shows himself amongst men 
in the guise of a Yamabushi, but in the mountains he wears leaves only by 
way of clothing. 

The Tengu troubled the last years of the life of Sagami Niudo TAKATOKI, 
the last of the Hojd Shikken, in his palace of Kamakura, and the episode 
is depicted in Hokusai's Mangwa. They were better disposed towards 
Ushiwaka (Yoshitsune), to whom the Dai Tengu Sojobo, himself, taught 
fencing on the summit of the Kurama yama. This is also a commonly 
found subject of prints, and often Ushiwaka is shown fencing or watching 
Benkei wrestling with the Tengu, Sojobo riding a boar and wielding an 
axe, or judging the contest. This transformation of the half-bird beings of 
Funtan (described by the Chinese) has undergone, at the hands of artists, 
humorous and sometimes erotic treatment, the long nose forming the subject 
of numberless fancies. Sometimes the Tengu are shown playing at lifting 
cash with their noses, and the one who lifts most is called O Hana. 

The long-nosed Tengu is commonly associated with Uzume by confusion 
with Saruta Hiko, and it is said that the first Tengu with a long human 
nose was painted by Kano Moronobu after a dream. Tengu are sometimes 
shown rolling their gigantic eggs or issuing from the egg; this is called 
Tengu no Tamago, the birth of the Tengu, and is frequently found as netsuke. 
It is said that the Dutch unwittingly increased the belief in the existence 
of the Tengu amongst the gullible people of Nagasaki by the introduction 
of an ostrich's egg, about the end of the eighteenth century. Jules Verne, 
in his Tour du Monde en SO jours, introduces the "Dieu" Tengu, whose part 
Passe-Partout was acting amongst strolling players. The Tengue appears 
already as Deus ex Machina in a work of Kosuisai, in which it is stated that 
in the first year of ^ ^=1 (Bunreki, 1234) some writing was found upon a 
door of the palace, where it has been left by a Tengu. 

The famous fencer, Miyamoto Musashi, is credited with having slain 
a Tengu. 




972. TENNIN ^c A- Beautiful winged maidens, inhabitants of the 
Buddhist paradise, and represented soaring into the air, usually clasping 
a lotus flower or playing some musical instrument. They wear feather 
robes of five colours according to Chinese tradition. See Hagoromo. 

973. TERUKO )la| -^ . TERUKO HIME, Ray of the Moon, Princess 
Moonbeam. See the MOONCHILD and the BAMBOO CUTTER. 

974. TERUTE HIME ^ ^ Jg. Wife of OGURI HANGWAN (q.v.). When 
Hangwan was a cripple she nursed him, and after being captured by brigands, 
enemies of Hangwan, who sold her to a Joroya, she remained chaste until 
she was rescued by her husband. The wonderful adventures of the two 
have been partly translated in Braun's Japanischer Mdrchen und Sdgen. 

975. TIGER ^. Ho, or TORA, is a frequent subject in art, especially 
in association with the dragon (q.v.). The tiger amongst the bamboos is 
emblematic of the hospitality of the weak tree to the strong animal. The 
tiger is one of the signs of the Zodiac ^ ; it is the embodiment of the 
male principle. When five hundred years old it becomes white, and upon its 
brow is marked the character -f-.. meaning king. There is a story of a 
female tiger who had two good-tempered and a bad-tempered cubs, and 
how she crossed a river, to and fro, seven times with the cubs in her mouth, 
one at a time to prevent them from fighting together. 

It is associated with the legends of Hadesu, Yoko, with the Four Sleepers 
(see JITTOKU), with the Arhat Bhadra, and with many Sennins. Kato 
Kiyomasa spears a tiger in the Corean campaign; a Chinese warrior, Benso 
~fC jj , also kills a tiger in the same way; and in the Snikoden BUSHO kills 
one with a single blow of his right fist. 

976. THREE BEAUTIES OF NATURE. Flowers in the rain, Snow 
upon the fields, Moon in the mountains. 

century). The Three Heroes of the first Han dynasty are Kanshin, Chang 
Liang, and Chen Sing (under Liu Pang, B.C. 195). 




979. THREE SACRED RELICS. HOKEN, the sword drawn by Susano-o 
from the tail of the eight-headed dragon; SHINSHI, the crystal necklace 
replaced by a ball of crystal; NAISHI DOKORO, the mirror which enticed 
Amaterasu out of the cave. 

980. THREE SAGES. Also called Three SAKE TASTERS, Shaka, Roshi, 
and Confucius. The Chinese recognise a different set of three, namely, Yao, 
Shuh, and Yu, or three holy ones, Yii, Chow kung, and Confucius, but even 
these two lists are subject to variation. 

981. TOAD SPIRIT, and TOAD MAGIC. See the stories of JIRAIYA, 

982. TOBA ifi i$c> or SOSHA ^^. The Chinese official and caligraphist 
SU-SHE (1036-1101) son of Su SUN and brother of Su CHEH, both of whom 
also obtained fame in the annals of China. Su She was degraded from 
his post owing to intrigues against him, but reinstated in 1086, to be 
again degraded in 1094 and sent to the island of Hainan. He is generally 
shown riding on a mule, and wearing an enormous hat. When added, 
the landscape is rough and the road lined with snow-covered bamboos. 

983. TOBA SOJO Jj % IW IE- Priest and artist, pupil of Sojo 
Kakuyen, he was Abbot (Sojo) of the Pendai temple of Miidera, and in his 
early days lived in Toba (Fushimi), hence his name. His peculiar habit to 
draw everything from a comic point of view made him popular as a painter, 
and his work as also that of his followers consists mostly of caricatures 
called after him Tobaye. He was also famous as a painter of horses ; a 
screen upon which he painted twelve stallions belonged for a long time to 
the Tokugawa Government, who presented it to the Emperor, in the Keiho 
period, and it is still in existence. Toba Sojo died in 1140 at the age of 
88 (Jimtnei ]i Sho). 

984. TOBA TENNO J^ ^ ^ J|. Emperor who rose to the throne 
when four years old, and abdicated at twenty-one, in 1123, Shirakawa 

3 6 7 


governing in his place. After the death of Shirakawa he took again the 
direction of affairs, and died in 1156. See TAMAMO NO MAYE. 

985. TOBOSAKU ^C ~fi $9- The Chinese TUNG FANG So, who derived 
his name from the fact that his mother left her home for a place further 
East before the birth of the child. He was the witty adviser of Wu Ti 
of the Han dynasty, whose love of the mysterious he fostered, with the 
remarkable result that he himself passed for one of the immortals. Although 
he is known to have lived during the second century B.C., legend endows 
him with no less than six distinct and successive re-incarnations, from the 
time of Yao, when he was supposed to be the embodiment in human 
form of the planet Venus, up to the time of Wu Ti. 

He is represented as a smiling old man, carrying one, two, or three 
peaches, and accompanied by a deer, or dancing tightly hugging a big 
peach ; or in company with Seiobo, or with the other patriarchs of legend 
(see LONGEVITY). Some think that Jurojin is identical with Tobosaku. 

The best known legend tells us that one day Wu Ti saw a green 
sparrow, and asked Tobosaku whether that was an omen. He replied 
that it presaged the coming of Seiobo, who effectively came to present 
the Emperor with seven peaches from the peach tree of the Kwen lun, 
each fruit conferring upon the man who ate it, three thousand years of 
life. Only one such peach ripening in three thousand years, the Emperor 
had to give up his idea of growing an orchard of these trees. As the 
fairy was herself eating one of the fruit, she noticed Tobosaku peeping 
at her through a window, and said to the Emperor : " This man stole 
and eat three of my peaches, and he is now three thousand years old." 

Two other stories are told of him : Once he left his house and 
came back after a year. When he returned, his brother reviled him and 
he replied : " How can you say that I have been away a year when you 
know fully well that I left but yesterday to go to the sea of Shidei ? The 
purple water there stained my clothes and I then went to the sea of 
Gukan to clean them, returning in the night." This story is sometimes, 
though rarely, met with in illustrations, and then the sage is depicted, 


TIGER (/.ODIAC) (ir.L.R.) 

TA1KOBO (II-.I..K.) 

nrsHO (./.) 


TENGtl (ll'.l./t.) 
'lOHAKKUK'.VA (ll.L.K.) 
THREE HEROES (ll'.L.f.) 


as in the Ressen Den (HI.), sitting on the waves washing his garments. 
Once he was asked by Wu Ti whether it was true that a certain sage, 
then a hundred years old, had an upper lip an inch long, and Tobosaku 
burst out laughing. The Emperor reproved him, and he replied that he 
did not intend to show disrespect, but was amused at the thought of the 
strange appearance Hoso, who was seven hundred years old, would present 
if his mouth was seven inches away from his nose. It must be noted 
that other Immortals have also the Peach as their attribute, Kyosenhei and 
Kaisho, for instance. 

986. TOCHIU ^ ^B:, or DAIGIN. MONJU BOSATSU, Manjusri, one of 
the sons of Benten, shown with sheaves of rice. 

987. TOENKO 3| |1J 3*. One of the four RECLUSE GREYHEADS of 
Chinese history, see KAKWOKO. 

988. TOHAKKUKWA H f Ifl. Sennin, who was so poor that he 
had to sell pictures for his living ; but in his hands the personages took 
life, and thunder and lightning issued from them (Ehon TsitJioshi, V., 23). 

989. TOKAIDO jfc $| ig. The road from the bridge Xihon Bashi, 
in Tokyo, to Kyoto (323! miles), along the Eastern shore of Japan. In olden 
times this road had fifty-three stages with relays of coolies, called Jegitsan 
Tsugi, and these stages are commonly depicted in prints or lacquer. These 
posting places, each forming a classical landscape, were also taken as models 
by the landscape gardeners in miniature, who could not let pass such 
opportunities of displaying to their heart's content the shapely forms of the 
peerless mountain ; and, in connection with this, Nango enjoys the peculiar 
distinction of having been built in a kink of the road, which enables the 
traveller from Tokyo to see once, on his way to Kioto, Fujiyama on his 
left. This view is called Hidari Fuji (the left-handed Fuji). 

990. TOKIMASA R$ & (Hojo) (1138-1215). Father-in-law and real 
successor of YORITOMO. He established the power of the Hojo by destroying 
Yoriiye Shogun after his compulsory abdication in 1204. His attempt at a 
second murder on the person of Sanetomo, brother of Yoshiiye, and his 



successor, having failed, he shaved his head and went to Izu. Before engaging 
in plotting, Tokimasa had sought the protection of Ben ten, and the following 
story is related of him. In the reign of Kaikwa Tenno (151 B.C.) the island of 
Enoshima was devasted by a huge dragon, which Benten sent to sleep by 
the sound of her Koto, and killed in answer to the prayers of the people. 
A temple was afterwards erected on the spot, and to that temple Tokimasa 
went to pray during three weeks for the prosperity of his house. The 
Goddess appeared to him, and agreed to grant his prayer on the under- 
standing that if he was unjust during his life his family would perish in the 
seventh generation. As she retired Tokimasa saw that her body was 
partly that of a dragon, and noticing three scales on the sands, which 
had dropped from the dragon's skin, he picked them up and arranged 
them as his crest. The prophecy was fulfilled, and the Hojo family 
extinguished in 1333, at the death of the ninth Kamakura Shikken: Takatoki. 
A second Hojo family started in 1434 with Ise Nagauji, but was 
destroyed in 1590 by Hideyoshi. 

991. TOKIMUNE i$ ^ (Hojo) (1251-1284) is celebrated because of his 
resistance to the attacks of Kublai Khan, attacks which he had provoked 
by refusing to entertain the "friendly" offers of the Khan by declining to 
recognise the suzerainty of China, and showing his spirit of independence in 
beheading the Ambassadors sent him in 1276 and 1279. In 1281 the fleet 
of the Khan was destroyed by a typhoon, the Gods being manifestly on the 
side of Tokimune, and the few survivors massacred by Shoni Kagesuye at 
Hakata. See RAIJIN. 

Tokimune objected to the doctrines of Nichiren (q.v.), and after exiling 
him to Izu would have also made light of his head but for a divine inter- 

992. TOKIWA GOZEN & ^ fP BI|- The fairest woman in Japan in 
the reign of Kujo no In; Mekake of Minamoto no YOSHITOMO, to whom 
she gave three sons: Imawaka, Otawaka, and Ushiwaka (Yoshitsune). After 
the death of Yoshitomo in 1160, she flew, in the midst of winter, to Uta, 
then to Taitojiu, dragging with her the three boys; but she heard that 



KIYOMORI had seized and tortured her mother, and, going back to the Court 
of her enemy, she threw herself upon his clemency to save her mother. 
Kiyomori granted her request on the condition that she became his concubine, 
and the three boys were sent to a temple. Tokiwa and her children are 
a subject often depicted; the mother is bare-footed and walks in the snow, 
with one boy at her breast and the other two clinging to her torn garments. 
She wears the large hat of a peasant, and her lacerated feet leave in the 
snow a track of blood spots. 

One of the boys, Imawaka, aged seven, usually carries the sword of 
Yoshitomo. Upon this flight from Utsumi and the crimson footprints left in 
the snow, a poem has been written, which also alludes in its name "The 
feud of the Red and the White," to the distinctive standards of the two 
parties. The Taira had a red banner and the Minamoto a white one, and 
the poem reads: "When I see the clusters of plum blossoms, red and white, 
my mind recalls the flight of Tokiwa before the Taira soldiers." 

993. TOKIYORI |f ff| (Hoj5) (1227-1263). Founder of the temple 
of the Daibutsu at Kamakura, was the fifth Hojo Shikken. His travels 
all over the country, in company of his minister Awoto FUJITSUNA, are 
celebrated in legend for the episode of the dwarf trees. See HACHI NO KI. 

After entering the monkhood, he lived at the temple Saimyoji, and he 
is usually called Saimyoji Tokiyori. 

994. TOKOKEI pjjj 3X, JP; was a Chinese sage, seventy-seven inches 
high, handsome and slender, and who enjoyed the distinction of having long 
ears with seventy hairs growing in each, and also a right knee covered with 
moles. He was fond of music, and his page continuously played the Sho. 
He had his garden planted with pines to be better able to listen to the 
sound of the wind amongst the branches. 

995. TOKUBEE ^ ** H J ^ (TENJIKU). The great robber who 
lived amongst frogs. He lived from 1619 to 1685, and travelled in Siam 
about 1633. After his several journeys in "Tenjiku" (India, by confusion), 
related in the Tenjiku Tokubee Monogatari, he mended his ways and became 
a priest. 



The Jimmei Ji Sho says: Tokubee was born in Harima, in the fifth year 
of Genwa; he was a sharp boy, and acquired an extensive knowledge by 
the time he was ten years old. At the age of fifteen, Sumikiiro Yoichi, of 
Nagasaki, took him to India, where he remained three years, and came back 
to return again five years later, when he spent two years travelling all over 
India. He came back to Nagasaki, wrote a book, in the form of a diary, 
entitled Tenjiku kiki gaki, of which no printed copy is known. He became 
Nyudo under the name Soshin (q.v.), and died in Osaka, some say eighty- 
eight, some ninety-eight, years old. 

In the No Tenjiku Tokubee, he is shown surrounded with frogs, and 
it is said that he could disguise himself as a frog, to escape his enemies, by 
means of the magic called Gama Yojitsu. 

996. TOKUGAWA f| }\\. The Tokugawa family, all-powerful line 
of Shoguns, who relinquished the power in 1868 after dominating Japan 
from the time of leyasu, respectfully called Gongensama and disrespectfully 
nicknamed the old Badger (Furu Tanuki}. Their crest is familiar, and the 
history of its design may be related. Once the Dainagon HIROTADA, father 
of IEYASU, returning from his victorious expedition in Mikawa, was entertained 
by his vassal, HONDA, in the castle of HINA. Some cakes were presented to 
him on a wooden tray, in which they had been laid upon three aivoi leaves 
(Wild ginger, or Asaruni). He then said: "These leaves have been presented 
to me as I returned victorious, and I will adopt them as my crest." 

IEYASU ^C ||t was born in 1542, and served under Nobunaga and 
Hideyoshi, who gave him estates and favours, but at the death of the latter 
he revolted openly against the Taiko's son, Hideyori. In 1600 he defeated 
the followers of Hideyori at the battle of Seki-ga-hara, although his forces 
were greatly inferior in numbers to those of the enemy, led by Ishida 
Mitsunari. In 1605 he abdicated in favour of his son, HiDETADA, but he 
had to enter again in the field, in 1614, to crush Hideyori. He died in 
1616 at Shizuoka, and was buried near there at Kuno-zan, but his remains 
were later taken to the Temple of Nikko. 

An interesting story of the humanity of leyasu says that he noticed 

37 2 


once that the arrow-heads of his opponents were loose, and remained in the 
wounds, and from that day he ordered that all the arrow-heads of his 
soldiers should be stoutly lacquered to the shaft. 

He is usually pictured as a fat personage, with the insignia of his all- 
powerful authority, and often surrounded by his seventeen chief retainers 
or his four generals (Shi Tenno), Sakai, Sakakibara, li, Honda. Okubo 
Hikozaemon, of whom many deeds of valour are related, is also shown 
amongst his chief retainers. 

He left nine sons, and his work was perfected by his grandson, IEMITSU, 
son of Hidetada, his second son and successor. 

The difference between the policy adopted by leyasu and the methods 
of his predecessors is illustrated in a popular rhyme, probably of much later 
date, called San Ketsu no Kisho, the literal translation of which is : 

Nobunaga Ko (Prince) says : Hototoguisu, if you do not sing now, we 

shall kill you. 
Hideyoshi Ko says: Hototoguisu, if you do not sing at once, try again 

leyasu Ko says: Hototoguisu, if you cannot sing now, we shall wait 

till you do. 

The advent of leyasu's rule ends the period from which historical subjects 
were freely drawn upon by artists. Although the importance of the subject 
in works of art began only then to be recognised, the fear of the men in 
power compelled the artist to abstain from representing contemporary events, 
or at least to disguise them in the garb of bygone ages. 

997. TOMENARI (NARITA). In 1176 the Yamabushis of the Hieizan 
complained to Kiyomori that they had been offended by some Samurai. 
As a revenge, some other Samurai pelted with arrows the monks' temple, 
transpiercing the shrine of Hiyoshi. KIYOMORI decided that the culprits 
should be crucified, but on the appeal of his son, Shigemori, he consented 
to remit the penalty and exile the condemned. Narita Tomenari, half- 
brother of Shigemori, was one of the exiles, and before the day fixed for 
his departure his friends invited him to a dinner. At the end of the 



dinner all of them were drunk, and one offered him his hair as a keepsake; 
another, his nose; a third, having nothing to offer which he considered 
precious enough, committed seppuku on the very spot. This was the signal 
for a general harakiri, Narita leading, until the landlord, afraid of the 
consequences, set fire to his house and flew. The Gods of the Hieizan were 
well avenged. 

998. TOMI KUWAI gi 'IT- A curious divination festival held at the 
temple of Kwannon, in Mino. During the first seven days of the New 
Year people congregate to the temple to pray for peace and plenty. On 
the seventh day each person present buys from the priest a wooden ticket, 
upon which the purchaser writes his name. All the tickets are then placed 
into a sort of wooden churn, with an opening at the top; the priest, with 
upturned sleeves, stands above the churn, and with a slender spear stabs 
at the tickets through the hole. As the tickets are brought up singly, he 
hails their owners by name as first, second, third, etc., TOMI (lucky man). 
It is also called Mino no Tomi. See Summers' Trans. As. Soc. Jap., Vol. 
VII., and KUNIYOSHI Jinji Ando. 

999. TOMOE GOZEN E $P fj was the daughter of Gon no Kami 
Nakahara Kaneto, and she had the reputation of being a very beautiful as 
well as undaunted woman. She became the concubine of Kiso YOSHINAKA, 
whom she followed in the wars of Gempei right up to his defeat and death 
at Ujigawa. She killed Uchida Saburo leyoshi at Awazu no Kara (1184), 
and after the death of Yoshinaka she escaped from Hatakeyama Shigetada, 
leaving her sleeve in his hands. During that famous fight she beheaded 
Morishige of Musashi, and Wada Yoshinori attacked her with a pine trunk 
by way of war club. The Tomoe twisted the trunk in his hands and broke 
it to splinters, but she was caught by WADA YOSHINORI, whose concubine she 
became. He died, however, before the birth of his son, the celebrated 
Asahina Saburo Yoshihide, of marvellous strength. Then the Tomoe Gozen 
retired as a nun to the monastery of TOMOMATSU, in Echizen. 





\\AGO JIN (H.S.T.) 

TOKIWA (/'.) 

TOBOSAKU (,-/.) 

ROKUSONNO (/;./...) 





1001. TO NO RIOKO f|$ & ff. Poet, master of Sugawara Michizane, 
usually depicted composing a Chinese verse under a willow tree. 

The story goes that he once passed near a willow, and said: ^N 

Ki harete kaze wa kushikezuru shige riu no Kami. W 

"The air being cleared, the wind combs the hair of the young willow"; and"* 
an oni in the willow replied, giving him the second verse: 

Kori Kiyete nami wa aro kiu tai no hige. 
"The ice being melted, the waves wash the old mossy beard." 

The scene is laid in Chikubu shima (island), thus explaining the 
reference to the waves. The poet is also called YOSHIKA. In the Bambutsu 
Inagata Gwa/u (V.) (Sensai Yeitaku) the oni is shown in the clouds. 

1002. TORA. See TIGER. 

1003. TORA ^ was a courtesan of Oiso and the mistress of Soga 
no Juro (see SOGA brothers). She became a nun after the death of Juro 
Sukenari. Her story, somewhat mixed with that of Shizuka, forms the 
basis of the play, Oiso Tora Ossana Monogatari. 

1004. TORIKABUTO J=, 9U, meaning bird helmet, name of a head- 
gear in the shape of a cock's head, worn by the performer in a No dance. 


1006. TOSABO SHOSHUN f %j J| ^ was a retainer of 
Yoritomo, who sent him from Kamakura to locate and if possible kill 
Yoshitsune. Tosabo met the latter's party at Horikawa, in Kyoto, and 
was secured by Benkei. Tosabo was brought to Yoshitsune, made to 
confess his treachery, and sent back to Yoritomo, but came back at night 
and this time was beheaded. 

1007. TOSHIKAGE. Hero of a romance described in Aston's Jap. 
Lit. Toshikage was one of a Fujiwara family who was sent to China on 
an embassy when sixteen years old. The boats were wrecked, and he was 
the only survivor. A prayer to Kwannon brought him a black horse, which 
took him west to a grove of trees where three men were seated on tiger's 



skins playing the Koto, then vanished. He remained with the old men for 
a year, but hearing the noise of trees being felled in the distance, he went 
further west, walking a whole year. At the end of this journey he discovered 
a host of Asuras felling a huge Kiri tree, and a dragon came suddenly from 
Heaven who ordered the genii to give him part of the tree to be converted 
into koto, which he took back to Japan. 

1008. TOSHINARI H J| 1$ $c (FUJIWARA) (commonly called Shunzei) 
was a noble and celebrated poet of the time of Go Toba Tenno, son of 
Toshitada. He contented himself with a priest's robe and a wooden hibachi, 
although he had an important position at Court. He compiled the Sensai 
Wakashyu collection of poems, and died at the age of ninety-one, in the 
first year of Genkyu (1204). 

1009. TOSHITOKU-JIN H; ^ f^. The images commonly called 
Toshitoku owe their designation to some mistake, probably due to confusion 
with Jurojin or Fukurokujin. They represent a Chinese with flowing beard, 
high forehead, ample robe, and a dignified bearing, and some writers have 
called this deity the God of Literature by confusion with MAO CHANG. 
Toshitoku, however, is apparently prayed to only about the New Year, to 
obtain luck in the ensuing months. Under the name Toshitokujin are 
designed the divinities which preside over the year of the Hare, and the 
meaning attributed to the word is then: Year Virtue-God, Toshi being also 
written with the "year" character ^. 

1010. TOWOKO }|{ -F. Q. Chinese shown playing with a fairy, 
laughing and emitting light from his mouth. The circumstance being 
that once he played at the game of Toko or Tsubo-uchi, which consists in 
throwing a ball into a pot (although it may be shooting arrows into a 
bottle full of peas), and as the fairy missed her aim he burst out laughing, 
as described. 

ion. TOYEI j^^.. The Chinese paragon of virtue, TUNG YUNG, 
was so poor that he could not pay for the burial of his father, and sold 


(Shozo Kato collection) 


himself tp a weaver to raise the money. The proviso being that he would 
be free after weaving three hundred pieces of silk. One day he met a 
woman whom he married and who weaved in a month the three hundred 
pieces and left him. She was Chih Nuh, the Heavenly Weaver. 

1012. TOYENMEI |?$3 $J{ PJ. The Chinese sage, poet and drunkard, 
T'AO YUEN MING, grandson of TAO K'AN, who died in 427 at the age of 
sixty-two. He was magistrate of P'eng Tseh and fond of cultivating the 
Chinese aster, which since his time is named poetically the beauty of P'eng 
Tseh. His taste for horticulture was greater than his reverence for his 
superiors, as eighty days after his appointment to P'eng Tseh, he refused 
to Ko toiv to a visiting mandarin, sending back his seals of office with 
the pert remark that it was not worth while to "crook the loins" (Mayers) 
for the sake of five measures of rice. He lived thereafter in retirement 
and amongst his flowers, in a house in front of which he had planted five 
willows from which he took his name, " The sage of the five willows." 
(Shaho Bukuro.) 

He is usually depicted as an old man seated amongst chrysanthemum 
or large asters, or drinking under a willow tree. 

1013. TOYO KUSHI. One of the ZUIJIN (q.v.). 

1014. TOYOTAMA MIME J| 3 $g. The Dragon wife of HOHODEMI 
no MIKOTO (q.v.). She is represented as a dragon, although the sacred 
text describes her as taking the shape of a crocodile. See the Kojiki. 

TOYOTAMA HIME returned with Hohodemi after he had married her in 
the palace of her father RIUJIN. But when Hohodemi disregarded her orders 
not to come near the feather thatched hut in which she was to give birth 
to their son, she returned to the sea in her original shape. She is thus 
shown, with a fish tail, over the waves, whilst Hohodemi watches her from 
the shore. This return of the Princess to her original state has some parallels 
elsewhere: it is said that in Iceland seals doff their fur when coming out 
of the sea, and that once a fisherman siezed one as it was transforming 
itself into a beautiful woman, and married her. He hid the pelt for 



safety, but after several children had been born to them she found her 
secreted fur and returned to her maritime existence. See HAGOROMO. 

1015. TOYS. Japanese toys would require a monograph to themselves; 
some are now very common on the European market, and often represent 
"ghosts" (0 Bake}, with articulated limbs, protruding tongue, and movable 
eyes. Amongst those which one finds most often depicted with children at 
play are: the dummy owl and stuffed cloth monkey, both of which are 
now used in the West as pin cushions; kites with images of warriors, 
heroes, or monsters; then balls, drums (Tsuzumi) with the mitsutomoye on the 
back; dolls, Toku san when female, Tokutaro san when male; windwheels, 
Kaze Guruma; paper masks with lolling tongue of Kitsune, of Tanuki, of 
Shishi, of Uzume, of Hiottoko; strong wrestlers; the getting up little priest, 
Okiagari Koboshi, corresponding to the Chinese Puh tan Ung (Pusah). On 
the third of March the towns are bedecked with dolls, the shops overflow 
with Hina Sama for the festival of the Dolls, the Hina Matsuri or Jomi 
no Sekku (girl's festival), when in every noble house miniature models of the 
heroes and great ladies of olden times, with their retainers, their arms and 
worldly possessions, from Norimon to fan, from sword to sake cups, are 
displayed on raised steps according to precedence. These dolls are made 
of wood, with ivory hands and faces, whilst the common ones are of wood 
only, and do not receive the costly brocade garments lavishly bestowed 
upon the others. 

There are, of course, other toys : monkey-acrobats, like Karuwazashi, and 
the twelve planks of intelligence, folding end to end (Chie no itd), copied 
in Europe. The Buri Buri is described under KURUMA. A horse's head 
at the end of a stick is used as a mount by children; stilts are also in 
favour, and called Bamboo-horses: Take Uma. 

As an instance of the skill of the doll-carver, there is a story in Hearn's 
Japan of the Kirabnko, the "Jolly Old Boy" doll, made in 1540 for Go- 
mino-o, and which slept on the Emperor's own pillow. A copy of it healed 
the sick folks by producing laughter. 

1016. TOYU Hft ffi, Chinese sage. Once two blue cranes came flying 



and crying around him. He understood this event to be an invitation from 
Heaven, and mounting upon the birds let himself be wafted to the abode 
of the immortals. He is usually depicted with the two birds. 


1018. TSAO TSAO. See Soso. 

1019. TSUCHIGUMO J^l jl^. The invulnerable earth spider which 
infested the province of Yamato, in the time of Jimmu Tenno. It was 
proof against steel, and the only way in which it could be killed was 
devised by Mono-no-Funo-Michi-on-no-Mikoto, who closed the mouth of 
the cave in which the monster lived, with an iron net, and by means of 
a huge fire smoked the spider in its den. See Milne's article in Asiatic 
Soc. Japan. 

1020. TSUGEN. See the Sennin CHOKWARO. 

1021. TSUNEMOTO |J ^ (MINAMOTO NO), usually called ROKUSONNO 
(Sixth Prince). He was grandson of Seiwa Tenno, and disclosed to the 
Emperor the rebellion of Masakado. He died in 961, at the age of forty-five. 
In the autumn of the second year of Shohei (932) a huge stag with red 
eyes, a large mouth set with sharp, dagger-like teeth like a demon, sprang 
on to the roof of the Joneiden palace and threatened to leap upon the 
Emperor Shujaku. It was shot by Tsunemoto with a single Kaburaya 
(turnip-headed arrow). (Shaho Bukuro, /.) 

1022. TSUNEYO SANO f $f ^ ifr. The retired nobleman, hero of 
the story of the Pot trees. See HACHI NO KI. 

1023. TSUNEYORI was a strong wrestler. Once while travelling 
along the banks of a wide river, he stopped to rest under a tree, when 
he noticed that the surface of the water was disturbed by some large 
animal, and saw the tail of a huge snake come out of the river. So 
rapid were its movements that it wound itself around the legs of Tsuneyori 
before he could jump back, and tried hard to pull him into the river. 
But the wrestler dug his feet into the sand nearly a foot deep, breaking 



his getas in the act. The body of the snake broke in twain, and the 
wrestler hobbled home to dress his wounds. His servants fetched the tail 
of the dead monster and found it a foot in diameter. On the other side 
of the river was found the head and part of the body wound twice round 
a tree. 

Tsuneyori was endowed with a positive mind, and set to work to 
experimentally find out the strength of the snake, by having a thick rope 
wound around his legs, and causing men to pull until he thought the 
strain equal to that he had withstood. It was found equal to that of 
sixty strong men. 

1024. UBAGA SAKE $j| ^r J|f means the wine of an aunt, it is a 
pose of a Kiogen dance, and is sometimes pictured as a group, in which a 
drunken man falls on his face, and an old woman looks at him with 
scorn. In the Kiogen of that name, a young man calls upon his aunt, and 
reproves her for not having given him the first taste of her newly-brewed 
sake, as she was wont to do. The old woman explains that she offered it 
to an old priest, and that in future she has decided not to give any more to 
her undeserving nephew. The young man goes away, and puts on the dresss 
and mask of a devil; he comes back and frightens the woman, who gives 
him as much sake to drink as he choses, and hides her face, under threats 
of death. But the potent brew soon takes effect upon the frightful oni, who 
starts to talk; the woman, recognising her nephew, belabours him with her 
fists, and the youth runs away. 

1025. UBUME $ >jf|. See GHOSTS (BAKEMONO). 

1026. UJIGAWA ^ '/pi 1 Jlj. River issuing from Lake Biwa, and upper 
course of the Yodo gawa. It passes near Kyoto, and takes its name from 
the Uji district. This river is celebrated in history, owing to the numerous 
battles fought on its banks. Amongst other episodes, the most famous 
are, perhaps, the destruction of the Ujihashi bridge, in 1180, by order of 
Yoshitsune, the fight of Ichirai Hoshi, the defeat of Yorimasa, the defeat 
of Kiso Yoshinaka and the capture of the Tomoe Gozen. 



The famous rush across the water of Sasaki Takatsuna is the most 
commonly depicted by artists. See also HOTARU. 

1027. UMBRELLA. Two people depicted under an umbrella, or 
simply their names written under such an implement is a form of design 
called Rakugaki (Scribbling on walls) and it has the hidden meaning that 
the two persons thus designated are living as man and wife without their 
elders knowledge. The Ronin Sadakuro is usually shown under an umbrella. 
This useful utensil is a constant companion of the temple watchman, a 
common figure in art. 

1028. UME H TAKE ff MATSU fe. Plum, bamboo, pine, more often 
called SHOCHIKUBAI in the reverse order. Emblems of longevity. 

1029. UMEWAKA |$ "ft. See YANAGI. 

1030. UMI T3OZU. The Wakan Sansai Zue (46, p. 519) figures, a 
tortoise with a human head, under the name ^Q f t 'ij j(. 

It is said that the Umi Bozu lives in the Western Sea, and attains a 
length of five to six feet. A fisherman once captured such a creature, and 
was going to kill it, but the animal said: "If you kill me I shall pay you 
back after my death, and you will always live in fear." The fisherman put 
it back in the sea, and the creature swam away towards the West, until 
finally it went to Heaven. See BAKEMONO. 

1031. UMIN 3$ J. Flying men. See FOREIGNERS. 

1032. UNCHUSHI HJ fff 1 ~1* was a clever astrologer of the time of the 
Yin (Shang dynasty), living under the reign of the tyrant Chow Sin. One 
day he saw in a large magic mirror (Shomakio) a fox with nine tails, and 
he concluded that there must have been such an evil creature in the royal 
palace. He went away to the mountains and made a wooden sword, which 
he begged the Emperor to keep always near his person, so as to frighten 
away all evil. But T'A Ki (q.v.), the concubine of the Emperor, discovered 
this sword, and said that the sight of it made her feel as if she was dying. 
Her dissolute consort then broke the sword to pieces, and on that day 



Unchushi prophesied the impending fall of the Shang dynasty (Shaho Bukuro, 
IV., 18). See Fox; T'A Ki. 

1033. UNKEI 55 !|$. UNKEI HOIN of BICHU, was a celebrated Buddhist 
artist, who lived from the end of the eleventh to the middle of the twelfth 
century, and is considered the father of Japanese sculpture. 

His son TANKEI, Hoin of Owari lived 1173-1274, and was himself 
followed by his son KOEN, in the footsteps of Unkei. A statue of Unkei 
is reproduced in Tajima's Relics, Vol. VII. 

It is said that after his death, Unkei was sent back to the earth, by 
Yemma, to carve a true figure of the King of Hell. This figure is now 
called Unkei Yomijigaeri no saku, and it stands with a Shozuka no Baba, 
also from his chisel, in the temple Ennoji at Kamakura. 

1034. UNTO SENSEI. The Chinese CH'ANG SANG RUNG ^ jfe. % 
(CHOSOKUN), who taught the art of medicine to HENJAKU (PiEN TS'IAO). He 
is depicted as a Rishi clad in the skin of beasts. He is said to have 
lived in the seventh century B.C. 

1035. URASHIMA TARO M ^ ^C 115- Hero of a popular fairy tale. 
One of the men who attained, according to legend, an extraordinarily 
long life, and as such is usually depicted in one of the following ways : 

As an old man, sitting on the back of a tortoise (Minogame) with a 
box in his hands, and a face of youthful appearance though sometimes 
with a full beard. 

As a man with a wrinkled face and an expression of painful surprise, 
holding in hand a box which he has just opened. 

As a fisherman with a box, or upon a tortoise, near Riujin's palace. 

As a member of a group of old men, with fishing rod and box. 

URASHIMA was a crab-fisher of Midzu no Ye (EJIMA), in the YOSA district 
of the province of TANGO. In the second year of Tencho (477) he fished a 
tortoise, but instead of killing the animal he good-naturedly put it back 
into the water. On the following day he saw on the waves a wreck tossed 
about with a beautiful woman clinging to it, who requested his help, and 
who made him promise to take her back to her own home. Urashima 



U11AOA SAKK (.(.) 

IV.UMK (//.> 7.) 


accepted, and after paddling nearly two days in the direction indicated by 
the stranger, found himself at the door of the Riu-Gu, or palace of Riujin, 
the Dragon King of the Sea. The woman, who was OTOHIME, a princess 
of high rank in Riujin's realm, bestowed herself upon the fisherman as a 
reward, but after three years Urashima became home-sick and wished to 
return to Midzu no Ye. The Princess, his wife, tried to keep him back, 
and explained that she was no other than the sacred tortoise whose life he 
had spared; she obtained from him the promise that he would come back, 
and gave him a box, with strict injunctions not to open it if he really 
wished to see her again. Urashima returned in a boat, and landed at Ejima 
with his box, the TAMA TEBAKO (handy box of Jewels). He found the 
place changed, and asked about his old home from a very old man who 
was sitting at the gate of the burial ground. The old man told him that 
the Urashima family had come to an end, and that a tomb had been erected 
to the memory of the last of its members presumably lost at sea. Urashima 
then saw his own tomb, and was so astounded by the fact that he forgot 
Otohime's injunction, and opened the box to seek therein a possible ex- 
planation of the mystery. At once a light puff of smoke escaped from it, 
and he understood that he was in the second year of Ten-cho (825), and 
that the space of time which he had thought to be three years spent in the 
Riu-Gu had really consisted of more than three hundred. He was now an 
old man, and as the last curl of smoke came out of the box his spirit left 
him, dead, on his own tomb, which is now shown at Kanagawa, near 
Yokohama, amongst other places. 

In other versions, of later date, a different ending is reserved to the 
old man: he becomes transformed into a crane, and soars to the Horai-Zan 
to meet the Minogame. 

This story appears in the Mannyo shin, and a translation of it can be 
found in Aston's grammar. 

1036. USHIWAKA ^ ^j. Name of Minamoto YOSHITSUNE when a 

1037. UWABAMI ^; #. Huge snake, bigger than any tree, and 



capable of swallowing at one gulp a man on horseback. This remarkable 
imaginary reptile is sometimes shown in books and prints surprising way- 
farers, some of whom fall a prey to its huge mouth. 

1038. UYENO _h iff, or UENO. Park celebrated for its display of 
flowering trees almost as much as for its temples, where are buried under 
the protection of the Buddha a long series of Tokugawa Shoguns. It is 
situated in the north-west part of Toldo. 

1039. UYENO, REVENGE OF .(!GA). Story of a seventeenth century 
vendetta. ARAKI MATAEMON, retainer of the lord of KORIYAMA, married the 
sister of Watanabe KAZUMA, retainer of MATSUDAIRA TADAO. In 1631, 
Kazuma's brother was killed by KAWAI MATAGORO, and Kazuma took the 
field in search of the murderer. He was assisted in his task by Araki, and 
revenge took place in 1635, after which the two men were taken back into 
service by their lords and promoted to one thousand koku of rice. 

1040. UZUME ^ |H l -fa. Ama no Uzume no Mikoto, Goddess of Mirth, 
who helped to get Amaterasu out of the cave into which she had retired. 
She is an extremely common type in Japanese art, with puffed-out cheeks 
and an everlastingly smiling face, small mouth, narrow forehead with two 
ornamental black spots, the hair brought in two bandeaux over the temples. 

As a mask netsnke, or as a A 7 o mask, the character of the face varies 
somewhat in treatment, but the laughing expression is never lacking. Full 
figures of the goddess represent her with various implements, reeds, gohei, 
jingling bells, bound around a stick or an arrow, in allusion to her famous 
dance in front of the cave from which the Dai Kagura is said to be derived. 

Like the Gods of Good Fortune, Uzume comes in for a great deal of 
humorous treatment. She is also called Okame and occasionally Otafitkit. 
As an allusion to her captivating Saruta Hiko no Mikoto, when the latter 
opposed the progress of Ninigi no Mikoto from Heaven to Earth, she is 
frequently depicted stroking the elongated nose of the God, or of a Tengu, 
at the same time veiling her face with her sleeve. She is often depicted 
with very scanty clothing, and with her legs bowing under her weight, or 



in a prettier mood as a comely girl casting dried peas at the devils in the 
Oni Yarai ceremony. 

1041. YASU. Deva. See FUTEN. Also called KAZE NO KAMI. 

1042. VASU {^ ^&. Indian hermit, depicted as an emaciated figure 
with a long, needle-like pointed beard, just as he escaped from Hell, 
carrying a staff and a roll of Buddhist prayers. 


1044. WAGO JIN 7^1 ^ jj^. The Merry Genii, figured as two Chinese 
boys with long straight hair, denoting their supernatural essence. They are 
shown trampling upon the emblems of luck; one carries a lotus, the other 
a sceptre and a salver filled with gems and corals. 

1045. WAKAME KARI ^j #$ jfi XlJ- The seaweed gathering at the 
foot of the temple of Hayato Momioji, in Nagato. According to a popular 
belief, the Dragon King parts the waters on the last night of the year at 
midnight, and the Shinto priests gather seaweed from the dried-up bed of 
the sea as an offering to the Gods. 

1046. WAKA SANJIN. The Three Gods of Poetry (q.v.). 

1047. WANG CHIH 5 ^. The original Rip van Winkle. See 


1048. WANG HI CHE 31 H . Sennin depicted with geese. His 
Japanese name is OGISHI. He lived in the fourth century B.C., and was 
celebrated for his fine caligraphy. 

1049. WANI 5E t- Chinaman from the Kingdom of Go, who was 
sent to Japan by ATOGI, son of the Emperor of Corea, after his embassy to 
OJIN TENNO in 286 A.D. He introduced the Go-on pronunciation, later 
superseded in 605 by the Kan-on, brought from Shensi. ATOGI is popularly 
credited with the invention of a mode of writing, and is also called ACHIKI. 

WANI is also named WANG IN. See Nihongi. 



1050. WANT, meaning crocodile, is the name given in ancient records 
to a mythical sea monster, apparently identical with the dragon. 

WANIGUCIII, crocodile mouth, is the fish head made of wood and used 
as a temple drum. 

1051. WARM BOTOKE ^ 1J&. The Laughing God. See FUDAISHI. 

1052. WAR GODS H He P. The national God of War is HACHIMAN. 
Besides him, however, come the San Sen Jin, Marishiten, Daikokuten, and 
BISHAMOX TEX. This trinity is usually represented as a man with three 
faces, riding on a boar. 

Finally, the Chinese God of War, Kwanyu, is a conspicuous figure in 
art, though not reverenced in Japan in his official capacity. 

1053. WASOBIOYE 5RJ $ j ffi. Wasobioye is the hero of a Japanese 
romance, somewhat similar to the Western story of Gulliver. Professor B. 
H. Chamberlain gave in the Trans. Asiatic Soc. of Japan a translation of 
two of its most interesting chapters, from which the following has been 

Shikaiya Wasobioye was a man of Nagasaki, who had some foreign 
learning, but disliked visitors ; on the eighth day of the eighth month, 
to escape the admirers of the full moon, he set off in his boat and 
rowed to sea a fair distance away ; the sky suddenly looked threatening, 
and he tried to come back home, but a gust of wind ripped his sail 
and his mast broke. The poor man was tossed for three months on the 
waves until he came to the Sea of Mud, where he nearly died of hunger 
for there were no fishes to be caught, but soon after, he reached a 
mountainous island, the atmosphere of which was loaded with fragrance. 
In it he found a spring, the waters of which revived him, and he met 
JOFUKU, who led him through the streets of the main city, the inhabitants 
of which are apparently spending the whole of their life in pleasure. 
The unique feature of this island was the absence of death or disease, 
life was everlasting, and to many this was an unsuperable burden, which 
they tried to shake off by the pursuit of the magic Art of Death, the 
consumption of poisonous food, such as globe fish sprinkled with soot, 



whilst the flesh of mermaids and the life-giving panacea of the old world 
were spurned with horror. It was considered a high compliment to say 
that anyone looked sick and on the brink of his grave, and after some twenty 
odd years Wasobioye felt very tired of life, but all his attempts at suicide 
having failed, he set to work to increase his span of life still further, 
by eating mermaids and ginseng previous to starting upon a long journey 
to the Three Thousand Worlds mentioned in the Buddhist Scriptures. He 
then visited the Land of Endless Plenty, the Land of Shams, the Land of 
the Followers of the Antique, the Land of Paradoxes, and finally the 
Land of the Giants. 

His visit to the Giants is perhaps the most common theme used by 
artists in their presentments of Wasobioye. 

After five months spent riding on the back of a stork through the atmos- 
phere, out of the rays of the sun, through perfect darkness, he reached a country 
where light shone again, and where the trees were hundreds of feet 
round, the weeds as big as large bamboos, and the men sixty to seventy 
feet high. He was picked up by a giant named Dr. Kochi, who took 
him to his house and fed him from a single grain of monster rice, with 
chopsticks the size of a small tree. Wasobioye wondered that such 
big people had such scanty knowledge of the Three Kingdoms, and for a 
few weeks he attempted to catechise his host in the doctrines of the old 
world whence he came, but the Giant laughed at him and told him that 
such a small man could not be expected to understand the ways of the 
big people, for their intelligences were in a like proportion to their size, 
the chapter finishing with some moral advice. 

The tale of Wasobioye dates from 1774, and it has inspired the MUSOBIOYE 
of Bakin, and to it may also be compared the story of Sentaro, by Tannaga 

1054. WATANABE NO TSUNA $ if HQ. He was one of the retainers 
of Minamoto no Yorimitsu (RAIKO), and amongst other famous deeds 
attributed to him by legend are the following: 

WATANABE and the Oxi (RASHOMOX). One day the hero was discussing 



with his friend HO.TO whether it was possible for any demons to remain 
alive in Japan after the energetic war waged upon them by their master, 
Raiko. Someone then said that indeed there was still one Oni at the gate 
of Rashomon, in the very town of Kyoto, but that no one dared spend a 
night there waiting to kill it. Watanabe took up the challenge and went, 
after writing his name and a poem upon a piece of paper, which he stuck in 
one of the gate posts as a proof that he had been there. He watched wearily 
in dirty weather without seeing or hearing anything suspicious until two in 
the morning, when he felt a powerful tug at his helmet. He was then 
beginning to dose off, but, quickly collecting his wits, he slashed with his 
sword at a dark mass projecting from the top of the gate. A terrible shriek 
ensued, and the strange creature, which was an Oni, disappeared, leaving 
behind a huge arm. 'YYatanabe took this and secreted it in a strong iron- 
bound box (some say a stone one), refusing to show it to anyone. Once, 
however, an old woman came enquiring for him, and said that she was his 
old nurse. After a chat, she broached the question of the arm, but 
Watanabe at first refused to show her the spoils of his victory. He could not 
however remain obdurate to her earnest prayers, and finally opened the box. 
As he did so the old woman assumed the shape of a witch with the 
horned face of Hannya, and pouncing upon the arm took it away. 

The Shaho Bukuro gives a different version of the Rashomon legend : On 
the tenth day of the fourth month in the fourth year of Tenyen (976) Tsuna 
was sent by Raiko to carry a message to Omiya Ichijo, and Raiko lent him 
for his protection his own famous sword, the Beard-cutter (Higekiri}. On the 
bridge of Modoribashi, at Ichijo, a beautiful woman asked him to see her 
safely as far as Gojo, as she was belated and afraid. He helped her on his 
horse, but on the way she changed into a demon and seized him by the 
hair. He then drew his sword and cut off her arm. The end of the story 
is the same as usual. This version presents some curious points of similarity 
with the story of Hikohichi (q.v.). 

This episode is often depicted ; sometimes the arm of the Oni, with 
clenched fist, is only shown ; in other cases a small oni squats upon it, 
weeping presumably upon the bad luck of the larger demon. In larger work 







the whole scene is depicted in full, Watanabe is also shown holding a 
notice board with the word " forbidden " ^ $l] written upon it. 

WATANABE trying conclusions with the KIDOMARU (Yasusuke, q.v.) is also 
a common subject. The Kidomaru was killed by the retainers of RAIKO. 

WATANABE and the giant SPIDER. There are two readings of this legend, 
one of which has been given under RAIKO; the other is as follows: RAIKO 
was lying in bed a prey to a severe illness, and the King of the Oni thought 
it a good chance to get rid of him, so he sent Mitsume A'o,so to worry the 
hero to death. Mitsume Kozo had on this occasion not only his usual 
three eyes, but besides a long lolling tongue and a double snout-like nose, 
which came too near Raiko, who cut it with his sword. The Bakemono 
could not put up with such treatment, and went away, leaving a gory track 
behind. Watanabe started in pursuit, and with his men found that the 
track led to a deep cave, at the far end of which was a huge spider, more 
than six feet high, with legs like barge poles and all covered with stiff 
bristles like long swords. He then had a tree uprooted and the trunk trimmed 
of its branches; with this as a battle-ram he felled the spider at one blow, 
tied its legs with ropes, and finally despatched it. As the beast expired 
Raiko recovered his health. 

Watanabe is, of course, depicted with the other retainers of Raiko in 
the Quest of the Shutendoji and other expeditions they led against the 
demons, ogres, and other malevolent creatures in the tenth century. In 
prints, the Oni watches Watanabe and Suyetake playing Go, or a host of 
them surround Raiko and his followers in their nightmares. 



NUH (Shokujo). 

1057. WEN, Man who lost his .(KOBUTORI $g J$). This children's tale 
is given in A. B. Mitford's tales as " The elves and the envious neighbour." 

A peasant was once lost in a forest, and thought that he might as well 
sleep in a hollow tree to await the morning. He awoke during the .night 



at the sound of strange music and saw some goblins dancing in a clearing. 
Inquisitively he pulled himself out of the tree to watch them, but was 
discovered. They ordered him to dance, and he consented, doing it so 
well that the chief goblin wanted to retain him, but he explained that 
he was wanted at home and consented to return some other night. The 
elves agreed to this upon the condition that the old man gave them a 
pledge, and the handiest thing happened to be a wen which disfigured the 
right side of the peasant's face. When he got home, his neighbour, who had 
a growth upon his left cheek, asked him by what miracle he had got rid of 
his wen, and the old man told him his story. The neighbour thought he 
would try his luck and went to the trysting place. Perhaps the goblins 
were short-sighted, anyway, they did not notice any difference, and requested 
the man to dance and entertain them. The neighbour unfortunately could 
not dance and the chief got very angry ; the more he expostulated, the .less 
he could get out of the man, he then told him to go home, and as he did 
not want to see him again, planted on his right cheek the pledge left 
the previous night by the other man. Since then the envious neighbour has 
had two wens, and it is probable that the relations between the two men 
became strained. See Goodwin, Trans. As. Soc. Jap. for comparison with the 
Irish tale of " Lusmore the humpback." 

ONO xo TOFU, and for the poem, the second verse of which came from the 
tree : To NO RIOKO. 

1059. WIND GOD. See FUTEN. 

1060. \VONTNRAX ]||f |f|j, transformed a bamboo cane into a blue 
dragon and went to heaven upon it. He is depicted by the riverside I 
watching the transformation of his staff, whilst his attendant page covers 
his eyes in awe. 

1061. WU LIN JIN ^t 7^ A.. A fisherman whose craft was driven 
into a wide river lined with flowering peach trees. He came to a small 
island the natives of which said that they had flown from the tyrant Tsin 



Chi. They could not give him the name of the place, and had no idea 
that Chi had then been dead six hundred years. Wu lin jin managed 
to return home, when a wizard told him that he had journeyed along 
the milky way. He tried to find the river again but failed. 

1062. WU TAO TSZE ^ jtH ^ (GODOSHI) was a famous painter of 
the time of MING HWANG (MEIKO) and said to be the reincarnation of 
Chang-sang-yu. He is credited with having painted a mule which could 
be heard at night tramping round the hall of a temple, and to have 
limned a dragon which seemed alive, and attracted the clouds in stormy 
weather. He was once requested by the Emperor to decorate with a land- 
scape a wall of the palace. Taking a bowl full of ink, he threw its contents 
on the white wall, then covered it with a curtain. When the latter was 
raised to show the work to the Emperor, the wall was covered with a 
landscape animated with birds and beasts. 

The story of his disappearance as given in the Ehon Tsuhoski (Vol. V.) 
is also curious : He was requested to decorate a wall and did so behind 
a veil, in an incredibly short time. He then pointed out to the astonished 
Emperor a spot in the landscape, where was depicted the door of a 
temple, and clapping his hands, caused a door to open, giving entrance 
thereto, telling the Emperor that inside dwelt a spirit, and inviting him 
to follow him and to behold the riches stored inside. Ming Hwang 
advanced to the wall, and found the door closing upon him ; before he 
could enter, the landscape on the wall at once faded away, and the 
painter never came back. 

1063. YAKKO XO KOMAX $( /h ^ Woman depicted with a flute 
such as young men about town used to carry in the XVIIIth century. 
Her father having fallen in love with a joro, redeemed the latter and took 
her as his wife, whilst he relegated his true wife to the position of a 
scullion. Yakko thereafter vowed never to marry, but to devote her life 
to chivalrous deeds, and she strove to imitate the Otokodate. Her real 
name is MIYOSHI O YUKI. 

1064. YAKUSHI NYORAI H g$ jflj #, the healing Buddha, is the 


Sanskrit Bhaishajyaguru. For the story of one of its figures which came 
back from the sea vide JIKAKU DAISHI. 

Eitel gives the name of the original Buddhist divinity as Bhechadjya 
Radja, the medical King. It is figured in the Butsu dzo dzui in an attitude 
of contemplation, the hands joined and supporting a bottle. Sometimes 
this Buddha carries a short staff. 

1065. YAKUZAN, of Reiyo, was a wise man who mastered the 
mysteries of Taoism very suddenly. One night he went to the top of a 
mountain, and saw the moon emerging from the clouds through which its 
light only was previously perceptible. His amazement at this sudden 
revelation caused him to laugh so loudly that the noise was heard ninety 
Li away east. 

1066. YAMABUSHI \\] ffi. (literally mountain warrior). The Yama- 
bushis are shown in a characteristic dress, partly military partly that of a 
monk; they wear as headgear small polygonal caps, and carry on their back 
a basket or travelling box, besides a sword, a rosary, and a trumpet made of 
a conch shell. They are identical with the Soliei, soldier-monks of the 
temples of Hie, Kasuga, Kitano, etc., whose headgear, however, consisted 
of a mere strip, although the chiefs had a proper cowl provided with a 
covering for the mouth. The popular prototype of the Yamabushi is the 
famous BENKEI (q.v.). The priest SHOBO (833-910) founded this branch 
of the Shingon sect in the temple Enryakuji, enrolling as instructors many 
soldiers whose ambitious designs had been otherwise unfulfilled, and the 
name originated in the idea that the monks would spend in the mountain 
most of their earthly existence in imitation of Shaka's "retraite." But the 
warlike spirit of the time was too strong, and the Yamabushis became 
more bellicose than any monk could ever be expected to; they terrorised 
the ordinary people, and their convents of the Hiyeizan became a standing 
menace to Kyoto. The Yamabushi, when appealing to the officials on 
any ground, came in bands, wearing full martial apparel, and gave much 
anxiety to the authorities. It is related of Shirakawa Tenno that he said 
once : There are but three things in Yamato which disregard my wishes : 



The waters of the Kamogawa; the dice of the Sugoroku game and the 
Priests of Buddha. At last Nobunaga destroyed the convents and shattered 
the organisation of the sect. 

Shobo has been canonised as Rigen Daishi. 

1067. YAMADA NAGAMASA \\} H |fc. Freebooter, born in Suruga, 
who, in the XVIIth century, went to Siam, and served the King in 1618 
against some threatening rebels. On a return journey to Japan he gave 
to the Sengen temple a picture of Siamese ships. He became a viceroy, 
married a Siamese princess, and died in Siam. 

1068. YAMA GOSH I NO NYORAI. Picture of the head of Buddha 
rising in a halo of radiating rays between two mountains, or above the 
Mount Yokokawa. A famous picture of this vision was painted in the early 
years of the Xlth century by the monk Genshin, and is still preserved 
at the Yenshin-in temple in Yokokawa (Butsu dzo dzui}. 

Warrior famous for his physical strength, who died in 1579. He was a 
retainer of Amako Yoshihisa, and when the latter was defeated by Mori 
Motonari, Yamanaka and a few others escaped to Kyoto, where they secretly 
got together some three hundred men, under the command of Amako 
Katsuhisa, younger son of Yoshihisa. Their native province of Izumo was 
in the hands of Mori, but as he was engaged in a small war with the 
Otomo clan, Katsuhisa attacked him. The three hundred fought strenu- 
ously for ten years with little success. Yamanaka died at the age of 
thirty-four, in the fourth year of Tensho. Like many other strong men he 
is occasionally depicted hurling huge stones at his enemies. He had such 
belief in the luck attached to the "third day moon" that he used it as 
a decoration on his helmet when going to war. 

1070. YAMATO ^ jft]. One of the central provinces, south of Kyoto 
and east of Osaka; one of the divisions of the Go Kinai. Its principal 
towns are Nara, famous for its temples and schools of artists, tsuba and 
netsuke makers; Yoshino, the name of which recurs constantly in the history 



of Go Daigo's troubled reign, and brings back recollections of Yoshitsune's 

YAMATO is the name mostly used by literati for the whole of Japan, as 
in the expression Yatnato Damashi the soul of Japan. It is also applied 
to one type of fan. See FANS. 

1071. YAMATO TAKE NO MIKOTO B ^ ^t ^ is the name by 
which Ko-Usu, one of the many sons of the Emperor KEIKO, is best known 
(70-130 A.D.). As a boy he showed great promise of being a fierce personage: 
his elder brother was often late at meals, and the Emperor entrusted Ko-Usu 
with the duty of teaching him punctuality; this was done thoroughly by 
tearing the limbs of the offender asunder. Ko-Usu was then some sixteen 
years old, and his indignant parent, afraid least he might do more mischief, 
sent him to the land of Kumaso, in Tsukushi, where two bravoes, the 
remainder of a band of rebels defeated by the Emperor, refused submission 
to their ruler. Their chief was KAWAKAMI TAKERU, or TORISHI KAYA, who 
was seconded by his brother. Now, Ko-Usu took with him a strong archer 
of Mino, named OTO HIKO GIMI, and four others, and went to Kumaso. 
One day, while the bravoes were holding a feast, he disguised himself as a 
girl and managed to attract the attention of the chief, who was so captivated 
by his appearance as to invite him to his table, thinking that he was really 
a woman. When Kawakami was sufficiently intoxicated, and the company 
thinned down to four persons, Ko-Usu drew a sword from his garments and 
stabbed the man, whose brother was afraid and ran away. Then the bravo 
asked his murderer for his name, and received the reply: "I am Yamato 
Woguna, the son of the Emperor." Kawakami then said: "I have met 
many brave men, but none as yet who could match the Prince; therefore 
wilt thine Augustness accept a title from the filthy mouth of a despicable 
robber?" and on the Prince agreeing to do so, he named him Yamato- 
Take: the bravest in Yamato. His archers then killed Kawakami. 

After another expedition, to destroy the lord of Izumo, the Emperor 
sent him to subjugate or destroy the barbarians of the eastern provinces. 
He went to Suruga, and found the ruler very humble; in fact, he was 



invited to explore a large prairie at the foot of Fujiyama under pretence 
of a friendly hunting party, but when he got well amongst the tall grass 
he found that the Suruga people had set fire to the grass around him. He 
then used his sword, Ama no Murakumo no Hoken (one of the heirlooms of 
the Imperial family, taken by Susano-o from the tail of the eight-headed 
dragon), and with it mowed away the grass, escaped, and killed the Suruga 
rulers. Since then the place of the fire has been called Yaizu, and the sword 
Kusanagi no Tsurugi, the grass-quelling sword. 

His next expedition took him across the sea called Hashiri Midzu, and 
boisterous weather having been met with, his concubine, OTO TACHIBANA 
HIME, threw herself into the waters, on top of eight rush mats, eight skin 
mats, and eight silken rugs to appease the Deities of the deep. There has 
been a fanciful explanation of the twenty-four mats upon which Tachibana 
jumped. She accompanied her lord, and felt jealous at his falling in love 
with some other woman ; she remonstrated with him, and was told that 
her place was not in the wars but "on the mats," i.e., "at home." Could 
it be believed that she remembered this rebuke as she sacrificed her life? 

After subduing Yezo, Yamato Dake returned home. On his way he 
stopped in the Ashigara pass, and was eating garlic when a mountain 
divinity waited upon him, in the shape of a deer, but he struck it with a 
stem of garlic and thus killed it. As he reached the top of the mountain he 
sighed three times: Aziima ha ya (O, my wife), and the name has since 
designated that part of the country. 

Later, he heard that there was a savage deity living upon Mount Ibuki, 
and he decided to go and kill it. As he climbed the mountain, he met a 
serpent which he thought to be a messenger of the Deity and too small fry 
to kill, whereas it was really the God himself (the Kojiki said that it had 
taken the shape of a white boar as big as an ox). 

The summit of the mountain became clad in a poisonous mist, and the 
hero nearly lost heart, finding neither living animal nor divinity in the 
poisonous area. He thereupon returned and quenched his thirst from the 
spring, Tama-kura-be, since then called Wi-same. He became stronger, but 
a fever seized him, and he died in Ise at the age of thirty-three, in 113. He 



was buried at Nobuno, but from his tomb flew a white bird straight to 
Kotoshikihara, where another mausoleum was erected. The original tomb 
was found empty the hero had returned to his native land. 

1072. YAMA UBA |lj JL -fij. This is the generic name of some 
mountain genii, half-woman, half-spirit, which are sometimes described as 
child-eating goblins (see BAKEMOXO) but more often as friendly to man. One 
of them is the mother of KINTARO, and as such takes a prominent place in 
legend and in the No dances, which causes the remainder of the tribe to be 

This Yama Uba jjj ^ is depicted as a wild woman of witch-like 
appearance, sometimes carrying a basket of fruit, sometimes suckling her big 
boy, whilst rabbits or monkeys play at their feet. 

1073. YAXAGI $p. Willow tree (q.v.). There is a curious superstition 
to the effect that chopsticks made of willow wood are a cure for toothache. 
Another way of curing the pain consists in sticking needles into the trunk 
of the tree. 

In the famous story of UMEWAKA, a willow plays also an important 
role. In the tenth century a child of noble birth, who had been kidnapped 
in Kyoto by a slave dealer, died not far from the present temple of Kameido 
(Temmangu), in Tokyo, and his body was found and buried by a priest. 

The boy's mother, searching all over the country for her lost son, passed 
one day during the following year near a willow tree, under the branches 
of which was a simple tomb, kept by the villagers. She found on inquiry 
that it was the grave of her son, whose ghost came and held converse 
with her during the night but disappeared at dawn. A drama has been 
written around this legend, and a small shrine built in the avenue of cherry 
trees at Mukojima, to commemorate this episode. 

1074. YASHIMA JH J|j. Naval battle between the Taira and the Mina- 
moto. The leader of the latter clan was Yoshitsune (q.v.), and most of the 
Taira were slain, a few escaping to Kiushiu (1185). It was followed by the 
battle of Dan no Ura. 



1075. YASUMASA ^ H (FujnvARA HIRAI -^ ^ Xo). Retainer of 
RAIKO, commonly depicted playing the flute whilst the brigand, HAKAMADARE 
YASUSUKE, attempts to kill him from behind (circa 1036). 

1076. YASUSUKE ^ ffj (HAKAMADARE ^ HI) is said to have been the 
brother of HIRAI YASUMASA (q.v.). He refused to accept a petty command 
under RAIKO, and resolved to achieve fame by becoming a brigand. He 
used as disguises the skins of animals, and legend has transformed this 
habit into a power of taking the shape of animals, amongst which that of 
the snake. Once he attacked his own brother, but the latter was un- 
concernedly playing the flute, and the melody so captivated Yasusuke that 
he desisted from his evil intention. Finally he was killed by the retainers 
of Raiko, who found him hidden in a bullock's hide by the roadside, 
awaiting the passage of Raiko whom he wanted to kill, and legend again 
represents him as a dying serpent, emitting flames from his mouth. He is 
usually called KIDOMARI: ^ j|f ^L- 

1077. YASUYORI Jjfl ff|, exiled through political intrigues to the 
desert island of Kikaigashima with Shunkwan, and Naritsune wrote to 
his mother on laths, which he entrusted to the waves, asking her to pray 
for his release. 

1078. YEDO GO NIN OTOKO ft ^ A :% The five chivalrous 
men of YEDO (TOKYO). They were five idle individuals, all dressed alike, 
and who, though mischievous and good-for-nothing, secured the goodwill of 
the people by supporting poor folks and assisting those who were oppressed. 
They are usually shown with the flute carried by the young sparks of olden 
times, big tobacco pouches, and either talking or competing in physical 
trials. They were members of an OTOKODATE, i.e., an organisation of 
persons not necessarily reputable, but brave, ready to help one another by 
every means in their power, including sword-play if needed. Each Otokodate 
had a chief, or father, whose rule over the members was supreme; amongst 
such, the names of Banzui Chobei, Token Gombei, Shimmon Tatsugoro 
are well known. Novels and tales dealing with the Otokodate are 



numerous; some episodes have been translated by A. B. Mitford in his Tales. 
Another group is called SHIRANAMI Go NIN OTOKO, and consists of five 
robbers, whose names have been preserved : Nippon Daemon, Benten Kozo, 
Nango Rikimaru, Tadano Burihei. 

1079. YEMMA TEN, or YEMMA DAI O |gj % 3. The King of Hell, 
YAMA RAJA, one of the twelve Deva Kings (Jht-ni Ten). In the Butsu dzo 
dziti he is depicted as a youth with a rather effeminate cast of face, 
surrounded by the flaming nimbus common to the twelve Devas; he holds 
a staff surmounted by a Boddhisattva's head. But this is not the usual 
presentment of the Regent of Hades. The common type has a red face with 
a fierce expression, a flowing beard, the canine teeth protruding sometimes 
over the lips, in some cases one upwards and one downwards. His headgear 
consists of a tiara with the character -R (King) marked upon it. He judges 
the souls with the help of two assessors, shown with scrolls or tablets. 

His trilobated crown is emblematic of the Sun on the right side and 
of the Moon on the other, and figures of the sun and moon usually decorate 
these panels; the centre lobe is not gilt like the other two, but dark, often 
black. Hearn tells us that in the temple of Enoshima is a statue of 
Yemma, made in 1300 by a man who in his earthly state had been 
a wood carver. When he passed to Hades, Yemma told him: "You have 
made figures of all the Gods but none of me ; now that you have seen me, 
return to the world and carve a faithful statue of me." And the man was 
called thereafter Unkei Sosei : "returned from the dead" (see UNKEI). On the 
1 6th of January and July festivals of Yemma are held, when all apprentices 
are given holiday. 

When Tokudo Shonin died, legend has it that he was received with great 
honours by Yemma, who told him that hell was getting uncomfortably full 
because people on the earth did not know of the merit attached to the 
pilgrimage of the thirty-three holy places consecrated to Kwannon. He said 
that if anyone who had done the pilgrimage unfortunately came to his 
dominions he would suffer in his stead as a liar, and he gave to the Abbot 
the list of the thirty-three places and his own seal. The corpse of Tokudo 



came back to life three days after his death, and he presented the seal to 
the temple of Nakayama-dera, built by Shotoku Taishi. 

Another amusing story is to the effect that, through a mistake in the 
writing of the Book of Fate, by which a 13 had been altered to 33, the 
second Emperor of the T'ang dynasty was refused by Yemma when he 
presented himself to the infernal tribunal. 

Yemma no Shiwokara, popular expression, illustrated by Yemma O 
offering a dish of salt fish to a woman. 

1080. YODO GAWA fe )\\. The Yodo river, formed near Kyoto by 
the junction of the Uji Gawa with the Kamo Gawa. 

A fairly common subject consists of a water wheel near a castle, the 
walls of which are pierced with triangular windows; this is called the 
water wheel of Yodo Gawa: Yodo no Kaivage no Mizu Kuruma. 

1081. YOJO Jfj H|. The Chinese Yu JAXG. His master was the King 
of Tsin, CHIPK (Chihaku), and fell under the sword of another King, Chu 
Bujutsu jlH |H flfiL (Cho j5shi), who had his skull "sawn, lacquered, and used 
as a drinking cup. YOJO decided that he would avenge his master. Once 
he nearly killed Chu Bujutsu, but was caught and pardoned. Again he tried, 
disguising himself as a leper. He concealed himself under a bridge, and 
would have stabbed the King but was stopped by a soldier. Chu Bujutsu 
refused to kill him, and then YOJO, overcome by his generosity, begged him 
to throw him his royal mantle. He then rent the garment into shreds with 
his sword as a token of his revenge, and as he could not live under the same 
heaven as Chu Bujutsu he killed himself. Chu Bujutsu died the following 

1082. YOKIHI $| jf; #g. The Chinese lady, YANG KWEI-FEI, famous 
concubine of the Emperor Ming Hwang (GENSO, q.v.), with whom she is 
generally depicted, playing the flute or absorbed in some other common 
occupation. She was the daughter of a petty functionary, and one of the 
concubines of Prince Show, one of Genso's sons, when the Emperor, who had 
then reigned twenty-two years as a wise ruler, gave way to a violent 
passion, and took the girl to replace his favourite concubine, who had just 



died. He let the affairs of state drift, and addicted himself to senseless 
debauchery. YOKIHI was raised to a rank second only to the Empress, and 
she so influenced the Emperor that he made her brother Minister of State. 
Her family was loaded with honours and riches until Ngan Lu Shan, an 
erstwhile companion of the Emperor, revolted. The Court fled, but was 
overtaken by the rebels, who killed Yokihi, her sisters, and her brother. 

There is a legend, quite in disagreement with historical fact, according 
to which Genso became aware of the presence in Heaven of his favourite in 
an imperial chariot, accompanied by two attendants. He sent her a message 
by a Rishi, and by way of answer she returned him a hair-pin; the monarch 
is then said to have committed suicide. The scene is sometimes depicted of 
Genso admiring Yokihi in the clouds. 

See the romance, Tsiyo Kon Uta (MSS., Leyden Library, No. 728, 
Serrurier Bibl. Jap.). 

1083. YOKO U| 'fjf. The Chinese paragon of filial virtue, YANG HIANG. 
When fourteen years of age he accompanied his father in the mountains, 
where a tiger sprang upon them. He then jumped in front of his father, 
who was thus saved, the boy being killed by the animal. There is another 
version in which YANG HIANG is said to have been the daughter of YANG 
TENG, of Nanking- Hien, and to have escaped after her father, her devotion 
being recognised officially with a pension to her father and an inscription 
on her house by Prince Meng Chao-chi. 

1084. YOKO SENNIN $ -fa was a famous wizard who was able to 
destroy his own shadow, divide his own body, and live in the midst of 
flames. The King of Go tested his powers by causing him to be placed on 
the top of a pile of ten thousand bundles of brushwood, and himself setting 
fire to them. After all was burnt, YOKO was seen squatting in the ashes 
and unconcernedly reading a book. When he was called by name he just 
looked up and shook the ashes from his sleeves. 

1085. YOR1MASA $f| jlrfc (MINAMOTO NO), or GENSAMMI ^ jEi $. Famous 
archer and poet, son of Nakamasa and fifth descendant of RAIKO, who 
achieved fame by slaying the NUYE. In the third year of Nimpei (1153), in 



the fourth month, a strange animal was noticed on the roof of the palace, 
and it was thought that it was the cause of a grave illness of the Emperor 
KONOVE (Narihito, died 1156). The animal disappeared in the day-time, but 
one night YORIMASA, with his bow and arrow, watched in the gardens, and 
when he heard the brute shriek he sped a shaft which brought down the 
strangest beast ever described: it had the head of a monkey, the claws of 
a tiger, the back of a badger, and its tail was like a snake with a head at 
the end of it. His retainer, Ixo HAYATA TADAZUMI, despatched it with his 
sword, and this scene is frequently depicted, the tail biting Hayata's cap. 

The verse: 

Ii no Hayata 

Shippo ni atama 

Kuitsukare ... ? /, 

means that: Ii no Hayata was bitten on the head by the serpent tail of the 
Nuye, as represented by the artist. 

Yorimasa w r as given as a wife one of the maids of honour, AYAMK, and 
the Emperor gave him also a famous sword, Shishi no (King of the wild 
boars). An allusion to his performance will be found in his verse upon 
the Cuckoo (q.v.). He was then a noble of the fourth rank, full of ambition, 
and not being at once promoted he made the caustic remark: 


Michishi nakereba 
Ko no shita ni 

Shii wo hi route 
Yoo wataiu kana, 

with a pun on Shii, which means a kind of oak, or the fourth rank: "Not 
being able to climb up, I am picking shii under a tree." He was then 
promoted to the second class of the third rank % 5l t4 by Kiyomori, and 
in 1166 to that of Shiuren, but his most popular appellation is Gensammi. 

He became Nyndo and committed suicide at the age of seventy-five in 
the temple Byodoin, near Ujigawa, after the defeat of Prince MOCHIHITO at 
that battle (1180). Before dying he composed a poem: 




Umoregi no 

Hana saku koto wo 
c* Nakarishi ni 

"> Y^ Mino naru hate zo 

T ^ 

j )* Aware nari keri, 

-i ) * "As the dead tree does not bloom, how poor is its fruit." According to 
legend, his spirit escaped in the shape of fireflies, burning with spite. 


1087. YORINOBU H tt- KAI xo KAMI ff || 3f, fifth son of 
Mitsunaka (Tada no Manju) and younger brother of Yorimitsu (Raiko), 
who adopted him and made him his heir, usually depicted watching the 
castle of Chiba (Kazusano), in Shimosa, on the other side of an arm of 
the sea (1031), because Taira no Tadatsune, having defeated the Imperial 
cavalry during his rebellion, Yorinobu was entrusted with the command of 
a second expedition, in which he was successful and subdued Tadatsune. 
He owed his victory to the fact that the rebels had overlooked the existence 
of a shallow passage which at low tide enabled Yorinobu's men to storm the 
castle (1030). He is one of the Hiakku Shoden, and died in 1048. 

1088. YORITOMO ^ $f| lj$j, MINAMOTO xo. Son of YOSHITOMO and 
half-brother of YOSHITSUNE; his child name was IMAWAKA. When his 
mother, Tokiwa, placed herself in the hands of Kiyomori, in 1159, the victor 
sent him in exile to Izu. In 1180 he escaped, and on the death of Kiyomori 
in 1181, started a war in Sagami against the Taira. He was obliged to 
flee from Ishi Bashi Yama, and being hard pressed by the pursuers, under 
Oba Kagechika, hid himself in the hollow trunk of an old tree. One of 
his pursuers, KAJIWARA KAGETOKI, saved his life by poking into the tree 
with his bow, and pointing out to the pursuers two doves, which then flew 
away, as a proof that nobody could be there, thus turning traitor to the 
Taira (Nippon o Dai Ichiran). This is frequently illustrated. KAGETOKI 
became his staunchest supporter, and is often pictured near him as a fierce- 



looking individual with a kanabo (iron club). He was the principal enemy 
of Yoshitsune, and perhaps more so than Yoritomo himself. See YOSHITSUXE. 

Yoritomo, however, settled at Kamakura, and after the battle of 
Yashima (1185) became the most important personage after the Emperor. 
In 1192 he obtained from Go TOBA TENNO the title Sei-I-Tai Shogun. 

Yoritomo's favourite amusement consisted in flying from the Akanuma 
ga hara white cranes, to the legs of which were attached labels, requesting 
those who saw them alight to report the fact, and fly them again. He thus 
followed their further life, and some were seen for several centuries after his 
death. The story of his persecution of his half-brother will be found 
under Yoshitsune. 

Yoritomo fell from his horse, in 1200, at Banyu Gawa, and soon after 
died. He was then fifty-three years old, gaunt of body, and had a very 
large head. 

During his life several attempts had been made to murder him, one by 
Akushibioye KAGEKIVO, on the steps of the temple of the Daibutsu at Xara, 
another by YOSHITAKA, but both failed. 

1089. YORIYOSHI H| jjj% (MlNAMOTO xo) was governor of the province 
of Mutsu, and was sent in 1052 to quell the revolt of ABE NO YORITOKI, a 
revolt which lasted nine years and is known under the name of Zen-ku-nen 
no eki. In the sixth month of 1052 a drought of extreme severity caused 
great hardship to his troops, but, according to legend, on the seventh day 
he offered a prayer to the Gods, and, striking a rock with his bow, a clear 
spring was immediately created. The same story is said of his son, YOSHIIYE 
(Hachimantaro), and of a Chinese general, Li kwang li, in the time of Wu 
Ti (104 B.C.). 

Another episode of the nine years' war is that of the Shikoro Biki, or 
parting of the armour at KOROMOGAWA, when ABE xo SADATO saved his life 
by his ready wit, but this is also attributed to YOSHIIYE. 

The pursuer called to ABE : 

Koromo no tate wa 
Hokorobi ni keri, 


which, as a play under the name Koromo, means either "The fortress of 
Koromo has fallen" or "The cords of the dress are broken." ABE replied: 

Toshi wo heshi 

Ito no midare no 

Kuru shisa ni, 

meaning: "The thread weakened by age is cast into confusion." Another 
version is: 

Toshi wo heshi 

Ito no midare no 

Mono usa ni, 
"They have been long exposed to trouble." 

1090. YORO NO TAKI ^ % $| is a famous waterfall near Tarui, 
in Mino, about seventy feet high, and which has its legend of filial piety. 
In 485, according to some (in 717 according to others), a poor wood-cutter, 
KOSAGI, who kept his parents upon his scanty earnings, found himself so 
poor that he could not even continue to give sake to the old people. He 
sat down in despair, bewailing his poverty, as he was going to fill his 
gourd with water from a neighbouring spring, but the Gods took pity upon 
him and rewarded his devotion by turning the water into wine. 

This story is also known as that of the Sake waterfall, and usually its 
hero is depicted filling his gourd at the cascade, his load of brushwood 
lying on the ground, whilst a noble of high rank watches him on the 
other side of the brook. 

Metchnikoff, in his Annales, says that in the time of Gensho Tenno (715- 
725) there was a magic spring in the Takigori district, in Mount Tado. It 
softened the skin, blackened the hair, improved the eyesight, and was, in 
short, a rejuvenating spring. The Empress visited it during the Yoro Nengo 
(717-723), and the cascade thereafter was called Yoro no Taki. But it is 
generally said that the name of the Nengo was changed to Yoro on account 
of the event. 

1091. YOSHIIYE JJK ^ 0j (MIXAMOTO NO), born in 1042, was the son 
of YORIYOSHI. According to legend, his father dreamt that the God of War, 






YOKO (./.) 


YASUM'KE (H-.I..R.) 


HACHIMAN, presented him with a sword, and a short while after his wife 
gave birth to a son. This led the father to interpret his dream as a promise 
of greatness for the boy, who was then named HACIIIMANTARO, "the young 

YOSHIIYE'S name-changing festivity (Gembuku) took place at the temple 
Iwashimizu Hachimangu, near Kyoto, and he is still the object of a peculiar 
veneration in that temple. 

YOSHIIYE is the hero of many adventures, some of which are also 
attributed to his father (q.v.). Once in the war against TAKEMIRA he noticed 
some wild geese suddenly change the direction of their flight just as they 
were ready to alight, and suspecting they had flown over a trap his enemy 
had laid for him, lie divided his forces, and surprising his opponents won 
the day." ::: " 

He is often depicted on horseback amongst falling cherry petals at the 
gate of XAKOSO, in allusion to his poem upon such an occurrence : 

Fuku kaze wa 

Xakoso no seki to 

Omove domo 


Michi mo senichiru ^ * 

*? s> 

Yamazakura kana. ' 

"At the gate of Xakoso although there comes not a breath of wind, why ^ ' 
are the mountain paths covered with cherry blossoms?" with a play upon 
Xakoso (come not). 

He was a strong archer, and capable of speeding a shaft through three 
suits of armour. PI is bow is said to have opened a spring in the rock 
during the nine years' war (see YORIYOSHI), and in 1096, when his father 
was very sick, he cured him by frightening away, with three twangs of his 
bowstring, the oni, cause of his illness. It is sometimes said that he saved 
the life of the Emperor in this way. 

To him is also ascribed the episode of the battle of Koromogawa, for 
which see YORIYOSHI. 

i;! Tl ic Chinese books on tactics say that if birds are seen suddenly dispersing in their flight the event 
indicates an ambush. 



After the defeat of Kiyowara Takehira in Dewa (after the later three 
years' war, Eiho, 6) Yoshiiye died in 1108, at the age of sixty-eight (Tennin, /.). 

A ford in Yedo, on the boundary river of Shimosa, is called the Yoroi 
ferry, from a story of Yoshiiye's campaign in Oshyu. He had to cross the 
boundary, and his boat was almost overturned by the boisterous waters. He 
then cast his armour into the river, which not only became still but has 
since then considerably diminished in size. It is called the Yoroi-ga-Fuchi, 
or armour river. 

1092. YOSHIKA. Other name of To RYOKKO (q.v.). 

1093. YOSHIMITSU H it (HONDA) drew out of the pond of NANBA, 
in Osaka, in 60.2, the Buddhist idols and books which the Emperor BIDATSU 
(572-585) had caused to be thrown into it when received from Corea in 
585. Yoshimitsu noticed a light shining through the water, and was guided 
by it in his discovery. It is said that the figures are preserved to this day 
in the temple Zenkoji ^ -$fc ^p (the Chinese pronunciation of Yoshimitsu 
being Zen Ko). 

1094. YOSHIMITSU fH ^, called SHINRA NO SABURO, from the temple 
of Shinran Miojin, was the brother of Yoshiiye. After the Zen Ku nen war 
he left Kioto to help his brothers in the Three Years' War, and defeated 
Takehira and lychira in Mutsu. He is celebrated as a musician; he received 
the secret of a certain tune played on the Sho from Toyohara Tokimoto, 
whose son was quite a boy, but when the boy had grown up he ran after 
Yoshimitsu and met him in the Ashigarayama, where he begged him to 
teach him the tune. Yoshimitsu acceded to his wish. He was also famous 
for his knowledge of archery and horsemanship, and he invented the 
Ogasawara school of Court etiquette. 

1095. YOSHINAKA jj^ f^ (Kiso ^ ^, JURO GENJI jj|). Warrior of 
the twelfth century, born in 1154; attacked the Taira in 1180, defeating 
Munemori, who flew with the child Emperor Antoku, after which Yoshinaka 
placed on the throne Go Toba, brother of Antoku. He tried to join forces 
with Yoritomo, but failed; after gaining several victories which made him 



very powerful, and he became obnoxious, and having been slandered to the 
Shogun by Takeda Nobumitsu, whose daughter he had refused to marry, 
Yoritomo sent against him Yoshitsune and Noriyori, who defeated him at 
Ujigawa (1184), where he was killed, at thirty-one years of age. 

One of his well-known deeds is the battle of Kurikara, on Mount 
Tonami, where he defeated Koremori in 1183. He sent a parcel of picked 
men to the summit of the mountain Siwo, behind Taira no Tadanori, who 
had taken up a position there, and the bulk of his troops, preceded by oxen 
with torches attached to their horns, proceeded against Koremori. 

For the dramatised legend of his birth see KOMAX. History relates that 
Yoshikata, his father, was killed by Yoshihira, who ordered the execution 
of Yoshinaka to Saito Betto Sanemori, but this warrior, instead of killing 
the two years old boy, sent him in the Kiso mountains to Nakahara Kaneto, 
who brought him up. 

Strangely enough, Saito Sanemori was to die lighting Yoshinaka. He 
was then seventy-three years old, and was on the side of Munemori. At the 
battle of Shinowara, following the attack made upon Yoshinaka at Hokuraku, 
in Shinano, all his soldiers ran away with the exception of thirty men. 
Tetsuka Mitsumori, before killing him, noticed his costly armour, and feeling 
sure that he was a person of high rank, asked for his name, but Sanemori 
replied: "Take my head to Kiso Yoshinaka, he knows it well." When the 
ghastly trophy was put before him, the latter said: "It looks like Sanemori, 
but he was already grey-haired when I was a boy," and then his retainer. 
Kanemitsu, said: "Sanemori told me that, as his hair was now white, he 
would dye it, because people feared him no more"; and the head once 
washed was found to be that of the old man. 

See the story of his mistress, the Tomoe Gozen, who followed him right 
through his wars. Kiso Yoshinaka is depicted in prints killing a white 
monkey in the mountains of Kiso. 

1096. YOSHINO ^ |f. Mountainous district in the province of 

Yamato, celebrated for its warlike monks and for the enforced sojourn 

of Go Daigo in the fourteenth century. In modern times it has become 



famous for the abundance of flowering cherry trees with which its valleys are 


1098. YOSHIOKI H H (NiTTA ff [H) Second son of Nitta Yoshisada. 
He continued to lead the troops of Go Daigo against the Ashikaga until he 
found himself with such a small army that he had to fly into Musashi. 
According to a dramatised version, the Jinrei Yaguchi no Watashi, his 
enemy, Ashikaga Motouji, decided to kill him, and this is the most often 
depicted episode of Yoshioki's life. Takezawa UKYO, who once had been 
his retainer, was now with the Ashikaga. He came to Yoshioki and 
pretended to repent of his treachery, and offered him as an attendant a 
young woman who he stated was his own daughter. Ukyo told him that 
if he attacked Kamakura with a few soldiers he would be helped by Ukyo 
and a number of his men, who would desert the Ashikaga cause. Yoshioki 
let himself be persuaded to fall in with this, the enemy's plan, and he 
started with a few men. When he reached the ford of Yaguchi he found a 
boat waiting for him, and embarked, but the bottom of the boat had been 
drilled, and in the middle of the river it sank, while the enemy in ambush 
on the banks rained arrows upon the doomed man. A storm suddenly 
arose which dispersed the Ashikaga, many being killed by lightning, says 
the legend, and a shrine was thereafter erected near the ford to propitiate 
the angry spirit of Yoshioki. 


1 100. YOSHITAKA f!| fgj (SHIMIZU xo KANJA). Son of Yoshinaka, who 
had sent him as a hostage to Yoritomo during the Heike war. He tried to 
avenge his father by killing the Shogun, but failed, and was beheaded. 

According to legend, the "yurei" (ghost) of a friendly Yamabushi took 
the shape of a big rat to help him in his enterprise, but ineffectively. 

1101. YOSHITOMO (FUJIWARA NO) has but few titles to fame, but 
a story is sometimes found illustrated which relates to his love of natural 



scenery. One night, in 1470, he desired to admire the moonlight view of 
Fuwa no Seki. The peasants, hearing of his intention, set to work repairing 
the thatched roofs of their houses, the ragged condition of which had made 
them more attractive to the Shikken. When Fujiwara Yoshitomo per- 
recived this "improvement" he ordered his travelling carriage to be turned 
the other way. 

1 102. YOSHITOMO $ji fjf| J^j (MIXAMOTO xo). Father of the famous 
Yoshitsune. During the Hogen war he embraced the cause of Go Shirakawa 
Ho-O against his father Tameyoshi, who was on the side of Sutoku. 
Yoshitomo vanquished his father in 1156, but the following year after his 
promotion to the post of Sama no Kami he gave him refuge from the 
emissaries of the Emperor. The latter refused to pardon the old man, and 
sent Kiyomori to Yoshitomo with the message that either Yoshitomo was to 
behead his own father or Kiyomori would do so. Yoshitomo had to adopt 
the first course as the most honourable, and his retainer, Kamada Masaiye, 
beheaded Tameyoshi. In the Heiji war, soon afterwards, he dissented from 
Kiyomori, and was defeated. He took refuge in the house of Osada no 
Shoji Tadamune, in whose bathroom he was killed by his own kerai and 
the retainers of his traitor host. He was then thirty-eight years old (Eiraku 
i, 1 1 60). 

1103. YOSHITSUNE $| H $g (MINAMOTO NO). One of the most famous 
warriors of Old Japan, Yoshitsune was the ninth son of Yoshitomo and 
third son of his mekake, TOKIWA (q.v.). He was born in 1159 (Heiji i), 
when his father had taken the side of the rebel, Fujiwara no Nobuyori, and 
was beaten. The flight of his mother and her subsequent fate has been 
related under her name. USHIWAKA (Young Ox, as he was then called) was 
sent by Kiyomori to the temple of Kurama Yama, in Kyoto, from where he 
escaped in 1174 (Shoan 4), with the help of a metal dealer, KICHIJI, to go 
to Mutsu to the house of the famous military chief, FUJIWARA xo HIDEHIRA,* 
killing four robbers on the way and meeting with some adventures which in- 

51 Also called KIICHI HOGEN and YOSHIOKA. 


spired the dramatists. This early part of Yoshitsune's life is usually described 
in legend as having been spent amongst the Tengus, who taught him fencing, 
wrestling, and other physical attainments. He is often depicted fighting 
with them under the supervision of the Tengu King. About the same period 
he met the companion of his further adventures, BENKEI, on the GOJO bridge, 
and defeated him (see BEXKEI). In 1180 (Jisho 4) he left Hidehira, against 
the latter's advice, to join his half-brother, Yoritomo, who was mustering an 
army in Izu. The meeting took place on the Kise Gawa. In 1183 he was 
sent by Yoritomo, with Noriyori, to quell the rebellion of YOSHIXAKA, at 
which time took place the crossing of the Ujigawa by Takatsuna and 
Kagesuye. In the Gempei war, in the following year, he found the Taira 
fortified in the castle of ICHINOTANI, belonging to the son of Kiyomori, 
SHINCHUNAGON TOMO.MORI, whilst the Emperor Antoku, with the Nii no Ama, 
had fled to Tsukushi (Kyushu). The castle of Ichinotani was facing the 
sea, and at the back of it was the mountain pass, HIYODORI GOVE, the slope 
of which was so steep that even apes were said never to descend it. 

Yoshitsune led his troops to the top of the mountain, from whence the 
Taira never expected an attack, and at full gallop descended to the back 
gate of Ichinotani, whilst Noriyori forced an entrance at the front with the 
help of Kajiwara Kagesuye and his father, Kagetoki. The two most famous 
heroes of this attack were Hirayama Sueshige and Narita Kageshige, who 
broke open the front gate under a hail of missiles from the besieged. Three 
thousand men are said to have taken part in this adventurous midnight ride 
down the mountain side. The Taira were crushed ; their leader, Satsuma 
no Kami Tadanori, almost escaped, throwing down Okabe Tadazuni, but 
was beheaded by a Minamoto after his sword arm had been cut, and was 
only recognised by means of a poem in his dress. The remainder of the 
Taira who managed to escape went to the castle of Yashima (1184, Juei 2). 
Yoshitsune in the following year (Bunji i) requested permission to attack 
the Taira again, but had to wait. 

The story of the battles of Yashima and Dan no Ura has also been 
given. Besides the Hasso Tobi, or jump of the eight boats, by which 
Yoshitsune escaped from Noritsune (q.v.), the heroism of Sato Tsugunobu, 



brother of Sato Shirabioye TADANOBU (q.v.) should also be remembered in 
connection with the battle of Yashima. 

Other stories are told of this battle. YOSHITSUNE, in the midst of the 
fray, dropped his bow i